|Prince of Ning|
|Prince of Ning|
|Born||27 May 1378|
|Died||12 October 1448 70)(aged|
|Issue||Zhu Panshi, Hereditary Prince|
Zhu Panye, Prince Kangxi of Linchuan
Zhu Panyao, Prince Anjian of Yichun
Zhu Panzhu, Prince Anxi of Xinchang
Zhu Panmuo, Prince Daohui of Xinfeng
|Mother||Imperial Concubine Yang|
|Occupation||Historian, military commander, musician, playwright|
Zhu Quan (Chinese: t 朱 權 , s 朱 权 , p Zhū Quán; 27 May 1378 – 12 October 1448), Prince of Ning (t寧王, s宁王, Nìngwáng) was a Chinese historian, military commander, musician, and playwright. He was the 17th son of Ming Hongwu Emperor. During his life, he served as a military commander, feudal lord, historian, and playwright. He is also remembered as a great tea connoisseur, a zither player, and composer.
In addition to Prince of Ning, Zhu Quan was also known as the Strange Scholar of the Great Ming (大明奇士, Da Ming Qi Shi). As part of his Taoist attempts to avoid death, he adopted the aliases the Emaciated Immortal (臞仙, Qúxiān), the "Master who Encompasses Emptiness" (涵虚子, Hánxūzi), "Taoist of the Mysterious Continent" or " Taoist of the Mysterious Island" (玄洲道人, Xuánzhōu Dàoren), and "Perfected Gentleman of the Marvelous Way of the Unfathomable Emptiness of the Southern Pole" (南极沖虚妙道真君, Nánjí Chōngxū Miàodào Zhēnjūn).
Zhu Quan was initially a military commander in service to his father, the Hongwu Emperor who founded the Ming dynasty. He was granted the frontier fief of Ning with his capital at Daning in present-day Chifeng, Inner Mongolia in 1391. He was famous for his mastery of art and war and played an important role during the unrest surrounding the ascension of his teenage nephew, Jianwen Emperor, in 1399.
Under the advice of his Confucian advisors, the Jianwen Emperor summoned his uncle to an audience in the imperial capital Nanjing. Wary of the emperor's intentions, as other uncles were demoted or executed the same year, Zhu Quan refused and lost three of his divisions for insubordination.
Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, was preparing for his own uprising against the emperor and considered it a major point to neutralize Zhu Quan, a talented leader of well-trained troops located behind his lines. Taking advantage of Wu Gao's attack on Yongping near modern Shanhaiguan, the Prince of Yan – after crushing Wu Gao's force – rode hastily to Daning and feigned defeat and distress. After several days, his forces were in position and successfully captured Zhu Quan as he was seeing his brother off. The official history of the Ming records Daning's evacuation, with Zhu Quan's harem and courtiers removed to Songtingguan and the prince himself kept in the Yan capital at Beiping, but passes over Zhu Di's setting of the entire city to the torch and the destruction of Zhu Quan's extensive library.
From that point, Zhu Quan assisted his brother in his uprising, with the History of Ming recording that the Prince of Yan offered to split the entire empire between them. After his elevation as the Yongle Emperor in 1402, however, he swiftly reneged and refused to appoint his brother to lordship over Suzhou or Qiantang, instead giving him a choice only of backwater appointments. He settled upon Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi. After a scare where he was accused of practicing wugu sorcery,Zhu Quan essentially retired from any interference with the realm, devoting his time instead to cultural pursuits.
Meeting daily with local or visiting scholars, he pursued immortality. He treasured and revised his Secret Book of Origins (原始秘书, Yuánshǐ Mìshū), a text which survived the fire of Daning and sharply attacked Buddhism as a foreign "mourning cult" at odds with Chinese culture and proper governance. His encyclopedia of Taoism, the Most Pure and Precious Books on the Way of August Heaven (天皇至道太清玉册, Tiānhuáng Zhìdào Tàiqīngyù Cè), was so esteemed it joined the Taoist canon. His brother ordered him to complete the Comprehensive Mirror of Extensive Essays (Tongjian Bolun) and was also credited with writing Family Advice (Jia Xun), Ceremonial Customs of the Country of Ning (Ningguo Yifan), The Secret History of the Han and Tang (汉唐秘史, Hàn-Táng Mìshǐ), History Breaks Off (Shi Duan), a Book of Essays (文谱, Wén Pǔ), a Book of Poetry (诗谱, Shī Pǔ), and several other annotated anthologies. His most successful was his Tea Manual (茶谱, Chá Pǔ). In addition, he personally funded the publication of many rare books and composed several operas.
Zhu Quan is an important figure in the history of the Chinese zither, or guqin , for his compilation of the important Manual of the Mysterious and Marvellous (神奇秘谱, Shénqí Mì Pǔ) in 1425. This is the earliest known large scale collection of qin scores to have survived to the present day.
1. Zhu Panshi (朱盤烒), Hereditary Prince Zhuanghui (莊惠世子), posthumously as Prince Hui of Ning (寧惠王), created as Hereditary Prince of Ning (寧世子) in April 1403. He was married to a daughter of Yu Sheng (俞盛), Eastern Military Forces Commander (東城兵馬指揮) as Hereditary Princess Consort of Ning (寧世子妃) in March 1417.
2. Unnamed, died young.
3. Zhu Panye (朱盤燁), Commentary Prince Kangxi of Linchuan (臨川康僖郡王). He married to daughter of Huang Fu (黃福), Northern Military Forces Commander (北城兵馬副指揮) in July 1425, then married to Wang Xing's (王興) daughter in May 1455. Demoted as Commoner in 1461.
4. Zhu Panyao (朱盤烑), Commentary Prince Anjian of Yichun (宜春安簡郡王). Born in September 1414, title created in July 1428. He married a daughter of Liu Xun (劉勛), Jinwu Guard Commander (金吾後衛指揮) in October 1430. He died in July 1492 when he was 79, his mother was Lady Wang (王氏).
5. Zhu Panzhu (朱盤炷), Commentary Prince Anxi of Xinchang (新昌安僖郡王). Born in October 1419, title created in October 1430. He married to daughter of Ge Tan (葛覃), Xiaoling Guard Commander (孝陵衛指揮使) in February 1437. He died in 1459, his title later cancelled due to his not having a son, but he had a daughter, County Princess Nankang (南康縣主).
6. Zhu Panmou (朱盤㷬), Commentary Prince Daohui of Xinfeng (信豐悼惠郡王), title created in October 1432. He died in January 1437 when he was 19. His title later cancelled due to his not having a son.
1. Commentary Princess Yongxin (永新郡主), title created in July 1426, married to Gao Heling (高鶴齡), Jinxiang Guard Sheren (金鄉衛舍人).
2. Commentary Princess Yushan (玉山郡主), title created in July 1426, married to Fang Jingxiang (方景祥), Captaincy Sheren (都督舍人).
3. Commentary Princess Qingjiang (清江郡主), title created in February 1426, married to Chen Yi (陳逸).
4. Commentary Princess Fengxin (奉新郡主), title created in 5 February 1426, married to Wang Shuang (王爽).
5. Commentary Princess Jinxi (金溪郡主), title created February 1426, married to Han Fu (韓輔). Died in August 1449.
6. Commentary Princess Taihe (泰和郡主), title created February 1426, married to Wang Zhanran (汪湛然), citizen from Poyang County.
7. Commentary Princess Pengze (彭澤郡主), title created February 1426, married to Wang Zhi (王質).
8. Commentary Princess Luling (廬陵郡主), title created February 1426, married to Tian Yu (田昱).
9. Commentary Princess Xinyu (新喻郡主), title created February 1426, married to Hu Guangji (胡光霽).
10. Commentary Princess Xincheng (新城郡主), title created February 1426, married to Li Huan (李瓛).
11. Commentary Princess Fuliang (浮梁郡主), title created July 1426.
12. Died Young, no title.
13. Commentary Princess Nanfeng (南豐郡主), title created February 1426, married to Zhang Wen 張雯.
14. Commentary Princess Yongfeng (永豊郡主), title created June 1427.
Zhu Quan is also the ancestor of the famous Chinese painter Zhu Da.
The Hongwu EmperorZhu Yuanzhang, was the founding emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1368 to 1398.
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The Chenghua Emperor, born Zhu Jianshen, was the eighth Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1464 to 1487. His era name "Chenghua" means "accomplished change".
The Jiajing Emperor was the 12th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao. The Jiajing Emperor's regnal name, "Jiajing", means "admirable tranquility".
The Longqing Emperor, personal name Zhu Zaiji (朱載坖), was the 13th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1567 to 1572. He was initially known as the Prince of Yu (裕王) from 1539 to 1567 before he became the emperor. His era name, Longqing, means "great celebration".
The Wanli Emperor, personal name Zhu Yijun, was the 14th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1572 to 1620. "Wanli", the era name of his reign, literally means "ten thousand calendars". He was the third son of the Longqing Emperor. His reign of 48 years (1572–1620) was the longest among all the Ming dynasty emperors and it witnessed several successes in his early and middle reign, followed by the decline of the dynasty as the Emperor withdrew from his active role in government around 1600.
The Taichang Emperor, personal name Zhu Changluo, was the 15th Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He was the eldest son of the Wanli Emperor and succeeded his father as emperor in 1620. However, his reign came to an abrupt end less than one month after his coronation when he was found dead one morning in the palace following a bout of diarrhea. He was succeeded by his son, Zhu Youjiao, who was enthroned as the Tianqi Emperor. His era name, Taichang, means "grand prosperity." His reign was the shortest in Ming history.
Zhu Qizhen was the sixth and eighth Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He ascended the throne as the Zhengtong Emperor in 1435, but was forced to abdicate in 1449, in favour of his younger brother the Jingtai Emperor, after being captured by the Mongols during the Tumu Crisis. In 1457, he deposed Jingtai and ruled again as the Tianshun Emperor until his death in 1464. His temple name is Yingzong (英宗).
Zhu Biao was the Hongwu Emperor's first son and crown prince of the Ming dynasty. His early death created a crisis in the dynasty's first succession that was resolved by the successful usurpation of his brother Zhu Di as the Yongle Emperor, an act with far-reaching consequences for the future of China.
Prince of Ning may refer to:
Zhu Shuang, Prince Min of Qin (秦愍王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Ming dynasty. He was the second son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of Ming. In May 1370, Hongwu Emperor granted the title of Prince of Qin to him, with a princely fiefdom in Xi'an.
The Jingnan campaign, or Jingnan rebellion, was a three-year civil war from 1399–1402 in the early years of the Ming dynasty of China. It occurred between two descendants of the Ming dynasty's founder Zhu Yuanzhang: his grandson Zhu Yunwen by his first son, and Zhu Yuanzhang's fifth son Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan. Though Zhu Yunwen had been the chosen crown prince of Zhu Yuanzhang and been made emperor upon the death of his grandfather in 1398, friction began immediately after Yuanzhang's death. Zhu Yunwen began arresting Zhu Yuanzhang's other sons immediately, seeking to decrease their threat. But within a year open military conflict began, and the war continued until the forces of the Prince of Yan captured the imperial capital Nanjing. The fall of Nanjing was followed by the demise of Zhu Yunwen, aka the Jianwen Emperor, and Zhu Di was thus crowned the Ming Dynasty's third emperor, the Yongle Emperor.
Zhu Chenhao (朱宸濠) or Prince of Ning (寜王) was a member of the Ming Dynasty's Royal Family. He was the 5th generation descendant of Zhu Quan, the seventeenth son of the Hongwu Emperor. He attempted to usurp the throne and was the leader of the Prince of Ning rebellion.
The Prince of Ning rebellion or rebellion of the Prince of Ning was a rebellion that took place in China between 10 July and 20 August 1519 during the Ming dynasty. It was started by Zhu Chenhao, the Prince of Ning and a fifth-generation descendant of Zhu Quan, and was aimed at overthrowing the Zhengde Emperor. The Prince of Ning revolt was one of two princedom rebellions during the Zhengde Emperor's reign; it was preceded by the Prince of Anhua rebellion in 1510.
Princedom of Qin (秦王), was a first-rank princely peerage used during Ming dynasty, the princedom was created by Hongwu Emperor for his second son, Zhu Shuang.
Prince of Xing, was a first-rank princely peerage used during Ming dynasty, the principality was created by Chenghua Emperor for his fourth son, [[Zhu Youyuan]. As Zhu Youyuan only survived son, Zhu Houcong was enthroned as Jiajing Emperor, the princepality was absorbed into the crown.
Sun Luban, courtesy name Dahu, was an imperial princess of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. She was the elder daughter of Sun Quan, the founding emperor of Wu, and his concubine Bu Lianshi. She is also a grand princess (長公主) a title given to an emperor's the favorite daughter, and was also Princess Quan (全公主/全主) because of her marriage to Quan Cong.
Prince of Yi, was a first-rank princely peerage used during Ming dynasty, it was created by Chenghua Emperor for his sixth son, Zhu Youbin.
Prince of Han, was a first-rank princely peerage used during Ming dynasty, this peerage title initially was created by Hongwu Emperor, and held by Zhu Ying, 14th son of Hongwu Emperor but he was later changed the title to Prince of Su. This peerage title later created again by Yongle Emperor, and was held by Zhu Gaoxu, 2nd son of Yongle Emperor.