Zhu Wenjin

Last updated
Zhū Wénjìn (朱文進)
Emperor of Min / King of Min
Emperor of Min
Reign April 8, 944 [1] [2] – February 14, 945 [1] [2]
Predecessor Wang Yanxi
Successor Wang Yanzheng
Died February 14, 945
Fuzhou
Full name
Zhũ Wénjìn (朱文進)

Zhu Wenjin (朱文進) (d. February 14, 945 [1] [2] ) was a general of, and later a claimant of the throne of, the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. In 944, he assassinated the emperor Wang Yanxi (also known as Wang Xi, Emperor Jingzong) and tried to take over control of the Min state, but his officer Lin Renhan (林仁翰) assassinated him less than a year later and submitted to Wang Yanxi's brother Wang Yanzheng, who had been warring with Wang Yanxi.

History of China account of past events in the Chinese civilisation

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.

Wang Yanxi (王延羲), known as Wang Xi (王曦) during his reign, formally Emperor Jingzong of Min (閩景宗), was an emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. He became Min's ruler after a coup that overthrew his nephew Wang Jipeng in 939. With his reign being a cruel one, the imperial guard officers Zhu Wenjin and Lian Chongyu assassinated him and slaughtered the imperial Wang clan. Zhu thereafter claimed the title of Emperor of Min.

Wang Yanzheng (王延政), known as Tiande Emperor (天德帝) after his era name of Tiande, formally Prince Gongyi of Fu (福恭懿王), also known during Min as the Prince of Fusha (富沙王), was the last ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. In 943, he, then in civil war with his brother Wang Yanxi, declared himself emperor of a new state of Yin at his base Jian Prefecture, but after Wang Yanxi was killed by the general Zhu Wenjin, who was himself assassinated thereafter, Wang Yanzheng reclaimed the title of Emperor of Min. His reign would last less than three years overall, though, as Min's northwestern neighbor Southern Tang bore down militarily on him and forced his surrender, ending Min.

Contents

Background and service under Wang Yanjun

Little was recorded in history about Zhu Wenjin's background, but it is known that he was from Yongtai (永泰, in modern Fuzhou, Fujian). During the reign of Wang Yanjun (also known as Wang Lin, Emperor Huizong), when he organized his father Wang Shenzhi's closest guards into two elite corps, the Gongchen (拱宸) and the Anhe (按鶴), he made Zhu the commander of the Gongchen and Lian Chongyu the commander of the Anhe. [3]

Fuzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area.

Fujian Province

Fujian, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou, two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China.

Wang Yanjun (王延鈞), known as Wang Lin from 933 to 935, formally Emperor Huizong of Min (閩惠宗), used the name of Xuanxi (玄錫) while briefly being a Taoist monk, was the third ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms state Min, and the first ruler of Min to use the title of emperor.

Service under Wang Jipeng

Wang Yanjun was killed in a coup in 935, and was succeeded by his son Wang Jipeng (also known as Wang Chang, Emperor Kangzong). [4] Wang Jipeng created his own elite corps, the Chenwei (宸衛), and treated them better than he did the Gongchen and the Anhe, such that the soldiers of the two corps were alienated. He also alienated Zhu Wenjin and Lian Chongyu by repeatedly insulting them. Hearing of discontent in the Gongchen and Anhe ranks, he considered sending them away from the capital to Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) and Quan (泉州, in modern Quanzhou, Fujian) Prefectures, respectively, causing fear in the two corps. [3]

Wang Jipeng (王繼鵬), used the name Wang Chang (王昶) from 935 to 939, formally Emperor Kangzong of Min (閩康宗), was an emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. He inherited the throne after his father Wang Yanjun was assassinated, possibly at his instigation. He himself was in turn killed in a coup headed by his uncle Wang Yanxi, who succeeded him.

Zhangzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Zhangzhou, formerly romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen. During the 2010 census, the entire area of Zhangzhou was home to 4,809,983 inhabitants. Along with the 1.9 million people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Longwen and Xiangcheng, together with Longhai, form a single metropolitan area of about 5 million people (2010).

Quanzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. It is Fujian's largest metropolitan region, with an area of 11,245 square kilometers (4,342 sq mi) and, as of 2010, a population of 8,128,530. Its built-up area is home to 6,107,475 inhabitants, encompassing the Licheng, Fengze, and Luojiang urban districts; Jinjiang, Nan'an, and Shishi cities; Hui'an County; and the Quanzhou District for Taiwanese Investment. Quanzhou was China's 12th-largest extended metropolitan area in 2010.

In 939, someone set fire to Wang Jipeng's northern palace, causing a large fire in the palace complex. Wang Jipeng ordered Lian to command 10,000 soldiers (apparently both the Anhe and other corps) to carry out the cleanup of the palace complex, and this difficult labor caused the soldiers to be distressed. At one point, Wang Jipeng came to suspect Lian of being involved in setting the fire, and considered killing him. The imperial scholar Chen Tan (陳郯) informed this to Lian. Therefore, one night when Lian was on night duty, he took the opportunity to command the Anhe and the Gongchen to rise against Wang Jipeng, and then to also get other corps to join in. With only the Chenwei defending him, Wang Jipeng was defeated. He tried to flee to Min's northern neighbor Wuyue, but was captured on the way and killed. Lian supported Wang Jipeng's uncle (Wang Yanjun's younger brother) Wang Yanxi (also known as Wang Xi, Emperor Jingzong) to be emperor. (Zhu's role in this coup was not clearly stated.) [3]

Wuyue Former country in Chinas 5 dynasties period

Wuyue, 907–978, was an independent coastal kingdom founded during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960) of Chinese history. It was ruled by the Qian family, whose family name remains widespread in the kingdom's former territory.

Service under Wang Yanxi

Zhu Wenjin and Lian Chongyu apparently remained in command of the imperial guards during Wang Yanxi's reign, as Zhu remained in command of the Gongchen Corps, and Lian received the title of director of palace security (閣門使, Geimenshi). Fearing that they would eventually be punished for Wang Jipeng's death, they had their families enter into marital relationships to form a power bloc. Meanwhile, Wang Yanxi's reign was a violent one, and it caused apprehension in them, particularly after he killed one of their close associates, Wei Conglang (魏從朗) (who had become the commander of the Anhe Corps). Further, on another occasion, Wang Yanxi recited in their presence, in one occasion, Bai Juyi's poem, which stated, "When it comes to matching people's hearts, one cannot have any expectations even when they were physically close." They wept and bowed to him, proclaiming their faithfulness, but drew no response from Wang Yanxi. [1]

Bai Juyi Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty

Bai Juyi, courtesy name Letian, was a renowned Chinese poet and Tang dynasty government official. Many of his poems concern his career or observations made about everyday life, including as governor of three different provinces.

Meanwhile, Wang Yanxi's wife Empress Li had become jealous of his favor for his concubine Consort Shang. She wanted him dead so that their son Wang Yacheng could become emperor. She therefore sent messengers to Zhu and Lian, informing them that Wang Yanxi was suspicious of them. In spring 944, Empress Li's father, the chancellor Li Zhen (李真) happened to be ill. Wang Yanxi went to visit him, and Zhu and Lian used this chance to have the Gongchen officer Qian Da (錢達) assassinate Wang Yanxi. They then summoned the officials at the imperial gathering hall, stating to the officials: [1]

Wang Yacheng (王亞澄), formally the Prince of Min (閩王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. He was the only historically-known son of its fifth ruler Wang Yanxi.

Gaozu, the Emperor Zhaowu [(referring to Wang Shenzhi)] established the state of Min. But now his descendants are licentious, cruel, slothful, and lacking in order. The Heaven has tired of the Wangs, and it is time for someone with greater virtue.

With no one daring to speak against them there, Lian pushed Zhu onto the throne and put imperial robe and crown on him, and then led the officials in bowing to him, proclaiming themselves as subjects. Zhu thereafter claimed the title of emperor. [1]

As emperor/king of Min

Zhu Wenjin had some 50 members of the Wang imperial clan arrested and executed, although he had Wang Yanxi buried with ceremony due an emperor. When the official Zheng Yuanbi (鄭元弼) refused to submit to him, he first forced Zheng into retirement, and when Zheng tried to flee to Wang Yanxi's younger brother Wang Yanzheng [1] — who had been in civil war with Wang Yanxi for years and who had claimed the title of emperor of a splinter state of Yin at Jian Prefecture (建州, in modern Nanping, Fujian) [5] — he had Zheng killed. He put Lian Chongyu in charge of the army. He also tried to reverse some of Wang Yanxi's unpopular policies, by ending palace construction projects and by releasing the ladies in waiting from palace service. [1]

Wang Yanzheng immediately sent his general Wu Chengyi (吳成義) to attack Min's capital Fu Prefecture (福州, in modern Fuzhou), but was unable to capture it. Thereafter, Zhu sent the army officers Huang Shaopo (黃紹頗) to serve as the prefect of Quan and Cheng Wenwei (程文緯) to serve as the prefect of Zhang, apparently to affirm his control of those prefectures. The prefect of Ting Prefecture (汀州, in modern Longyan, Fujian), Xu Wenzhen (許文稹), also submitted to him. When he sent emissaries to try to establish friendly relations with Min's (and Yin's) northwestern neighbor Southern Tang, however, Southern Tang's emperor Li Jing put his emissaries under arrest and intended to attack him, but could not do so immediately due to the heat and spread of disease at the time. [1]

In fall 944, Zhu apparently stopped claiming the title of emperor. Instead, he claimed only the title of acting military governor of Weiwu Circuit (威武, headquartered at Fu Prefecture) and acting overseer of the state of Min, and he sent emissaries to Later Jin to submit as a subject. In response, Later Jin's emperor Shi Chonggui commissioned him as full military governor of Weiwu and acting overseer of Min. [1]

In winter 944, a group of officers at Quan, led by Liu Congxiao, rose up against and killed Huang, submitting to Wang Yanzheng and supporting Wang Yanzheng's nephew Wang Jixun (王繼勳) to serve as acting prefect. Hearing of this, the Zhang officer Cheng Mo (程謨) assassinated Cheng Wenwei and supported another nephew of Wang Yanzheng's, Wang Jicheng (王繼成), as acting prefect, in submission to Wang Yanzheng. Xu Wenzhen also submitted Ting Prefecture to Wang Yanzheng. [1]

Around new year 945, Shi created Zhu the King of Min and gave him the honorary chancellor designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事). [1]

Hearing of what happened at Quan and Zhang, Zhu sent the officers Lin Shouliang (林守諒) and Li Ting'e (李廷鍔) to attack Quan. With aid from Wang Yanzheng's general Du Jin (杜進), however, Liu crushed Lin's and Li's army, killing Lin and capturing Li. Wang Yanzheng then again sent Wu to attack Fu, and faced with this threat, Zhu sent his son(s) and brother(s) to serve as hostages to Wuyue, seeking aid from it. [1]

Meanwhile, Wang Yanzheng warded off an attack from the Southern Tang general Cha Wenhui (查文徽). However, hearing of this, Wu decided to take advantage to intimidate the people at Fu, claiming (falsely) that the Southern Tang army was intending to aid the Yin army in attacking Fu. This caused great fear in the people at Fu, and apparently caused Zhu to have the chancellor Li Guangzhun (李光準) to take the imperial seals to offer them to Wang Yanzheng (i.e., effectively to surrender). [1]

Shortly after, before any negotiations could begin with Wang Yanzheng, the officer Lin Renhan led a group of 30 soldiers in attacking Lian's mansion, stating to them, "We have served the Wang clan for generations. Now we are under the control of an usurper. If the Prince of Fusha [(i.e., Wang Yanzheng, who carried the title of Prince of Fusha under Wang Yanxi)] arrived, how could we see him again?" He personally killed Lian, and then cut off Lian's head to show the rest of the army, stating to them, "The Prince of Fusha will soon be here. All of your families will be slaughtered. Now Lian Chongyu is dead. You can save yourselves by seizing Zhu Wenjin!" The soldiers were encouraged, and they followed him in killing Zhu. Lin opened the gates to welcome Wu in, and sent the heads of Lian and Zhu to Wang Yanzheng. [1]

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Zizhi Tongjian , vol. 284.
  2. 1 2 3 Academia Sinica Chinese-Western Calendar Converter.
  3. 1 2 3 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 282.
  4. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 279.
  5. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 283.
Chinese nobility
Preceded by
Wang Yanxi (Emperor Jingzong)
Emperor/King of Min
944–945
Succeeded by
Wang Yanzheng
Emperor of China (Southern Fujian)
944
Emperor of China (Northeastern Fujian)
944–945

Related Research Articles

Wang Shenzhi Chinese prince

Wang Shenzhi, courtesy name Xintong (信通) or Xiangqing (詳卿), formally Prince Zhongyi of Min (閩忠懿王) and later further posthumously honored as Emperor Taizu of Min (閩太祖), was the founder of Min Kingdoms on the southeast coastal province of Fujian province in China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. He was from Gushi in modern-day Henan.

The Yin was a short-lived kingdom during China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the time between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the foundation of the Song Dynasty.

Empress Chen Jinfeng (陳金鳳) was the third known wife of Wang Yanjun, a ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Min. Wang Yanjun, while not the first ruler of Min, was the first to claim imperial title, and Empress Chen was the first Empress of Min. When Wang Yanjun was assassinated in 935, she was also killed.

Wang Yanbing (王延稟), né Zhou Yanchen (周彥琛), formally Prince Weisu of Wuping (武平威肅王), was an adoptive son of Wang Shenzhi. After Wang Shenzhi's death and succession by Wang Shenzhi's biological son Wang Yanhan, Wang Yanbing, jointly with another biological son of Wang Shenzhi's, Wang Yanjun, overthrew Wang Yanhan to allow Wang Yanjun to rule Min. However, he later developed a rivalry with Wang Yanjun and tried to overthrow Wang Yanjun. His army was defeated by Wang Yanjun's, and he was captured and executed.

Li Chunyan was an empress of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. Her husband was Wang Jipeng.

Empress Li was an empress of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. She was the wife of its fifth ruler, Wang Yanxi.

Yang Renquan (仰仁詮) was a general and politician of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms state Wuyue, eventually reaching the position of chancellor. His daughter was the second wife of Wuyue's third king Qian Hongzuo.

Pan Chengyou (潘承祐) was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Wu, Min, and Southern Tang, briefly serving as a chancellor during the reign of Yin's only emperor Wang Yanzheng.

Lian Chongyu (連重遇) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. In 944, he and another general, Zhu Wenjin, assassinated the emperor Wang Yanxi. He then supported Zhu as the new emperor of the Min state, but the officer Lin Renhan (林仁翰) assassinated him and Zhu less than a year later and submitted to Wang Yanxi's brother Wang Yanzheng, who had been warring with Wang Yanxi.

Liu Congxiao, formally the Prince of Jinjiang, was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. After Min's fall, he initially submitted to Southern Tang, but eventually, taking advantage of Southern Tang's inability to fully control the region, took the southern part of the former Min realm under his own control, albeit in nominal submission to Southern Tang. After Southern Tang's repeated defeats by Later Zhou, he also nominally submitted to Later Zhou's successor state Song.

Zhang Hansi (張漢思) was a military officer of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. After Min's fall, he served under Liu Congxiao, who controlled Qingyuan Circuit, in nominal submission to Southern Tang. After Liu's death, the officer Chen Hongjin overthrew Liu's nephew and successor Liu Shaozi and supported Zhang, but later overthrew Zhang as well and took over himself.

Chen Hongjin (陳洪進) (914–985), courtesy name Jichuan (濟川), formally Duke Zhongshun of Qi (岐忠順公), was a warlord late in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, who controlled Qingyuan Circuit. After a series of conquests by the Song dynasty, Chen, who was a vassal to Song, believed that it would be wise for him to surrender his realm, and did so. He subsequently remained honored as a Song general until his death.

Wang Jichang (王繼昌) was a general and chancellor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. He was a nephew of its last emperor Wang Yanzheng, and briefly served as chancellor and general during Wang Yanzheng's reign.

Li Renda (李仁達), also known by the names of Li Hongyi (李弘義) (945–946), Li Hongda (李弘達) (946), Li Da (李達) (946–947), and Li Ruyun (李孺贇) (947), was a warlord of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. He was initially an officer for the state of Min. In Min's last years, he rebelled against its last emperor Wang Yanzheng and seized control of the Fu Prefecture region, initially in nominal allegiance to both Southern Tang and Later Jin. When Southern Tang's emperor Li Jing tried to force to yield actual control to the Southern Tang imperial government, however, he turned his allegiance to Wuyue and fought off the Southern Tang attack with Wuyue aid. When his relationship with the Wuyue general Bao Xiurang (鮑修讓) eventually broke down, he considered killing Bao and resubmitting to Southern Tang, but Bao discovered this and killed him first, allowing Wuyue to take actual control over the region.

Zhuo Yanming (卓巖明), né Zhuo Yansi (卓偃巳), dharma name Timing (體明), was a Buddhist monk in the late years of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min. After the Min army officer Li Renda rebelled against Min's last emperor Wang Yanzheng and took over control of Fu Prefecture, he proclaimed Zhuo Yanming, who was respected by the people, emperor, but shortly after assassinated Zhuo and directly took control.