Zhuying ji also known as the Collection of Precious Glories is a collection of Chinese poetry by Cui Rong, first published in the reign of Wu Zetian (690-705). The book contains poems by Cui Rong (653-706), Li Jiao (644-713), Zhang Yue (677-731), and others.The original work was long thought to be completely lost, however fragments constituting about one-fifth of the original have been found among the Dunhuang manuscripts, with fifty-five poems by thirteen men. One notable feature of this anthology is that Cui Rong arranged the work in descending order of official rank of the included poets; which, among other things, underlines the nature of early Tang poetry as a type of poetry associated with the imperial courts and palaces.
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry.
Cui Rong was a poet during the era of the Tang dynasty, which includes the short-lived dynasty of Wu Zetian. His poetry style was typical of Tang poetry. He is famous for editing an anthology of poetry of the court of Wu Zetian: a work known as the Collection of Precious Glories, which contained poems by himself, Li Jiao (644-713), Zhang Yue (677-731), and others. The original work was long thought to be completely lost, however fragments constituting about one-fifth of the original were found among the manuscripts found at Dunhuang, with fifty-five poems by thirteen men. One notable feature of this anthology is that Cui Rong arranged the work in descending order of official rank of the included poets; which, among other things, highlights the nature of early Tang poetry as a type of court poetry.
Wu Zetian, alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty, which interrupted the Tang dynasty. Wu was the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia.
Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese and typified by certain traditional forms, or modes; traditional genres; and connections with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty. Its existence was documented at least as early as the publication of the Classic of Poetry. Various combinations of forms and genres exist. Many or most of these were developed by the end of the Tang Dynasty, in 907 CE.
Six Dynasties poetry refers to those types or styles of poetry particularly associated with the Six Dynasties era of China. This poetry reflects one of the poetry world's more important flowerings, as well as being a unique period in Classical Chinese poetry, which, over this time period, developed a poetry with special emphasis on romantic love, gender roles, and human relationships. The Six Dynasties era is sometimes known as the "Age of Fragmentation", because China as a whole through this period lacked unification as a state, at least for any extended period of time; and, instead, many states rose and fell, often overlapping in existence with other states. Which of the various states and dynasties constituted the "6" dynasties of the Six Dynasties period varies somewhat according to which of the traditional selection criteria is chosen. The Six Dynasties era covers several somewhat overlapping main periods including all of the following: the Three Kingdoms (220–280), Jin dynasty, the Sixteen Kingdoms, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589). Sometimes, chronological discrepancies occur in regard to the turbulent political events of the time, from which these traditional historical-era designations derive, together with the somewhat different chronology of poetic developments. Thus, neither the lives of the poets nor the trends in their poetry fit gently and neatly together with these period dates. Furthermore, conversions to the Common Era dating system can create further complications. However, regardless of the chronological difficulties, major developments of poetry during the Six Dynasties include formalizing the distinction between the Jian'an era regular yuefu and the shi style poetry, further development of the fu, theoretical work on technique, and the preservation of both Six Dynasties and earlier poetry by collecting and publishing many of the pieces which survive today into various anthologies consisting all or in part of poetry.
Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry. The Quantangshi includes over 48,900 poems written by over 2,200 authors. During the Tang dynasty, poetry continued to be an important part of social life at all levels of society. Scholars were required to master poetry for the civil service exams, but the art was theoretically available to everyone. This led to a large record of poetry and poets, a partial record of which survives today. Two of the most famous poets of the period were Li Bai and Du Fu. Tang poetry has had an ongoing influence on world literature in modern times.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics". All of these pre-Qin texts were written in classical Chinese. All three canons are collectively known as the classics.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang dynasty (618–907) and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Song dynasty (960–1279) rapidly spread written knowledge throughout China. In more modern times, the author Lu Xun (1881–1936) is considered the founder of baihua literature in China.
Du Mu (Chinese: 杜牧; pinyin: Dù Mù; Wade–Giles: Tu4 Mu4; 803–852) was a leading Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. His courtesy name was Muzhi (牧之), and sobriquet Fanchuan (樊川). He is best known for his lyrical and romantic quatrains.
Tao Yuanming (365?–427), also known as Tao Qian or T'ao Ch'ien (Wade-Giles), was a Chinese poet who lived during the Eastern Jin (317-420) and Liu Song (420-479) dynasties. He is considered to be one of the greatest poets of the Six dynasties period. Tao Yuanming spent most of his life in reclusion, living in a small house in the countryside, reading, drinking wine, receiving the occasional guest, and writing poems in which he often reflected on the pleasures and difficulties of life in the countryside, as well as his decision to withdraw from civil service. His simple, direct, and unmannered style was at odds with the norms for literary writing in his time. Although he was relatively well-known as a recluse poet in the Tang dynasty (618-907), it was not until the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127), when influential literati figures such as Su Shi (1037-1101) declared him a paragon of authenticity and spontaneity in poetry, that Tao Yuanming would achieve lasting literary fame. He is also regarded as the foremost representative of what would latter be known as Fields and Gardens poetry, a style of landscape poetry that found inspiration in the beauty and serenity of the natural world close at hand.
Cui Hao was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty in China and considered a main early exponent of the regulated verse form of Classical Chinese poetry.
Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry generally and across all languages.
Lu Yu is respected as the Sage of Tea for his contribution to Chinese tea culture. He is best known for his monumental book The Classic of Tea, the first definitive work on cultivating, making and drinking tea.
Yuan Zhen, courtesy name Weizhi (微之), was a politician of the middle Tang Dynasty, but is more known as an important Chinese writer and poet. In prose literature, Yuan Zhen is particularly known for his work Yingying's Biography, which has often been adapted for other treatments, including operatic and musical ones. In poetry, he is remembered for the inclusion of some of his poems by popular anthologies, his verses on exotic topics, and for being part of the group of "New Yuefu" poets, which often used poetry as a form of expression and protest, but one potentially subtle enough to avoid the likely repercussions of more direct criticism. The poetic circle in which Yuan Zhen was involved included Bai Juyi, among others. Politically Yuan Zhen was briefly chancellor, during the reign of Emperor Muzong.
The Three Hundred Tang Poems is an anthology of poems from the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907) first compiled around 1763 by Sun Zhu (1722–1778), the Qing Dynasty scholar, also known as Hengtang Tuishi. Various later editions also exist. All editions contain slightly more than 300 total poems: in this case, three hundred means not exactly 300 but refers to an estimative quantification; the ten, twenty, or more extra poems represent a sort of a good luck bonus, analogous to the "baker's dozen" in the West. Even more, the number 300 was a classic number for a poetry collection due to the influence of the Classic of Poetry, which was generally known as The Three Hundred Poems.
Quan Tangshi, commissioned in 1705 at the direction and published under the name of the Qing dynasty Kangxi Emperor, is the largest collection of Tang poetry, containing some 49,000 lyric poems by more than twenty-two hundred poets. The Quan Tangshi is the major reservoir of surviving Tang dynasty poems, from which the pre-eminent shorter anthology, Three Hundred Tang Poems, is largely drawn.
Gao Bing flourished during the newly established Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) as an author and poetry theorist. Gao Bing collected and arranged Tang poetry-era poems and wrote commentary material upon them in a work published as the Graded Compendium of Tang Poetry, a seminal work using prosodic principles in a systematic method to classify poetry by Classical Chinese poetry forms. It contained 5,769 poems by 620 poets, along with notes and commentary. The Tangshi Pinhui aimed in part to correct what Gao Bing saw as lacking in previous works, particularly those of Song critic Yan Yu and Yuan critic Yang Shihong. Other works would later build upon the Tangshi Pinhui system which would later greatly influence the perception of Chinese poetry: in part because of Gao Bing's explicit nine-rank grading system, by which he evaluated the works of poets such as Du Fu, Li Bai, and Wang Wei.
Sunflower Splendor: Three Thousand Years of Chinese Poetry is an anthology of around 1,000 Chinese poems translated into English, edited by Wu-chi Liu and Irving Yucheng Lo and published in 1975 by Anchor Press/Doubleday. Wu-chi Liu served as the anthology's senior editor. As of 2002 the book had been widely used in Asian literature studies. In 2002 Stacy Finz of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote that the book "was a best-seller".
Li Ye, also known by her courtesy name Li Jilan (李季蘭), was a Tang dynasty Chinese poet, Taoist nun, courtesan, and entertainer who was known for her talent in poetry as well as her beauty. In the tumultuous years of the late Tang, she was accused of treason for poems denigrating the imperial house of Tang that the rebel leader Zhu Ci forced her to write. She was condemned to death and executed in 784. Li is one of the few Tang-dynasty women whose poetry has survived.