Zibo

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Zibo

淄博市
Zibo montage.jpg
Clockwise form top: Zibo new area CBD, Zhoucun ancient commercial city, Zhangdian district downtown, Zibo sports center stadium
ChinaShandongZibo.png
Location of Zibo in Shandong
China Northern Plain relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Zibo
Location in the North China Plain
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Zibo
Zibo (China)
Coordinates(Zibo municipal government): 36°48′50″N118°03′18″E / 36.8138°N 118.0550°E / 36.8138; 118.0550 Coordinates: 36°48′50″N118°03′18″E / 36.8138°N 118.0550°E / 36.8138; 118.0550
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Province Shandong
County-level divisions 8
Township divisions 106
Municipal seat Zhangdian District
Government
   Mayor Yu Haitian (于海田)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 5,965 km2 (2,303 sq mi)
  Urban
2,989 km2 (1,154 sq mi)
  Metro
4,748 km2 (1,833 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,108.3 m (3,636.2 ft)
Lowest elevation
7 m (23 ft)
Population
 (2010 census)
   Prefecture-level city 4,530,597
  Density760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
   Urban
3,129,228
  Urban density1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
   Metro
4,412,016
  Metro density930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal Code
255100
Area code(s) 0533
ISO 3166 code CN-SD-03
GDP total ¥ 478.13 billion (2017)
GDP Per Capita¥101,781 ($15,075) (2017)
License Plate Prefix 鲁C
Website www.zibo.gov.cn
Zibo
Zibo (Chinese characters).svg
"Zibo" in regular Chinese characters
Chinese 淄博

Zibo (pronounced [tsɨ́.pwǒ] ; Chinese :淄博) is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, China. It borders the provincial capital Jinan to the west, Tai'an to the southwest, Linyi to the south, Weifang to the east, Dongying to the northeast, and Binzhou to the north.

Contents

Zibo spans 5,938 square kilometres (2,293 sq mi). As of the 2010 cenus, Zibo's population was 4.53 million, of which 4.41 million lived in the metro area comprising five urban districts—Zhangdian, Zichuan, Boshan, Zhoucun and Linzi–and parts of neighboring counties Huantai, Gaoqing, and Yiyuan.

The Zibo area was the centre of the ancient State of Qi, whose capital Linzi was the most populous city in China at its peak. Pu Songling, a well-known writer of the Qing Dynasty, is one of the most famous people from Zibo. As the birthplace of Qi culture, Zibo is a notable tourist city.

Manufacturing holds an important place of the city's economy, particularly ceramics manufacturing. Other key industries include the petrochemical industry, pharmaceuticals, metallurgy, construction materials, machinery and textiles. New industries and high-technology industries, such new materials, fine chemicals, electronics, IT, and biopharmaceutics are also developing rapidly.

According to the 2007-08 Global City Competitiveness Report released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Zibo was among the top 20 cities in the world in terms of fast economic growth between 2001 and 2005. [1] According to the Oriental Outlook Magazine, Zibo ranks No. 1 on the list of cities that have reasonable real estate prices in China, also ranking No. 2 on the list of cities with good public security in China in 2008. [2] In 2009, the city received the award of "Best 10 Harmonious Cities that enjoy Sustainable Development in China". [3]

History

Remains of city sewer passing underneath the former city wall Linzi sewer 2010 06 06.jpg
Remains of city sewer passing underneath the former city wall
Sacrificial horses in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qi, discovered in Linzi Sacrificial horsepit linzi 2010 06 06.jpg
Sacrificial horses in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qi, discovered in Linzi

The remains of three major Neolithic cultures in ancient China, Beixin culture, Dawenkou culture, and Longshan culture have been found in Zibo. Ancient Linzi, located in present-day Zibo, was the capital of the ancient State of Qi, a powerful state during the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods, over 2,000 years ago. In 7th century BC, Duke Huan of Qi, ruler of Qi, appointed Guan Zhong, thinker and economist, as his prime minister, and adopted Guan's thoughts and policies to administer his country, develop the economy and develop relations with other states. The measures greatly strengthened the country, making its capital one of the most prosperous in ancient China. Zibo is rich in cultural and historical sites, and is referred to as the "Underground Museum". In Linzi, the ruins of the ancient Qi city, as well as other famous cultural relics and historic sites, have been discovered and unearthed. The ancient city of Qi was one of the first places in China that was assigned to be a "cultural relics site" and protected.

Zibo made significant contributions to the formation and prosperity of the Silk Road. Zibo was one of the biggest suppliers of silk products. Zhoucun, one of the townships in Zibo, was considered one of the four 'dry ports' alongside Foshan, Jingdezhen, and Zhuxian.[ citation needed ] The major trade streets such as 'Dajie', 'Sishijie', 'Yinzijie' are well preserved to this date.

In 2004, FIFA President Sepp Blatter visited Zibo to celebrate FIFA's 100th anniversary. FIFA has since then recognized the city as the birthplace of football.[ citation needed ]

Zibo City was established in 1954. The name came from a combination of the prefecture's two major urban areas, Zichuan and Boshan.

Administrative divisions

The prefecture-level city of Zibo administers eight county-level divisions, including five districts and three counties.

MapSubdivisionChinesePinyin
Zichuan District 淄川区Zīchuān Qū
Zhangdian District 张店区Zhāngdiàn Qū
Boshan District 博山区Bóshān Qū
Linzi District 临淄区Línzī Qū
Zhoucun District 周村区Zhōucūn Qū
Huantai County 桓台县Huántái Xiàn
Gaoqing County 高青县Gāoqīng Xiàn
Yiyuan County 沂源县Yíyuán Xiàn

Geography

Zibo is located near the center of Shandong Province, neighboring Mt. Tai in the south and backing the Yellow River in the north. Toward the east are the coastal cities of Qingdao, Yantai, and Weihai. The capital of Shandong, Jinan is to its west. Zibo is located in the transition zone between the mountainous area in central Shandong and the North China Plain. Its southern area is covered with mid-sized mountains, while the center is hilly. The city's northern territory descends into plains. The ratio among mountains, hills and plains are 42%, 29.9% and 28.1%, respectively. [4] With the Yihe River originating itself in the southern mountain area, and Yellow River flowing across the northern area, the city has comparatively abundant water resources. The workable reserve of ground water is 1.24 tons/day.

Climate

Zibo is located in a warm, temperate zone, and bears a semi-humid and semi-dry continental climate. [5] Like other cities in the province, Zibo has four distinct seasons. January and July are, respectively, the coldest and hottest months during the year. Zibo enjoys 180 to 220 frost-free days and the average annual hours of sunshine are 2542.6 to 2832.6. The annual average precipitation of Zibo is 25.2 inches (640.5 mm). [6]

Climate data for Zibo (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
7.7
(45.9)
13.7
(56.7)
21.5
(70.7)
27.0
(80.6)
31.8
(89.2)
32.3
(90.1)
30.9
(87.6)
27.6
(81.7)
21.5
(70.7)
13.1
(55.6)
6.1
(43.0)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.3
(29.7)
1.9
(35.4)
7.7
(45.9)
15.3
(59.5)
21.0
(69.8)
26.0
(78.8)
27.5
(81.5)
26.1
(79.0)
21.7
(71.1)
15.5
(59.9)
7.5
(45.5)
0.9
(33.6)
14.2
(57.5)
Average low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
2.5
(36.5)
9.6
(49.3)
15.3
(59.5)
20.5
(68.9)
23.1
(73.6)
22.0
(71.6)
16.9
(62.4)
10.6
(51.1)
3.0
(37.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
9.4
(48.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)5.8
(0.23)
10.1
(0.40)
15.2
(0.60)
25.5
(1.00)
58.2
(2.29)
69.4
(2.73)
149.6
(5.89)
153.7
(6.05)
57.3
(2.26)
31.7
(1.25)
18.8
(0.74)
7.9
(0.31)
603.2
(23.75)
Average relative humidity (%)58545151575772766762616061
Source: China Meteorological Administration [7]

Demographics

As of 2006, 4,181,260 people lived in Zibo, of which 2,102,819 were male and 2,078,441 were female. The sex male to female ratio was 101.17, death rate was 5.92%, and birth rate was 8.81%. The natural growth rate of the population that year was 2.90%. The area had a population density of 704.15 per square kilometer.[ citation needed ]

The fourth nationwide census showed that over 99 percent of the total population are Han Chinese. In addition, there are 44 minority nationalities, including Hui, Manchus, Mongols and Koreans. Mongols and Manchus are the only two minority groups that have more than 1,000 people. The town of Jinling Hui, which is located at the junction of Zhangdian and Linzi, in one of only four towns named by an ethnic minority in Shandong Province.[ citation needed ]

In 2008, the per capital disposable income of urban residents was 17,629 yuan, up by 11.2% from the year before; the per capital disposable income of rural residents was 7,364 yuan, up by 13.9%. The Engel's coefficients, which reflect the consumption structure and level of China's urban and rural residents, were 32.1% and 35.6%, respectively. [8]

Culture

Dialect

The Zibo dialect has classical features of Northern Chinese but also has specific characteristics of its own. In Zibo dialect, points of articulation of low vowel is particularly deep in the mouth, and most areas do not have a retroflex consonant except in parts of Linzi District.[ citation needed ] The Zibo dialect does not have many features that distinguish it from mandarin when it comes to sentence composition, while subtle differences may be found when people ask questions and their expressions to probability of actions. The Zibo dialect may be divided into three major sections according to the administrative districts: Huantai-Zhangdian-Zhoucun, being areas on the transport corridor between Jinan and Weifeng, have a mild mandarin accent closely resembling somewhere between Beijing, Jinan, Qingdao and Zichuan accents. Boshan has its own accent which is derived from the traditional center of the Zibo prefecture. Lastly, the Zichuan district has its own distinct accent with many colloquialisms.

Cuisine

Traditional Zibo cuisine is part of Shandong Cuisine although Zibo cuisine is, in fact, not a real branch of the Lu Cuisine (Shandong cuisine), whilst Boshan Cuisine is. Boshan cuisine restaurants can only be found in Zibo, and nearby places. Featured local snacks, including Zhou Cun Pancake, Shi Ha Ma Dumpling, Vegetable Pancake, Sauced Mutton, pork feet stew with kelp lotus root and Chinese cabbage, pork intestine hotpot with fried beancurd, and Bean-curd Case (fried bean-curd stuffed with vegetables and meat), enjoy a good reputation among residents and tourists. Zibo is also home to diverse restaurants of other Chinese cuisine branches just like many other cities in China. Western restaurants are also emerging here and there in all districts of this city to cater for a growing diversity of needs from the people.

Traditional drama

The "Five-Voiced Drama" is a unique kind of local drama that originated in central Shandong and was once popular among the folks here. This form of art got its name because the show is often performed by 4-5 people, and the performance is featured by gorgeous singing tunes and vivid lyrics. The straight performance and the local style also help it to be distinguished from other Chinese dramas. The plays that are acknowledged to many people include Wang Xiao Gan Jiao (Salesboy), Wang Erjie Si Fu (Lonely lady) and so on. Zibo Five-voiced Drama Troupe is the only theatrical troupe all around the country that professionally perform this drama. By far, Five-Voiced Drama has been listed as a "National Intangible Cultural Heritage".

Artware

Boshan colored glaze is the wonderful work in Shandong Province. The history of production of colored glaze in Bo Shan is very long and better known. In the years of Hong Wu of Ming Dynasty, the emperor's servants set up "Out Factory" to produce colored glaze for imperial family's use such as "blue and green curtain". By the end of Ming Dynasty, the folk colored glaze was produced and developed day by day, too. In the year of Jingtai there were four big stoves in Xi Yejie Street to produce enamel material. Before and after the period of Jiajing, the colored glaze products such as pearl light, pearl rejecting, bed-curtain and mosquito net hook and so on were made by the master of Bo Shan and gradually form the colored glaze trade. In 1617(the 46th year of Wan Li), some people led by Sun Yanshou initiated to organize the guild of colored glaze which is the first organization in Yanshan Town. The colored glaze products returned the transportation and sale to Beijing and the southern parts of China besides selling in locality. [9]

Honors earned

Tourist attractions

Zibo enjoys abundant historical and cultural sites of interest. The Linzi Museum of Ancient Chariots, the Museum of the History of the State of Qi, the Zibo City Museum, the Zibo Museum of Ceramics, the Zhoucun Ancient Commercial Town, and the Thousand Buddha Temple in Zhoucun are the most recommendable places for tourists who want to learn about Zibo's long history and about the Qi Culture. Yuanshan National Forest Park, situated southwest of Baoshan District in Zibo, is a spot worth visiting. It consists of the Great Wall of the Qi State, the grass skiing field, Dinosaur Valley and a folk garden. The Great Wall of Qi was built by the Qi State during the Spring-and-Autumn and Warring States Periods over 2,500 years ago. [10]

Economy

The Silk Road, prosperous from the Han to the Tang dynasty, is famous for economic and cultural exchanges between the East and the West. The Shandong area, particularly Zibo, was a major center of silk supply. At present, Zibo remains an important a producer of silk and light textile products in China. The city's products enjoy a great reputation at home and abroad.

More than 50 types of mineral reserves have been found in the city. Zibo is a main source of coal, iron, bauxite, coal clay, chemical limestone, pottery clay, etc. in Shandong because of their large reserves, high quality, and wide distribution. Northern Zibo is also rich in petroleum and natural gas. The city initially developed as a mining city, and is currently undergoing technological upgradation and industrial transformation.

Since 2002, the city has been steadily taking measures to improve the environment. Small, polluting coal mines and chemical factories were closed, while all major plants were required to install sewage disposal to get control the emission of air and soil pollutants. Currently, Zibo has three municipal sewage treatment plants that comply with China's Grade-A1 Integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB 8978—1996). [11]

In 2008, the total industrial output of Zibo reached 532 billion RMB. In the same year, its GDP was 231.7 billion yuan RMB, ranking just below Qingdao, Yantai, Jinan and Weifang within the province. The percentages of GDP in the agriculture, industry and service sectors were 3.5%, 64.8%, 31.7%, respectively.

In 2017, Zibo's GDP reached 478.13 billion yuan RMB, ranking just below Qingdao, Yantai, Jinan and Weifang within the province. The percentages of GDP in the agriculture, industry and service sectors were 3.1%, 52.1%, 44.8%, respectively. [12]

Transportation

An important traffic hub of Shandong province, Zibo enjoys convenient transportation. The Jiaoji Railway, Zhangbo Railway, Zidong Railway and Xintai Railway intersect in Zibo. Jiqing Expressway and Binlai Expressway pass through the city, connecting every county and district. The center of Zibo is only 70 km (43 mi) away from the Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport, 210 km (130 mi) away from the Qingdao Liuting International Airport and 260 km (160 mi) away from the Qingdao Seaport.

Railway

Zibo Railway Station Zibo Railway Station.jpg
Zibo Railway Station

37 railway stations in large and small sizes are in service nowadays. Zibo Railway Station, lying on the Jiaozhou–Jinan and Zibo–Dongying Railways, is among the busiest railway stations in Shandong province. As of 1 July 2009, Zibo Railway Station has 103 trains stopping daily. [13] If you catch a multiple unit train at Zibo Railway Station, it will only take you 1 hour to Jinan, 2 hours to Qingdao and 4 hours to Beijing.

Freeways and highways

Mass transit

Mass transit in the region is provided by bus services. More than 2,500 large and medium-sized diesel buses, CNG buses are serving over 250 routes. [14] With a "Qikatong" card traveling by bus in the downtown area, passengers could get a discount of 10% to 40%. Now Zibo is undergoing restructuring of its public transit system, aiming at intensive management of higher efficiency and more professional service. Full-electric buses and taxis are now incorporated into daily operations.

Education

Zibo is a national "advanced city invigorating itself through science and technology", "cultural model city" and "technology-intensive area". Within the city's boundaries, 443,000 (data of 2008) students from Grade 1 to Grade 9 are taught in 379 primary schools and 169 middle schools respectively under the compulsory education system, which belongs to a bigger education system of the nation. School districts are divided according to both neighborhoods and administrative districts. The number of high schools is 42. [15]

There are 14 institutions of higher education. Among them the Shandong University of Technology and Wanjie Medical College are able to offer the bachelor's degree, the rest being vocational universities. There are also postgraduate education and PhD programs in Shandong University of Technology. The education system of Zibo offers more than 30 key majors, including mechanics, electronics and informatics, biological pharmacological science, textile and clothes and logistics, and can provide local enterprises with 30,000 specialized technical personnel every year.

Sister cities

Related Research Articles

Shandong Province of China

Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region.

Jinan Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Jinan is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. With a population of was 6.8 million as of the 2010 census, it is the second-largest city in Shandong after Qingdao. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub. The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994. Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.

Weifang Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Weifang is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, People's Republic of China. The city borders Dongying to the northwest, Zibo to the west, Linyi to the southwest, Rizhao to the south, Qingdao to the east, and looks out to the Laizhou Bay to the north. Its population was 9,086,241 at the 2010 census, of whom 2,659,938 lived in the built-up area made up of four urban districts and Changle County largely being urbanized.

Taian Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in Western Shandong Province of the People's Republic of China. Centered on Mount Tai, the city borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the north, Zibo to the east, Linyi to the southeast, Liaocheng to the extreme west and Jining to the south. To the west, Tai'an is separated from the province of Henan by the Yellow River.

Zhangdian District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Zhangdian is the central urban district of Zibo city in Shandong province, China. It covers an area of 244 square kilometres (94 sq mi), including a built-up area of 71 square kilometres (27 sq mi). It governs six towns, six subdistricts, 113 administrative villages, and 90 neighborhood committees. It has a registered population of 622,000, including an urban population of 480,400.

Zichuan District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

The Zichuan District is one of eight divisions within the city of Zibo in the Chinese province of Shandong. As the largest district of Zibo, it is composed of an urban area of over 23 square kilometers, and 17 towns that administer vast rural areas, almost 1,000 square kilometers in total. Zichuan is an important industrial center of Shandong.

Linzi District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Linzi District is a district of the prefecture-level city of Zibo, in central Shandong province, China. Located near the Shengli Oil Field, Linzi's economy is driven by petro-chemical refinery. Wheat, corn and cotton are cultivated in the rural areas surrounding the urban center.

Shandong cuisine Branch of Chinese traditional cuisine native to Shandong province

Shandong cuisine, more commonly known in Chinese as Lu cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine and one of the Four Great Traditions (四大菜系). It is derived from the native cooking style of Shandong Province, a northern coastal province of China.

Boshan District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Boshan is the southernmost district of the city of Zibo, in central Shandong province, China.

Great Wall of Qi

The Great Wall of Qi is the oldest existing Great Wall in China. Construction of the wall started in 441 BC by the state of Qi, to defend itself against attacks from the states of Jin and Yue. Construction ended during the Warring States period and became Qi's defense against enemies states like Jin, Lu, and Chu. The wall stretches from the areas under the administration of the present-day city of Jinan to the present-day city of Qingdao across the territories of the present-day cities of Tai'an, Zibo, Laiwu, Weifang, Linyi, and Rizhao. Its total length has been estimated at about 600 kilometers. Most of the wall is still able to be seen.

The Qingdao–Jinan railway or Jiaoji Railway is a railway in Shandong Province, China. The railway is 393 km in length and connects Qingdao, on the Jiaozhou Bay, and Jinan, the provincial capital of Shandong. Adolph von Hansemann and other German financiers funded construction of the railway, then known as Schantung Eisenbahn Gesellschaft, which began September 23, 1899, and was completed in 1904. Since the quadruple tracking of this corridor with the opening of the parallel Qingdao–Jinan passenger railway the line is mostly used for freight with some conventional passenger services.

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim (BBER) is the economic region surrounding Tianjin (Tientsin). It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of North China, rivaling both the Pearl River Delta in southern China and the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China.

The people of Shandong province or Shandong people refers to those who are native to Shandong province, the majority (99%) of whom are Han Chinese (100,000,000). They speak various forms of Mandarin dialects such as Jilu, Jiaoliao, and Zhongyuan. There is a small Shandong community in Singapore and Malaysia. Nine-tenths of the early overseas Chinese in Korea also came from Shandong. Minority groups include the Hui and the Manchus. Shandong citizens are also known to have the tallest average height of any Chinese province. As of 2010, 16-to 18-year-old male students in Yantai measured 176.4 cm (5'9.5), while female students measured 164 cm (5'4.5).

White Cloud Lake

White Cloud Lake is a lake in the county-level City of Zhangqiu, City of Jinan, Shandong Province, China. It is located about 35 kilometers to the east of the city center of Jinan proper, about halfway between Jinan and the City of Zibo, right to north of the Jiqing Expressway.

Shandong Hi-Speed Group Corporation or Shandong Gaosu Group, (SDHS), is a solely state-owned enterprise in Jinan, China, owned by the Shandong Provincial People's Government. It is mainly engaged in investment, construction and operation of highways, expressways, bridges, railways, rail transits, harbours, shipping and logistics. It also sets foot in construction, building material, information, financing, real estate and other sectors related to its main business. In June 2011, SDHS opened the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge spanning more than 40 kilometers between Qingdao and Huangdao District in Shandong, making it the longest cross-sea bridge in the world.

G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway

The Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway, commonly referred to as the Qingyin Expressway is an expressway that connects the cities of Qingdao, Shandong, China, and Yinchuan, Ningxia. It is 1,600 km (990 mi) in length.

The Zibo–Dongying railway or Zidong railway, also called the Zhangdian–Dongying railway or Zhangdong railway, is a railroad in Shandong Province of northern China, between Zibo and Dongying. The railway has a total length of 91 kilometres (57 mi). and was completed in 1972. The line branches off of the Jiaozhou–Jinan railway at the Zhangdian station near Zibo. Major cities and towns along route include Zibo, Boxing County, and Dongying. The railway now runs only one pair of passenger transporting line: Dongying–Jinan intercity line.

Weifang railway station

The Weifang railway station is a railway station found in Weicheng District, a part of Weifang City, Shandong. It currently lies on the Qingdao–Jinan passenger railway(running CRH and passenger trains) and Qingdao–Jinan railway(running cargo trains and some passenger trains which give ways to CRH).

Qing Province

Qingzhou or Qing Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China dating back to c. 2070 BCE that later became one of the thirteen provinces of the Han dynasty. The Nine Provinces were first described in the Tribute of Yu chapter of the classic Book of Documents, with Qingzhou lying to the east of Yuzhou and north of Yangzhou. Qingzhou's primary territory included most of modern Shandong province except the southwest corner.

The Rizhao–Qufu passenger railway is a passenger-dedicated line (PDL) in Shandong, China. It opened on 26 November 2019, connecting the port of Rizhao on the Yellow Sea coast with Qufu, home of Confucius and a major tourist destination.

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