Zina Weygand (born April 23 1945) is a French historian and emeritus researcher at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. She obtained her PhD from University Paris 1 in 1998.
|Born||23 April 1945 (age 75)|
Weygand is a specialist of disability history, especially the history of blind people in France from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. She is part of the Annales School, and her scholarship focuses on the history of individual and collective representations of blindness, organisations supporting blind people, and the pedagogical techniques developed for blind pupils during the 18th and 19th century.
She was born in Paris.
Weygand has extensively published about the history of education for blind people. In her history of blind people in France, she examines the evolution of collective perceptions of blind people, from duplicitous beggars or powerless people needing Christian charity in the Middle Ages, to educable subjects in the late 18th century . She argues the interest of Enlightenment philosophers for the mechanisms of perception (especially John Locke and Denis Diderot) has driven the support of French philanthropists, enabling Valentin Haüy to open the first school for the blind.
Weygand has also published long-forgotten memoirs and archives, such as the memoir of Thérèse-Adèle Husson, enabling scholars to better understand experiences of blind people of the past.
Content in this edit is partially translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at Zina Weygand; see its history for attribution.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired. It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille users can read computer screens and other electronic supports using refreshable braille displays. They can write braille with the original slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such as a portable braille notetaker or computer that prints with a braille embosser.
Louis Braille was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains virtually unchanged to this day, and is known worldwide simply as braille.
Pierre Émile Levasseur, 3rd Baron Levasseur, was a French economist, historian, Professor of geography, history and statistics in the Collège de France, at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and at the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, known as the founders and promoters of the study of commercial geography.
André Sainte-Laguë was a French mathematician who was a pioneer in the area of graph theory. His research on seat allocation methods led to one being named after him, the Sainte-Laguë method. Also named after him is the Sainte-Laguë Index for measuring the proportionality of an electoral outcome.
A rotary printing press is a printing press in which the images to be printed are curved around a cylinder. Printing can be done on various substrates, including paper, cardboard, and plastic. Substrates can be sheet feed or unwound on a continuous roll through the press to be printed and further modified if required. Printing presses that use continuous rolls are sometimes referred to as "web presses".
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public.
The Musée des Arts et Métiers is an industrial design museum in Paris that houses the collection of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, which was founded in 1794 as a repository for the preservation of scientific instruments and inventions.
The subject of blindness and education has included evolving approaches and public perceptions of how best to address the special needs of blind students. The practice of institutionalizing the blind in asylums has a history extending back over a thousand years, but it was not until the 18th century that authorities created schools for them where blind children, particularly those more privileged, were usually educated in such specialized settings. These institutions provided simple vocational and adaptive training, as well as grounding in academic subjects offered through alternative formats. Literature, for example, was being made available to blind students by way of embossed Roman letters.
Valentin Haüy was the founder, in 1785, of the first school for the blind, the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. In 1819, Louis Braille entered this school.
Mélanie de Salignac was a young French woman whose achievements in the face of her disability - blindness - were mentioned in the accounts of Diderot. She was born blind long before the invention of Braille in 1829, but taught herself to read using cut out card letters and achieved much more through her sense of touch. Diderot wrote about her achievements in his "Addition to the Letter on the Blind". She was born at the Château de Mons (Charente-Maritime), the daughter of financier Pierre Vallet de Salignac (d.1760) and Marie-Jeanne Élisabeth Volland, elder sister of Sophie Volland. Her older brother was the politician Nicolas-Thérèse Vallet de Salignac.
Institut National des Jeunes Aveugles,, in Paris, was the first special school for blind students in the world, and served as a model for many subsequent schools for blind students.
Born into an upper-middle-class family in 1803, Thérèse-Adèle Husson was a French writer in the post-Revolutionary period. At the age of nine months, she became blind as a result of smallpox. She wrote more than a dozen children's novels. She also wrote an autobiography, dictated to two different writers, which was sent to the director of the Quinze-Vingts Hospital in 1825. This autobiography was later discovered by Zina Weygand in the hospital's archives, and with the assistance of Catherine Kudlick, Weygand translated the work and published it as Reflections: The Life and Writings of a Young Blind Woman in Post-Revolutionary France. The book is known for being the first French-language book by a blind person about blindness. Husson died in 1831 following severe burns received when her apartment caught on fire.
Joséphine Pauline Boulay was a French organist, composer and professor.
Louis Braille's original publication, Procedure for Writing Words, Music, and Plainsong in Dots (1829), credits Barbier's night writing as being the basis for the braille script. It differed in a fundamental way from modern braille: It contained nine decades (series) of characters rather than the modern five, utilizing dashes as well as dots. Braille recognized, however, that the dashes were problematic, being difficult to distinguish from the dots in practice, and those characters were abandoned in the second edition of the book.
The Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital,, is France's national ophthalmology hospital located in Paris, in the 12th arrondissement. The hospital gave its name to the Quinze-Vingts quarter.
Catherine J. Kudlick is a professor of history and director of the Paul K. Longmore Institute on Disability at San Francisco State University. She is also an affiliated professor in the Laboratoire ICT Université Paris VII.
Pierre-François-Victor Foucault (1797–1871) was the inventor in 1843 of the first printing machine for braille, the decapoint.
The Decadary Cult or Tenth-day Cult was a semi-official religion of France during the Directory period of the French Revolution, intended to offer a non-Christian alternative after the dechristianisation of the country. It replaced the Christian Sunday worship with a quasi-religious festival on the day of rest in the 10-day week of the French Republican Calendar.
Dr. Bulusu S. S. Krishna Chaitanya is an Indian engineer, researcher and academic from Yanam, Puducherry, India. He is assistant professor of Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Hyderabad.
Hannah Jane Thompson is a British academic and professor of French and critical disability studies at Royal Holloway, University of London. Her research focuses primarily on 19th and 20th century French literature, especially the novel.