Znojmo

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Znojmo

Znaim
Town
Znojmo-Nicholas Square.jpg
St Nicholas' Church
Znojmo vlajka.gif
Flag
Znojmo znak.png
Coat of arms
Relief Map of Czech Republic.png
Red pog.svg
Znojmo
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 48°51′20″N16°2′56″E / 48.85556°N 16.04889°E / 48.85556; 16.04889 Coordinates: 48°51′20″N16°2′56″E / 48.85556°N 16.04889°E / 48.85556; 16.04889
Country Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Region South Moravia
District Znojmo
Founded1222-1225
Government
  MayorJan Grois
Area
  Total65.93 km2 (25.46 sq mi)
Elevation
290 m (950 ft)
Population
 (2019-01-01 [1] )
  Total33,780
  Density510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
669 02
Website www.znojmocity.cz

Znojmo (Czech pronunciation: [ˈznoimo] ; German : Znaim) is a major town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of the Znojmo District. It is the historical and cultural centre of southwestern Moravia and the second largest city in the South Moravian Region.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to the German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

South Moravian Region Region in Czech Republic

The South Moravian Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia. Its capital is Brno, the 2nd largest city in the Czech Republic. It is bordered by the South Bohemian Region (west), Vysočina Region (north-west), Pardubice Region (north), Olomouc Region, Zlín Region (east), Trenčín and Trnava Regions, Slovakia and Lower Austria, Austria (south).

Czech Republic Country in Central Europe

The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west and northwest, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east, and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic is a landlocked country with a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,866 square kilometers (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents; other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen.

Contents

Geography

Znojmo Castle Znojmo-rotunda-svKateriny2009d.jpg
Znojmo Castle

The town is situated on a rock outcropping on the steep left bank of the Thaya (Dyje) River, about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of the regional capital Brno. Located near the border with Austria, it is connected to Vienna by railway and road (about 80 minutes).

Thaya river in Central Europe

The Thaya is a river in Central Europe, the longest tributary to the Morava River. It is 224 km (139 mi) long and meanders from west to east in the border area between Lower Austria (Austria) and South Moravia, though the frontier does not exactly follow the river's course in most parts. Its source is in two smaller rivers, namely the German Thaya and the Moravian Thaya, flowing together at Raabs.

Brno Statutory city in Moravia, Czech Republic

Brno is a city in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Located at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers, Brno has about 400,000 inhabitants, making it the second-largest city in the Czech Republic after the capital, Prague.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising nine federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly nine million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is landlocked and highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

History

A fortress at the site possibly already existed during the time of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th century. From about 1055, Znojmo Castle served as the residence of a Přemyslid principality within the Bohemian March of Moravia and a strategic important outpost near the border with the Bavarian March of Austria in the south. Few years later (1101), Luitpold of Znojmo, Duke of Moravia, established Ducal Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine in this castle, later depicted by unique scene of genealogy Bohemian and Moravian Dukes of the Přemyslid dynasty and the castle was conquered and devastated by Duke Vladislaus II of Bohemia in 1145.

Great Moravia 9th century Slavic state

Great Moravia, the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Serbia (Vojvodina). The only formation preceding it in these territories was Samo's Empire known from between 631 and 658 AD. Great Moravia was thus the first joint state of the Slavonic tribes that became later known as Czechs and Slovaks and that later formed Czechoslovakia.

Znojmo Castle

Znojmo Castle is a castle in the city of Znojmo, a historic city in Moravia, Czech Republic.

Přemyslid dynasty dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland, Hungary, and Austria.

In 1190, Duke Conrad II of Bohemia founded the Premonstratensian Louka Abbey at Znojmo, which became the settlement area of German-speaking immigrants in the course of the medieval Ostsiedlung movement. The royal city of Znojmo was founded shortly before 1226 by King Ottokar I of Bohemia on the plains in front of the reconstructed castle. The town privileges were confirmed by King Rudolf I of Germany in 1278. On 9 December 1437 the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund died at Znojmo and lay in state for three days at the St. Nicholas Church, before his mortal remains were transferred to Nagyvárad (Oradea) in Hungary.

Conrad II, Duke of Bohemia Duke of Bohemia

Conrad II Otto, a member of Přemyslid dynasty, was the first Margrave of Moravia from 1182 to 1189 and Duke of Bohemia from 1189 until his death.

Premonstratensians Roman Catholic order

The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons, are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg. Premonstratensians are designated by O.Praem. following their name.

<i><i lang="de" title="German language text">Ostsiedlung</i></i>

Ostsiedlung, in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics. The affected area roughly stretched from Estonia in the north all the way to Slovenia in the south and extended into Transylvania, modern-day Romania in the east. In part, Ostsiedlung followed the territorial expansion of the Empire and the Teutonic Order.

From the 19th Century, Znojmo is best known as the site for the Armistice of Znaim concluded there on 12 July 1809 during the Battle of Znaim, after the decisive 7 days earlier Battle of Wagram, between Emperor Napoleon and the archduke Charles.

The Armistice of Znaim was a ceasefire agreed between Archduke Charles and Napoleon I on 12 July 1809 following the Battle of Znaim, effectively ending hostilities between Austria and France in the War of the Fifth Coalition.

Battle of Wagram battle

The Battle of Wagram was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France.

From the 20th Century, it is also the (alleged) birthplace of Leopold Loyka, the driver of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand's car when Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo during 1914, an event which triggered the First World War. After the war, it was part of Czechoslovakia, except during the Nazi German occupation between 1938 and 1945 when it was part of Reichsgau Niederdonau . The German Citizens were expelled in 1945 according to the Beneš decrees.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Austrian archduke and crown prince

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia, which in turn triggered a series of events that eventually led to Austria-Hungary's allies and Serbia's declaring war on each other, starting World War I.

Czechoslovakia 1918–1992 country in Central Europe, predecessor of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

The birthplace of the sculptor Hugo Lederer and writer Charles Sealsfield, it also has a special co-operation relation with Harderwijk, Netherlands.

Znojmo Town Hall Tower Znojmo-Town Hall Tower.jpg
Znojmo Town Hall Tower

Main sights

The Gothic Church of St. Nicholas and the Late Gothic Town Hall tower are the most recognizable landmarks. St Nicolas` Church was built in 1348 by Emperor Charles IV, and the town hall, with its 75 m (250 ft) tower, dates from around 1446. [2]

Overlooking the Dyje River valley, on the edge of the medieval city, there is Znojmo Castle, dating back to 11th century, founded by Přemyslid dukes. [3] The only remains of the castle used by the Přemysl dukes is the Romanesque Rotunda of Saint Catherine, the interior of which is covered with 11th-century frescoes depicting biblical scenes and illustrating the life of Přemysl. [4]

Under the city and castle is a vast labyrinth of connected passageways and cellars, Znojmo Catacombs, developed in the 14th and 15th century for defensive purposes and containing wells, drainage, fireplaces, trap doors and escapeways that led beyond the fortifications of the city. [5] [6]

Agriculture, viticulture and nature

Znojmo is famous for local production of cucumber s, pickled in the original sweet-sour and spicy pickle, whose cultivation in the Znojmo region was introduced in 1571 by Louka monastery Abbot George II, coming from North Bohemian village Čepirohy. The special taste is also the result of local type of cucumbers, cultivation method, soil, climatic conditions, processing and also the packaging in which they are kept. These are also an ingredient of local specialties such as Znojmo roast or Znojmo goulash. Nowadays, the cucumber festivals are held in the town every year.

Thanks to favorable climatic conditions, the town is successful also in winery and fruit growing. It is the center of viticulture of the Znojmo wine-growing sub-region and a destination for nature lovers, mainly thanks to the newly established National Park "Podyjí".

Znojmo Catacombs Znojmo-The Underground Passages 1.jpg
Znojmo Catacombs
Column commemorating the plague Znaimer Altstadt2.jpg
Column commemorating the plague
Flood in 2006 Flood in Znojmo (2006) 1.jpg
Flood in 2006

Sport

1. SC Znojmo FK is a local football club which plays in the Moravian–Silesian Football League (3rd tier of the Czech football league system).

Orli Znojmo is a local ice hockey club playing the Austrian Hockey League (also known as the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga, or EBEL)

Culture

Znojmo is well known for its wine festival that takes place every September. The main atraction of the festival is a historical parade celebrating comming of the king John of Bohemia.

Notable people

Twin towns — sister cities

Znojmo is twinned with: [7]

Related Research Articles

Moravia Historical land in Czech Republic

Moravia is a historical region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire, later a crown land of the Austrian Empire and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Ottokar II of Bohemia Czech king and warrior

Ottokar II, the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He also held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and landgrave of Carniola from 1269.

Czech lands

The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918 and the Czech Republic since 1 January 1969, which became independent on 1 January 1993.

Duchy of Bohemia

The Duchy of Bohemia, also later referred to in English as the Czech Duchy, was a monarchy and a principality of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages. It was formed around 870 by Czechs as part of the Great Moravian realm. The Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895.

Bořivoj I, Duke of Bohemia Duke of Bohemia (9th century)

Bořivoj I was the first historically documented Duke of Bohemia and progenitor of the Přemyslid dynasty. His reign over the Duchy of Bohemia is believed to have started about the year 870, but in this era Bohemia was subordinated to Great Moravia. One of the most important clues to the approximate time of his accession is the contemporary Frankish chronicle Annales Fuldenses, which mentions several West Slavic princes in the year 872, among them one Goriwei, who may be identical with Bořivoj.

Coat of arms of the Czech Republic coat of arms

The coat of arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions—the Czech lands—which make up the nation. The current coat of arms, which was adopted in 1992, was designed by Czech heraldist Jiří Louda.

The history of Moravia, one of the Czech lands, is diverse and characterized by many periods of foreign governance.

Nezamysl was the first of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into most historical works up into the 19th century, including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia (1836).

Mnata was the second of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl, the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into the most of historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia.

Vnislav Bohemian mythical prince

Vnislav was the fourth of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into the most of historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia.

Margraviate of Moravia

The Margraviate of Moravia was one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.

Ulrich I, Duke of Brno Czech prince

Ulrich I, Duke of Brno was the Duke of Moravia for twenty one years - between 1092 and 1113. He was the first son and successor of Conrad I, of Brno and Wirpirk of Tengling. He did not succeed as half ruler of Moravia (diarch), for all half of Moravia as his father Conrad I, but Brno was divided into two parts: Brno and Znojmo and Ulrich was co-ruler in this part with his brother Luitpold of Znojmo. Both brothers together established a benedictine cloister and its St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč and prepared as mausoleum for Brno-Znojmo branch House of Přemyslid.

Luitpold of Znojmo, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, ruled as Moravian duke of Znojmo for twenty years - from 1092 until his death.

National symbols of the Czech Republic

The national symbols of the Czech Republic are flags, heraldry, cultural expressions and other symbols that represent the Czech Republic, Czech people and their history, culture and nationhood. There are six official symbols which are declared in the Constitution of the Czech Republic. However many other historical, cultural and geographical symbols of the Czech republic and Czech people do exist.

Conrad II of Znojmo

Conrad II of Znojmo, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was a Bohemian prince who ruled in the Moravian principality of Znojmo from 1123 to 1128 and again from 1134 until his death.

References

  1. "Population of municipalities of the Czech republic". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  2. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  3. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  4. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  5. http://www.istudio.cz, iStudio s.r.o. -. "Underground in Znojmo - Top Výletní cíle jižní Morava". www.vyletnicile.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  6. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  7. "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Znojmo. Retrieved 2019-08-21.