Znojmo

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Znojmo

Znaim
Town
Znojmo-Nicholas Square.jpg
St Nicholas' Church
Znojmo vlajka.gif
Flag
Znojmo znak.png
Coat of arms
Relief Map of Czech Republic.png
Red pog.svg
Znojmo
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 48°51′20″N16°2′56″E / 48.85556°N 16.04889°E / 48.85556; 16.04889 Coordinates: 48°51′20″N16°2′56″E / 48.85556°N 16.04889°E / 48.85556; 16.04889
Country Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Region South Moravia
District Znojmo
Founded1222-1225
Government
  MayorJan Grois
Area
  Total65.93 km2 (25.46 sq mi)
Elevation
290 m (950 ft)
Population
(2019-01-01 [1] )
  Total33,780
  Density510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
669 02
Website www.znojmocity.cz

Znojmo (Czech pronunciation: [ˈznoimo] ; German : Znaim) is a major town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of the Znojmo District. It is the historical and cultural centre of southwestern Moravia.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

South Moravian Region Region in Czech Republic

The South Moravian Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia. Its capital is Brno, the 2nd largest city in the Czech Republic. The region has 1,169,000 inhabitants and the total area of 7,196.5 km². It is bordered by the South Bohemian Region (west), Vysočina Region (north-west), Pardubice Region (north), Olomouc Region, Zlín Region (east), Trenčín and Trnava Regions, Slovakia and Lower Austria, Austria (south).

Czech Republic Country in Central Europe

The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

Contents

Geography

Znojmo Castle Znojmo-rotunda-svKateriny2009d.jpg
Znojmo Castle

The town is situated on a rock outcropping on the steep left bank of the Thaya (Dyje) River, about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of the regional capital Brno. Located near the border with Austria, it is connected to Vienna by railway and road (about 80 minutes).

Thaya river in Central Europe

The Thaya is a river in Central Europe, the longest tributary to the Morava River. It is 224 km (139 mi) long and meanders from west to east in the border area between Lower Austria (Austria) and South Moravia, though the frontier does not exactly follow the river's course in most parts. Its source is in two smaller rivers, namely the German Thaya and the Moravian Thaya, flowing together at Raabs.

Brno Statutory city in Moravia, Czech Republic

Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district. The city lies at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers and has about 400,000 inhabitants; its greater metropolitan area is home to more than 800,000 people while its larger urban zone had a population of about 730,000 in 2004.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

History

A fortress at the site possibly already existed during the time of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th century. From about 1055, Znojmo Castle served as the residence of a Přemyslid principality within the Bohemian March of Moravia and a strategic important outpost near the border with the Bavarian March of Austria in the south. Few years later (1101), Luitpold of Znojmo, Duke of Moravia, established Ducal Rotunda of the Virgin Mary and St Catherine in this castle, later depicted by unique scene of genealogy Bohemian and Moravian Dukes of the Přemyslid dynasty and the castle was conquered and devastated by Duke Vladislaus II of Bohemia in 1145.

Great Moravia 9th century Slavic state

Great Moravia, the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Serbia (Vojvodina). The only formation preceding it in these territories was Samo's Empire known from between 631 and 658 AD. Great Moravia was thus the first joint state of the Slavonic tribes that became later known as Czechs and Slovaks and that later formed Czechoslovakia.

Znojmo Castle

Znojmo Castle is a castle situated in the city of Znojmo, a historic city in Moravia, Czech Republic.

Přemyslid dynasty dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland, Hungary, and Austria.

In 1190, Duke Conrad II of Bohemia founded the Premonstratensian Louka Abbey at Znojmo, which became the settlement area of German-speaking immigrants in the course of the medieval Ostsiedlung movement. The royal city of Znojmo was founded shortly before 1226 by King Ottokar I of Bohemia on the plains in front of the reconstructed castle. The town privileges were confirmed by King Rudolf I of Germany in 1278. On 9 December 1437 the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund died at Znojmo and lied in state for three days at the St. Nicholas Church, before his mortal remains were transferred to Nagyvárad (Oradea) in Hungary.

Conrad II, Duke of Bohemia Duke of Bohemia

Conrad II Otto, a member of Přemyslid dynasty, was the first Margrave of Moravia from 1182 to 1189 and Duke of Bohemia from 1189 until his death.

Premonstratensians Roman Catholic order

The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons, are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg. Premonstratensians are designated by O.Praem. following their name.

<i><i lang="de" title="German language text">Ostsiedlung</i></i>

Ostsiedlung, in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics. The affected area roughly stretched from Estonia in the north all the way to Slovenia in the south and extended into Transylvania, modern-day Romania in the east. In part, Ostsiedlung followed the territorial expansion of the Empire and the Teutonic Order.

From the 19th Century, Znojmo is best known as the site for the Armistice of Znaim concluded there on 12 July 1809 during the Battle of Znaim, after the decisive 7 days earlier Battle of Wagram, between Emperor Napoleon and the archduke Charles.

The Armistice of Znaim was a ceasefire agreed between Archduke Charles and Napoleon I on 12 July 1809 following the Battle of Znaim, effectively ending hostilities between Austria and France in the War of the Fifth Coalition.

Battle of Wagram battle

The Battle of Wagram was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France.

From the 20th Century, it is also the (alleged) birthplace of Leopold Loyka, the driver of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand's car when Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo during 1914, an event which triggered the First World War. After the war, it was part of Czechoslovakia, except during the Nazi German occupation between 1938 and 1945 when it was part of Reichsgau Niederdonau . The German Citizens were expelled in 1945 according to the Beneš decrees.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Austrian archduke and crown prince

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este was a member of the imperial Habsburg dynasty, and from 1896 until his death the heir presumptive (Thronfolger) to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia, which in turn triggered a series of events that resulted in Austria-Hungary's allies and Serbia's declaring war on each other, starting World War I.

Czechoslovakia 1918–1992 country in Central Europe, predecessor of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

The birthplace of the sculptor Hugo Lederer and writer Charles Sealsfield, it also has a special co-operation relation with Harderwijk, Netherlands.

Znojmo Town Hall Tower Znojmo-Town Hall Tower.jpg
Znojmo Town Hall Tower

Main sights

The Gothic Church of St. Nicholas and the Late Gothic Town Hall tower are the most recognizable landmarks. St Nicolas` Church was built in 1348 by Emperor Charles IV, and the town hall, with its 75 m (250 ft) tower, dates from around 1446. [2]

Overlooking the Dyje River valley, on the edge of the medieval city, there is Znojmo Castle, dating back to 11th century, founded by Přemyslid dukes. [3] The only remains of the castle used by the Přemysl dukes is the Romanesque Rotunda of Saint Catherine, the interior of which is covered with 11th-century frescoes depicting biblical scenes and illustrating the life of Přemysl. [4]

Under the city and castle is a vast labyrinth of connected passageways and cellars, Znojmo Catacombs, developed in the 14th and 15th century for defensive purposes and containing wells, drainage, fireplaces, trap doors and escapeways that led beyond the fortifications of the city. [5] [6]

Znojmo Catacombs Znojmo-The Underground Passages 1.jpg
Znojmo Catacombs
Column commemorating the plague Znaimer Altstadt2.jpg
Column commemorating the plague
Flood in 2006 Flood in Znojmo (2006) 1.jpg
Flood in 2006

Notable residents

Václav Prokop Diviš (26 March 1698 – 25 December 1765) was a Czech priest, theologian and natural scientist, pioneer in the field of electricity and the constructor of the first electric musical instrument Denis d'or.

St. Clement Mary Hofbauer, C.Ss.R., (born Johannes Hofbauer) (1751-1820) a Redemptorist priest and a patron saint of Vienna, who served as an apprentice baker in this city in his youth.

Petr Rosol (born in Znojmo on June 20, 1964) - former Czech ice hockey player, representing Czechoslovakia in World Ice Hockey Championships, bronze medalist from the 1992 Winter Olympic Games. Played for Calgary Flames in NHL.

Michal Ordoš (born in Znojmo on January 27, 1983) - Czech football player, played in two Czech national team matches.

Květoslav Svoboda (born in Znojmo on 25 August 1982) - former Czech swimmer, took part in many competitions including the Olympic Games 2000, 2004 and 2008.

Jiří Orság (born in Znojmo on January 5, 1989) - Czech professional weightlifter, winner of 2011 European Weightlifting Championships, competed in the Olympic Games 2012 and 2016.

Jitka Schneiderová (born in Znojmo on March 23, 1973) - famous Czech actress, studied at Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts.

Twin towns – sister cities

Znojmo is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Moravia Historical land in Czech Republic

Moravia is a historical region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire, later a crown land of the Austrian Empire and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Duchy of Bohemia

The Duchy of Bohemia, also later referred to in english as the Czech Duchy, was a monarchy and a principality of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages. It was formed around 870 by Czechs as part of the Great Moravian realm. The Bohemian lands separated from disintegrating Moravia after Duke Spytihněv swore fidelity to the East Frankish king Arnulf in 895.

Neklan was the sixth of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into the most of historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia. According to the Chronicle of Dalimil, Neklan had two sons, Hostivít and Děpolt.

The history of Moravia, one of the Czech lands, is diverse and characterized by many periods of foreign governance.

Nezamysl was the first of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into most historical works up into the 19th century, including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia (1836).

Mnata was the second of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl, the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into the most of historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia.

Vojen Mythical Bohemian prince

Vojen was the third of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into the most of historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia.

Vnislav Bohemian mythical prince

Vnislav was the fourth of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into the most of historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia.

Křesomysl was the fifth of the seven Bohemian mythical princes between the founder of the Přemyslid dynasty Přemysl the Ploughman and the first historical prince Bořivoj. The names of the princes were first recorded in Cosmas chronicle and then transmitted into most of the historical books of the 19th century including František Palacký's The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia.

Znojmo Rotunda church building in Q56415461, Czech Republic

The Rotunda of St. Catherine, known as the Znojmo Rotunda, is a Romanesque rotunda located in Znojmo, Czech Republic. It is the town's most valuable monument, and features one of the oldest fresco compositions in the Czech lands. Besides the religious motives, of particular importance is the praising portrayal of the ruling Přemyslid dynasty.

Margraviate of Moravia

The Margraviate of Moravia was one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.

Ulrich I, Duke of Brno Czech prince

Ulrich I, Duke of Brno was the Duke of Moravia for twenty one years - between 1092 and 1113. He was the first son and successor of Conrad I, of Brno and Wirpirk of Tengling. He did not succeed as half ruler of Moravia (diarch), for all half of Moravia as his father Conrad I, but Brno was divided into two parts: Brno and Znojmo and Ulrich was co-ruler in this part with his brother Luitpold of Znojmo. Both brothers together established a benedictine cloister and its St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč and prepared as mausoleum for Brno-Znojmo branch House of Přemyslid.

Luitpold of Znojmo, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, ruled as Moravian duke of Znojmo for twenty years - from 1092 until his death.

National symbols of the Czech Republic

The national symbols of the Czech Republic are flags, heraldry, cultural expressions and other symbols that represent the Czech Republic, Czech people and their history, culture and nationhood. There are six official symbols which are declared in the Constitution of the Czech Republic. However many other historical, cultural and geographical symbols of the Czech republic and Czech people do exist.

Conrad II of Znojmo

Conrad II of Znojmo, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was a Bohemian prince who ruled in the Moravian principality of Znojmo from 1123 to 1128 and again from 1134 until his death.

Wratislaus of Brno, Duke of Moravia, was the Duke of Moravia for twenty years - between 1125-1129 and 1130 - 1146 ). He was the first son and successor of Ulrich I, of Brno (+1092) and unknown princess. He did not succeed as half monarch of Moravia (diarch), for all half of Moravia as his father Ulrich I, but Brno was already divided into two parts: Brno and Znojmo and his father Ulrich was co-monarch in this part with his uncle Luitpold of Znojmo. Both brothers together later established a benedictine cloister and its St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč and prepared as mausoleum for Brno-Znojmo branch House of Přemyslid. Wratislaus himself probably initiated the establishment of the Royal cathedral chapter of St. Peter and Paul in Brno, formally created later in 1292. He had long ruled over Moravia for 20 years, once interrupted by illegitimate regency: By his marriage(1132) to a Russian princess, he probably had two children:

References

  1. "Population of municipalities of the Czech republic". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  2. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  3. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  4. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  5. http://www.istudio.cz, iStudio s.r.o. -. "Underground in Znojmo - Top Výletní cíle jižní Morava". www.vyletnicile.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  6. Beseda, Znojemská. "Znojemská Beseda". www.znojemskabeseda.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-24.

Sources

  1. "Czech Statistical Office Document".