The zone interdite (Forbidden Zone) refers to two distinct territories established in German–occupied France during the Second World War after the signature of the Second Armistice at Compiègne, namely, a coastal military zone running along the entire Atlantic coast of France from Spain to Belgium, and the zone réservée ("Zone Reserved") in the northeast, intended for German settlement.
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A zone of restricted access to civilians was established to increase the security of the Atlantic wall. It was 20 km wide and ran along the Atlantic coast from Dunkirk to Hendaye. It was administered by the military administration in Northern France and Belgium (German : Militärverwaltung in Belgien und Nordfrankreich ) from Brussels.
A vast expanse of territory in northern and eastern parts of occupied France comprising a total of six départements and parts of four others running from the outlet of the Somme to the Swiss frontier in the Jurawas separated from the rest of the Occupied Zone by a demarcation line and was effectively isolated from the rest of France. The terms zone réservée and zone interdite were often used interchangeably, but some sources distinguish a smaller forbidden zone, comprising parts of Somme, Aisne and Ardennes départements, from the larger reserved zone. This extra demarcation line seems to have been theoretical only.
Although Adolf Hitler did not initially have plans of expanding territorially towards eastern France except for the return of the formerly German Alsace-Lorraine (even so he did not regard the acquiring of these provinces as a real benefit to Germany, telling Albert Speer his belief that they had become "racially worthless" after decades of French rule), the total German hegemony gained after the Battle of France now made it possible for him to plan the annexation of those regions of France deemed to possess strategic or economic advantage to Germany.
This was especially true with frontier regions the incorporation of which could be justified somehow on the basis of historical Franco-German borders.During the end of May 1940 (before the Armistice), Hitler instructed Wilhelm Stuckart, State Secretary in the Ministry of Interior to prepare suggestions for a new western frontier. A memorandum written on 14 June 1940 by Stuckart or someone in his vicinity in the Interior Ministry discusses the annexation of certain areas in Eastern France to the German Reich. The document presents a plan to weaken France by reducing the country to its late mediaeval borders with the Holy Roman Empire and replacing the French populace of the annexed territories with German settlers. This memorandum formed the basis for the so-called "North-east line" (also known as the "Black line" and the "Führer line"), which marked the territorial extent of the forbidden zone.
On 28 June 1940, the zone was closed, allegedly because of devastation caused by heavy fighting during the German campaign. million hectares of farmland. Land redistribution to German peasants was however not immediately possible because of the limited quantity of potential settlers, a problem exacerbated further by the ever-increasing manpower needs of the Wehrmacht. In any event, the German forces guarding the line were insufficient in number to prevent the return of the territory's inhabitants, and thus by the end of 1940 only about a million of them were still missing (amounting roughly to one-seventh of the pre-war population).The refugees who had fled the German advance during the Battle of France were not initially allowed to return to the territory, but passes were however gradually issued for workers in short-staffed occupations. After August 1940, the lands of farmers who had not returned to the zone were confiscated by the Ostdeutsche Landbewirtschaftungsgesellschaft ("East German Land Management Company") which managed confiscated Polish farmlands. The company used the name Westland in the forbidden zone, and by the summer of 1942 was managing some 4
After the commencement of Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, any lingering German ambitions to expand the Reich westward beyond annexation of Alsace-Lorraine and Luxembourg were, for all intents and purposes, abandoned. The war with the USSR brought the prospect of vast conquests in the East that would have taken decades (if not generations) to colonize. Hitler, who had always believed Germany's destiny lay in the east, basically lost whatever interest he had in diverting German settlers and resources from the East in an effort to colonize what he believed to be Germany's relatively "civilized" western neighbors. During the night of 17–18 December 1941, the German troops guarding the line were simply withdrawn, as the military commander of France Otto von Stülpnagel decided that diverting increasingly limited German manpower to guard a line that he deemed as being merely illusory (since most of the population had returned) could no longer be justified.Nevertheless, in theory the line continued to exist for the rest of the German occupation.
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department. Inhabitants of the department are known as Mosellans.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains. The Lorraine section was in the upper Moselle valley to the north of the Vosges.
Wilhelm Stuckart was a German Nazi Party lawyer, official and a State Secretary in the Reich Interior Ministry during the Nazi era. He was a co-author of the notorious Nuremberg Laws and was a participant in the infamous Wannsee Conference that formulated the Final Solution. He also served as Reichsminister of the Interior in the short-lived Flensburg government at the end of the Second World War.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36 near Compiègne, France, by officials of Nazi Germany and the Third French Republic. It did not come into effect until after midnight on 25 June.
Case Anton was the military occupation of France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942. It marked the end of the Vichy regime as a nominally-independent state and the disbanding of its army, but it continued its existence as a puppet government in Occupied France. One of the last actions of the Vichy armed forces before their dissolution was the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon to prevent it from falling into Axis hands.
The Gaue were the main administrative divisions of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Military Administration in France was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France. This so-called zone occupée was renamed zone nord in November 1942, when the previously unoccupied zone in the south known as zone libre was also occupied and renamed zone sud.
Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France and Monaco occupied by the Kingdom of Italy between 1940 and 1943 in parallel to the German occupation of France. The occupation had two phases, divided by Case Anton in November 1942 in which the Italian zone expanded significantly. Italian forces retreated from France in September 1943 in the aftermath of the fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, and German Wehrmacht forces occupied the abandoned areas until the Liberation.
The territorial changes of Germany include all changes in the borders and territory of Germany from its formation in 1871 to the present. Modern Germany was formed in 1871 when Otto von Bismarck unified most of the German states, with the notable exception of Austria, into the German Empire. After the First World War, Germany lost about 10% of its territory to its neighbours and the Weimar Republic was formed. This republic included territories to the east of today's German borders.
A political demarcation line is a geopolitical border, often agreed upon as part of an armistice or ceasefire.
The Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France was an interim occupation authority established during the Second World War by Nazi Germany that included present-day Belgium and the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. The administration was also responsible for governing the zone interdite, a narrow strip of territory running along the French northern and eastern borders. It remained in existence until July 1944. Plans to transfer Belgium from the military administration to a civilian administration were promoted by the SS, and Hitler had been ready to do so until Autumn 1942, when he put off the plans for what was intended to be temporary but ended up being permanent until the end of German occupation. The SS had suggested either Josef Terboven or Ernst Kaltenbrunner as the Reich Commissioner of the civilian administration.
The Gau Westmark was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. From 1925 to 1933, it was a regional subdivision of the Nazi Party.
Military occupations of France may refer to
The Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate is the area of relatively flat terrain between the Vosges Mountains to the north and the Jura Mountains to the south. It marks the watershed between the drainage basins of the River Rhine to the east and the River Rhône to the west, part of the European Watershed between the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is also the boundary between the historic regions of Burgundy to the west and Alsace to the east, and as such has marked the Franco-German border for long periods of its history.
This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world. Metropolitan France is that part which is in Europe.
The zone libre was a partition of the French metropolitan territory during World War II, established at the Second Armistice at Compiègne on 22 June 1940. It lay to the south of the demarcation line and was administered by the French government of Marshal Philippe Pétain based in Vichy, in a relatively unrestricted fashion. To the north lay the zone occupée in which the powers of Vichy France were severely limited.
The Greater Germanic Reich, fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation was the official state name of the political entity that Nazi Germany tried to establish in Europe during World War II. The territorial claims for the Greater Germanic Reich fluctuated over time. As early as the autumn of 1933, Hitler envisioned annexing such territories as Bohemia, Western Poland and Austria to Germany and creation of satellite or puppet states without economies or policies of their own.
The Order-State of Burgundy, a historical reference to the State of the Teutonic Order, or Order-State Burgundy was a proposed state, which the leadership of Nazi Germany, especially the SS, hoped to create in certain areas of Western Europe during World War II.
The Civil Administration Area of Lorraine was an administrative division of the Gau Westmark from 1940 to 1945.
The French Demarcation line was the boundary line marking the division of Metropolitan France into the territory occupied and administered by the German Army in the northern and western part of France and the Zone libre in the south during World War II. It was created by the Armistice of 22 June 1940 after the fall of France in May 1940.