Zonguldak

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Zonguldak
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Zonguldak
Coordinates: 41°27′23″N31°47′55″E / 41.45639°N 31.79861°E / 41.45639; 31.79861 Coordinates: 41°27′23″N31°47′55″E / 41.45639°N 31.79861°E / 41.45639; 31.79861
Country Turkey
Province Zonguldak
Government
  MayorÖmer Selim Alan (AKP)
Area
[1]
  District632.98 km2 (244.39 sq mi)
Elevation
60 m (200 ft)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
109,080
  District
213,544
  District density340/km2 (870/sq mi)
Postal code
67 000
Area code(s) (+90) 372
Vehicle registration 67
Climate Cfb
Website www.zonguldak.bel.tr

Zonguldak is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It was established in 1849 as a port town for the nearby coal mines in Ereğli and the coal trade remains its main economic activity. According to the 2009 census, Zonguldak has a population of 108,792. The current mayor is Ömer Selim Alan, representing the AKP. Zonguldak is one of the highest income economies among Turkish cities.

Zonguldak Province Municipality in Turkey

Zonguldak Province is a province along the western Black Sea coast region of Turkey. The province is 3.481 km2 in size and has a population of 619,703. Its adjacent provinces are Düzce to the southwest, Bolu to the south, Karabük to the southeast, and Bartın to the east. The capital is Zonguldak.

Black Sea Marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and Asia

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Contents

Etymology

There are several different theories concerning the origin of the city's name.

One is that it comes from Zone Geul-Dagh, the name given to the area by French and Belgian mining companies [3] [4] to refer to the zone near "Geul-Dagh" or Göldağı ('Lake Mountain'), the highest mountain in the vicinity of the Devrek district.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Belgium Federal constitutional monarchy in Western Europe

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,688 km2 (11,849 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liège.

Devrek Place in Zonguldak, Turkey

Devrek is a town and district in Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. It was founded as Hamidiye, in the sanjak of Bolu. Devrek was incorporated into the Zonguldak Province on May 14, 1920. It is divided into five quarters, three subdistricts and seventy-six villages. The three subdistricts are Çaydeğirmeni, Eğerci, and Özbağı. The population of the Devrek district is 66,518. The mayor is Mustafa Semerci (AKP).

Another theory is that the name originates from the Turkish zongalık which means swamp, or zongura.

Another is that the name may derive from the name of the nearby ancient settlement of Sandraka or Sandràke (in Ancient greek Σανδράκη).

According to another theory the name may have come from the compound word Jangal-Dagh, composed of Persian jangal, which the French entrepreneurs called the area due to its uneven and wooded geography, plus Turkish dağ 'mountain'.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

In a 1920 report, the British Foreign Office spelled Zonguldak Zunguldak. [5]

History

The port city of Zonguldak suffered a heavy bombardment by the Russians during World War I, according to the caption of a Lubok popular print. [6]

Lubok Russian popular print

A lubok is a Russian popular print, characterized by simple graphics and narratives derived from literature, religious stories, and popular tales. Lubki prints were used as decoration in houses and inns. Early examples from the late 17th and early 18th centuries were woodcuts, then engravings or etchings were typical, and from the mid-19th century lithography. They sometimes appeared in series, which might be regarded as predecessors of the modern comic strip. Cheap and simple books, similar to chapbooks, which mostly consisted of pictures, are called lubok literature or. Both pictures and literature are commonly referred to simply as lubki. The Russian word lubok derives from lub - a special type of board on which pictures were printed.

As of 1920, the port was under the control of the Heraclea Coal Company. The northern part of the bay featured a man made harbor, for steamship use. At that time, they had two cranes which distributed coal to exporting vessels. [5]

Climate

Zonguldak has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), closely bordering a humid subtropical climate (Cfa); with high and evenly distributed rainfall the year round. Summers are warm and humid, and the average temperature is around 21 °C in July and August. Winters are cool and damp, and the average temperature is around 6 °C in January and February.

Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and early winter and lightest in spring. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.

The water temperature like in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast is always cool and fluctuates between 8° and 20 °C throughout the year.

Climate data for Zonguldak
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)9.2
(48.6)
9.5
(49.1)
10.8
(51.4)
15.0
(59.0)
18.9
(66.0)
23.0
(73.4)
25.1
(77.2)
25.3
(77.5)
22.4
(72.3)
18.6
(65.5)
15.1
(59.2)
11.6
(52.9)
17.0
(62.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
6.2
(43.2)
7.5
(45.5)
11.4
(52.5)
15.5
(59.9)
19.7
(67.5)
21.9
(71.4)
21.9
(71.4)
18.7
(65.7)
15.1
(59.2)
11.6
(52.9)
8.5
(47.3)
13.7
(56.6)
Average low °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
3.4
(38.1)
4.6
(40.3)
8.2
(46.8)
12.2
(54.0)
16.0
(60.8)
18.2
(64.8)
18.3
(64.9)
15.5
(59.9)
12.3
(54.1)
8.9
(48.0)
5.8
(42.4)
10.6
(51.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)136.9
(5.39)
93.1
(3.67)
95.6
(3.76)
61.7
(2.43)
53.4
(2.10)
72.9
(2.87)
71.8
(2.83)
87.4
(3.44)
107.7
(4.24)
145.6
(5.73)
140.1
(5.52)
150.6
(5.93)
1,216.8
(47.91)
Average rainy days17.915.714.912.510.78.76.87.08.512.213.717.2145.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.178.4127.1162232.5288316.2291.42251559968.22,107.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.12.43.55.27.69.210.19.27.35.63.32.25.6
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [7]

Transportation

Zonguldak old coal Port constructed in 1848 Zonguldak TTK limani.jpg
Zonguldak old coal Port constructed in 1848
Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard.jpg
Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard

The city is the terminus of a railway line to Irmak, with the terminating station Zonguldak Railway Station built in 1937.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Zonguldak is twinned with:

See also

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References

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Governorship of Zonguldak - A Brief History Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd› (in Turkish)
  4. Financial Manager's Office of Zonguldak - A General Description Archived October 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd› (in Turkish)
  5. 1 2 Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
  6. The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships.” World Digital Library. Accessed May 11, 2015.
  7. "Zonguldak". Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
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