Zonguldak Province

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Zonguldak
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Zonguldak city center
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Zonguldak
Coordinates: 41°19′14″N31°44′01″E / 41.32056°N 31.73361°E / 41.32056; 31.73361 Coordinates: 41°19′14″N31°44′01″E / 41.32056°N 31.73361°E / 41.32056; 31.73361
Country Turkey
Province Zonguldak Province
Government
  GovernorMustafa Tutulmaz
Area
[1]
  District632.98 km2 (244.39 sq mi)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
109,080
  District
213,544
  District density340/km2 (870/sq mi)
Climate Cfb
Website www.zonguldak.bel.tr

Zonguldak Province (Turkish : Zonguldak ili) is a province along the western Black Sea coast region of Turkey. The province is 3.481 km2 in size and has a population of 619,703. Its adjacent provinces are Düzce to the southwest, Bolu to the south, Karabük to the southeast, and Bartın to the east. The capital is Zonguldak. Its Governor is Erdoğan Bektaş. [3]

Contents

Since the discovery of coal in the province, Zonguldak has become a major coal production center.

Districts

Zonguldak province is divided into 8 districts (capital district in bold):

Sites of interest

Filyos Bay, Zonguldak Filyos Bay.jpg
Filyos Bay, Zonguldak

Ilıksu, Kapuz, Göbü beaches, National Sovereignty Forest, Lake (Göl) Mountain, Plateau, Kocaman, Bostanözü, Çamlık, Baklabostan and Gürleyik forest recreation areas, Cumayanı, Kızılelma, Mencilis caves.

Museums

The Ereğli Museum, located in the town of Ereğli, is the only museum in the city.

Ereğli

Ereğli was founded during the 6th century B.C. by the Mariandynians, who were the successors of the Phrygians. Ereğli was an important commercial wharf (emperion), which takes its name from the famous mythic hero, Hercules (Heracles). The city preserved its importance during the Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, and Ottoman Empire periods. Important historical ruins in the region include the Acheron Valley ruins, in which the Cehennem Ağzı caverns are located, along with Hellenic, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman ruins, Ereğli Castle, Heracles Palace, Çeştepe Lighthouse tower, Byzantine water cisterns, Krispos mausoleum, Byzantine church and Halil Paşa Mansion.

Beaches

Zonguldak TTK Port Zonguldak TTK limani.jpg
Zonguldak TTK Port

Many natural and sandy beaches may be found along a fifty-mile (80 km) stretch of the coast. Beginning from the east, these beaches include: Sazköy, Filyos, Türkali, Göbü, Hisararkası, Uzunkum, Tersane, Kapuz, Karakum, Değirmenağzı, Ilıksu, Kireçlik, Armutçuk, Black Sea Ereğli, Mevreke, Alaplı and Kocaman.

Promenade

The boroughs of the city are used as daily recreation areas for leisurely hikes by regional residents. Boroughs are artificial lakes intended to provide drinking water or serve other industrial purposes. These boroughs are: Ulutan Dam Lake at the center, Kızılcapınar Dam Lake, and Gülüç Dam Lake in Ereğli, Dereköy Pond at Çatalağzı borough and Çobanoğlu Pond (18 ha.) at Karapınar borough.

The most important waterfalls of the city are: Harmankaya at Center Kokaksu site, Değirmenağzı at Kozlu borough and Güneşli waterfalls at Ereğli, and their environs are also used for trekking.

Caves

Cehennemağzı Cave, Gökgöl, Kızılelma, İnağzı and Cumayanı are the notable caverns.

National and Natural Parks

Local celebrations

Erdemir steel plant in Eregli Erdemir Demir.jpg
Erdemir steel plant in Ereğli

Festivities

Coal mining

History

Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard.jpg
Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard

The discovery of coal in the Ereğli (Heraclea) region (known today as the Zonguldak basin) dates back to the reign of Sultan Mahmud II, and its extraction to Sultan Abdülmecid's reign.

The first specimen of Turkish coal was brought from Ereğli to Istanbul in 1822, but nothing was done for exploration and exploitation of this coal. However, in 1829, another specimen of coal was brought to Istanbul by Uzun (Long) Mehmet, a sailor and native of the village of Kestaneci, near Ereğli. This time attention was given to the discovery and the sailor received a reward of a life pension, but before he could benefit from this reward he was murdered.

The first miners requested and delivered from the Austrian Government are the Austrian Croats known to have been employed in the Ereğli Coal Mines. The correspondence between Istanbul and the embassy in Vienna show that coal production in the Ereğli Basin predates the March 1837 request by 18 months and that production started around September 1835. [4]

An investigation of Hazine-i Hassa (Ottoman Imperial Treasury Department) records in the Ottoman archives shows that regular mining activities in the Ereğli Basin started in February 1841. This is confirmed by a newspaper article published in the 14 February 1841 issue of Ceride-i Havadis.

Ereğli Coal Company, chartered by six partners (Ahmed Fethi Pasha, Rıza Pasha, Safveti Pasha, Tahir Bey Efendi, Izzet Pasha and Mustafa Efendi), excavated the coal in the Ereğli Coal Basin, initially under the auspices of Darphane-i Amire and later transferred to Hazine-i Hassa when the latter was established in 1849. [5]

Timeline of the administration of the Ereğli coal mines after 1845

In 1851, the Company’s production fields are mentioned in the accounting records as "coal mines administered by the Company under the irade-i seniyye in Ereğli, Amasra and various places". "Various places" mentioned in the records are not known for sure. Records of the period after the Sultan’s participation in the firm mention "coal mines administered by the Company in Bezekli, Amasra, Karaburun areas and various places". (The name Zonguldak did not yet exist in 1851.)

After 1865, one of these "various places" is named as Zone-Goul-Dagh or Zon-Goul-Dak, with mixed Turkish-French pronunciation.

References on internet document of http://www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/ web site:

Ports des mines d'Héraclée (19)
89 AQ 1703 Documentation et correspondence sur la construction du port de Zongouldak (20). 1893-1896
89 AQ 1704 Etudes et projets des ports de Zongouldak et de Koslou par A. Guérard. 1891-1897
89 AQ 1705 Projet du port de Zongouldak. 1897
89 AQ 1706 Projet du port de Zongouldak. 1897-1898
89 AQ 1707 Projet du port de Zongouldak. 1898-1899
89 AQ 1708 Arbitrage entre la Société des ports d'Héraclée et la Compagnie de Fives-Lille (21). 1898

Zone-Goul-Dagh was born as a port town of east Ereğli Coal Mines. Its name was probably given by miners/administrators who speak French. (Société d'Héraclée !?) (Probably, the first name of the town was "Sea Port of Zone-Goul-Dagh"... Because, Goul mountain is about 2-3 kilometers far from sea side...)

Coal mining today

Current coal mining/extraction zones of Zonguldak province/region
Armutçuk (Ereğli), Kozlu (Kozlu), Üzülmez (Zonguldak), Çaydamar (Zonguldak), Baştarla (Zonguldak), Kilimli (Kilimli), Karadon (Kilimli-Çatalağzı), Gelik (Çatalağzı), Amasra (Amasra, Bartın Province)
Coal washing/treatment plants
Zonguldak and Çatalağzı Coal Treatment Plants.
Coal transport (delivery and import)
Thermic power plants
Çatalağzı Thermoelectric Power Plant units (use coal powder), in Işıkveren ward.
Iron-steel plants
Ereğli (Erdemir) Iron and Steel Works, [6] Karabük (Kardemir, Karabük province) Iron and Steel Works.
Average heat capacity of Zonguldak coals
7000 kcal/kg.

Mining disasters

Several mining disasters have occurred in the Zonguldak mines:

See also

Related Research Articles

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Zonguldak Municipality in Turkey

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Kandilli, Zonguldak Town in Black Sea, Turkey

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Kozlu, Zonguldak Town in Zonguldak Province, Turkey

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Kilimli Town in Zonguldak Province, Turkey

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Karapınar is a Turkish place name. It may refer to:

Filyos River

The Filyos River is a river in northern Turkey.

Turkish dialects

There is considerable dialectal variation in Turkish.

Kozlu coal mine is located in Turkey's Zonguldak basin. the mine suffered a disaster (tr) in 1992, which killed over 200 miners. The mine has an annual production capacity of 2 million tonnes of coal. Total organic carbon values are quite variable.

Ereğli–Armutçuk railway

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Coal in Turkey Coal mining, power, industry, and its health and environmental problems in the Eurasian country

Coal supplies over a quarter of Turkey's primary energy. The heavily subsidised coal industry generates over a third of the country's electricity and emits a third of Turkey's greenhouse gases. Every year, thousands of people die prematurely from coal-related causes, the most common of which is local air pollution.

Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises (TTK) is the heavily subsidized state owned enterprise which has a virtual monopoly in mining, processing and distribution, including importing, of hard coal in Turkey. According to 21st century data up to 2014 Armutcuk, Karadon and Uzulmez were more hazardous than Amasra and Kozlu mines. Although coal mining accidents in Turkey decreased considerably after the government introduced tougher safety measures in the mid-2010s, the relative danger compared to other occupations since then is not publicly known, as the government restricted access to workplace death statistics.

References

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. "İlçelerimiz". www.zonguldak.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  4. History Of Zonguldak (tr) Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Zonguldak Province (tr)
  6. "Erdemir - Services". www.erdemir.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  7. 1 2 Gökçen Yüksel (August 27, 2008). "One missing in mine collapse in Zonguldak". Today's Zaman . Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  8. "30 saat sonra sağ çıkarıldı..." (in Turkish). Eriğli Demokrat. August 26, 2008.
  9. Ivan Watson and Yeşim Cömert (May 20, 2010). "Bodies of 28 trapped Turkish miners found". CNN.com . Retrieved May 20, 2010.