Zucchetto

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Cardinal Franciszek Macharski with a scarlet zucchetto Cardinal zucchetto 2003 modified 2008-15-08.jpg
Cardinal Franciszek Macharski with a scarlet zucchetto

The zucchetto ( /(t)sˈkɛt, zˈ-/ , [1] also UK: /tsʊˈ-/ , [2] US: /zʊˈ-/ , [3] Italian:  [dzukˈketto, tsuk-]; meaning "small gourd", from zucca, "pumpkin") [lower-alpha 1] [4] is a small, hemispherical, form-fitting ecclesiastical skullcap worn by clerics of various Catholic churches, the Syriac Orthodox Church, and by the higher clergy in Anglicanism. The plural is zucchetti; it is also known by the names pilus, pilos, pileus, pileolus (pileolo), subbiretum, submitrale, soli deo (solideo), berrettino, calotte (calotta). [5]

British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Gourd Type of fruit

Gourds include the fruits of some flowering plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, particularly Cucurbita and Lagenaria. The term refers to a number of species and subspecies, many with hard shells, and some without. One of the earliest domesticated types of plants, subspecies of the bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, have been discovered in archaeological sites dating from as early as 13,000 BC. Gourds have had numerous uses throughout history, including as tools, musical instruments, objects of art, film, and food.

Contents

History

The zucchetto originated as the Greek pilos and is related to the beret (which itself was originally a large zucchetto). It was adopted circa the Early Middle Ages, if not earlier, to keep clerics' heads warm. Its name derives from its resemblance to half a pumpkin. Its appearance is almost identical to the Jewish kippah (yarmulke), and this is often considered to have been deliberate (as a reminder of Jesus's Jewish heritage), though its religious significance is ultimately quite different regardless. [6]

Pileus (hat) conical or half-egg-shaped cap, often of felt,  worn in Ancient Greece and Rome and by ecclesiastics

The pileus was a brimless, felt cap worn in Illyria, Etruria, Ancient Greece, Pannonia and surrounding regions, later also introduced in Ancient Rome. In the 5th century BC a bronze version began to appear in Ancient Greece and during the Hellenistic era it became a popular infantry helmet. It occasionally had a horsehair crest. The Greek πιλίδιον (pilidion) and Latin pilleolus were smaller versions, similar to a skullcap. The plis, an Albanian felt cap, originated from a similar felt cap worn by the Illyrians, and is worn even today in Albania and Kosovo.

Beret Flat-topped, visorless cap

A beret is a soft, round, flat-crowned hat, usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, wool felt, or acrylic fibre.

Early Middle Ages Period of European history between the 5th and 10th centuries

Historians typically regard the Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history. The alternative term "Late Antiquity" emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, and precedes the High Middle Ages.

Construction and design

White zucchetto worn by popes and certain prelates Gamarelli Papal zucchetto20050412.jpg
White zucchetto worn by popes and certain prelates

In the Catholic tradition, the zucchetto is most commonly made of silk or polyester fabric. The design utilises eight triangular panels that are joined to form a hemispherical skullcap. Jutting from the centre of the zucchetto at the top is the "stem", known as stirpis or stirpes. It is made of a twisted loop of silk cord and is meant to make the handling of the zucchetto easier. The stirpes is the primary visual distinction between the zucchetto and the Jewish kippah.

The zucchetto has a lining of thin leather (chamois) as an insulator; this was also meant to help keep the shape of the zucchetto. Inside the trim there is a strip of velvet to ensure a secure and comfortable fit. Most modern zucchetto designs include a cloth lining, and the modern trend is toward a zucchetto of ordinary synthetic cloth lined with a simple natural cloth lining. [7]

Chamois leather porous leather, traditionally the skin of the chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

Chamois leather is a type of porous leather, traditionally the skin of the chamois, a type of European mountain goat but today it is made almost exclusively from the flesh split of a sheepskin.

The color of the zucchetto specifically denotes the wearer's rank and is in keeping with the five colors:

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

White color

White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow, chalk and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red, blue and green light.

Cardinal (Catholic Church) Senior official of the Catholic Church

A cardinal is a leading bishop and prince of College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church. Their duties include participating in Papal consistories, and Papal conclaves, when the Holy See is vacant. Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. During the sede vacante, the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the Papal conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs.

It is quite common for priests assigned to the Vatican always to wear their black zucchetto. The one exception to the rule of color is the brown zucchetto frequently worn by ordained Franciscan friars. [8] The pope may actually wear any color zucchetto he wishes in accordance with the five colors, but always wears a white zucchetto due to his white cassock. [9]

The most common Anglican design can be similar to the Catholic zucchetto or, far more often, similar to the Jewish yarmulke. [10] A form of the zucchetto is worn by Anglican bishops and is used approximately like that of the Catholic Church. The Anglican "skullcap" differs from the zucchetto primarily in that it is made of six panels, bears a button at centre of the crown, and is of slightly larger dimensions. The other exception is Anglican churches usually (but not always) differ from the Catholic "church violet" for bishops, and instead use purple.

Purple Range of colors with the hues between blue and red

Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red. It is similar to violet, but unlike violet, which is a spectral color with its own wavelength on the visible spectrum of light, purple is a secondary color made by combining red and blue. The complementary color of purple in the RYB color model is yellow.

In the Syriac and Malankara Orthodox tradition, a seven-panel zucchetto called a phiro is worn by nearly all priests. It is always black and embroidered with black Orthodox crosses. [11]

Usage

All ordained members of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church are entitled to wear the black zucchetto (unless promoted to a higher rank) which is worn with either the cassock or ceremonial robes. The zucchetto is always worn beneath the mitre or the biretta. This is the reason for two of the alternate names for the zucchetto, subbirettum and submitrale. [12] The zucchetto is never worn with a suit. The amaranth and red zucchetti are considered a symbolic honor granted to the prelate. In turn, the prelate is privileged to wear his zucchetto, not entitled.

The common tradition is for the cleric to obtain the zucchetto either from an ecclesiastical tailor or a retail church supply. There is also a tradition of friends buying the newly appointed bishop his first zucchetto. [13]

A lower-ranking prelate must always doff his skullcap to a higher-ranking prelate; all prelates must remove their zucchetti in the presence of the pope, unless the pope instructs them not to do so. [9]

The zucchetto is worn throughout most of the Mass, is removed at the commencement of the Preface, and replaced at the conclusion of Communion, when the Blessed Sacrament is put away. The zucchetto is also not worn at any occasion where the Blessed Sacrament is exposed. A short zucchetto stand known as a funghellino ("little mushroom", usually made of brass or wood) is placed near the altar to provide a safe place for the zucchetto when it is not being worn. [12]

Prelates often give away their skullcaps to the faithful. The practice, which was started in the modern era by Pope Pius XII, involves giving the zucchetto to the faithful, as a keepsake, if presented with a new one as a gift. Popes John Paul II, Benedict XVI, and Francis have continued the custom. [14] The pope might choose not to give the visitor his own zucchetto, but rather place the gift zucchetto on his head for a moment, then return it. Bishops, cardinals and archbishops such as Fulton J. Sheen frequently gave their old zucchetto in exchange for the newly offered one; Sheen also gave his zucchetto as a keepsake to laity who requested it. [14]

See also

Notes

  1. Compare zucchini, of related origin.

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Galero broad-brimmed hat with tasselated strings worn by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church

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Skullcap or skull cap may refer to:

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Headgear any covering for the head; element of clothing which is worn on ones head

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Pellegrina cape-like item of clerical dress worn by some Catholic ecclesiastic

The pellegrina is a cape-like item of clerical dress worn by some Catholic ecclesiastics.

References

Footnotes

  1. "Zucchetto". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  2. "zucchetto" (US) and "zucchetto". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  3. "Zucchetto". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  4. (in Italian) Dizionario Treccani
  5. Marshall 2009, pp. 11–13.
  6. Kilgour 1958; Marshall 2009, pp. 11–13.
  7. McCloud 1948, pp. 79–81.
  8. Kilgour 1958; McCloud 1948, pp. 79–80.
  9. 1 2 McCloud 1948, pp. 79–80.
  10. anglicanhistory.org
  11. Kilgour 1958.
  12. 1 2 Braun 1912; McCloud 1948, p. 79.
  13. Knox, Noelle (April 7, 2005). "Tailor pays tribute". USA Today. McLean, Virginia. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  14. 1 2 Duffy 2006.

Bibliography

Braun, Joseph (1912). "Zucchetto"  . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company. pp. 765–766.
Duffy, Eamon (2006). Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (3rd ed.). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN   978-0-300-11597-0.
Kilgour, Ruth Edwards (1958). A Pageant of Hats Ancient and Modern. New York: R. M. McBride Company.
Marshall, Taylor (2009). The Crucified Rabbi: Judaism and the Origins of Catholic Christianity. The Origins of Catholicism. 1. Dallas, Texas: Saint John Press. ISBN   978-0-578-03834-6.
McCloud, Henry (1948). Clerical Dress and Insignia of the Roman Catholic Church. Wisconsin: Bruce Publishing Company.

Further reading

Hernández, Antonio. My Kingdom for a Crown: An Around-the-World History of the Skullcap and its Modern Socio-Political Significance (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 10, 2006.[ self-published source ]
 ———  (2004). My Kingdom for a Crown! The Religious Skullcap. Baltimore: PublishAmerica. ISBN   978-1-4137-0538-6.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)[ self-published source ]
Philippi, Dieter (2011). The Anglican Skull Cap. Philippi Collection. Retrieved December 26, 2011.[ self-published source ]
Wray, Cecil Daniel (1856). A Short Inquiry Respecting the Vestments of the Priests of the Anglican Church. London: Joseph Masters. Retrieved December 26, 2011 via Project Canterbury.