Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Last updated

Pakistan was exposed to a kind of "nuclear threat and blackmail" unparalleled elsewhere.... If the world's community failed to provide political insurance to Pakistan and other countries against the nuclear blackmail, these countries would be constraint to launch atomic bomb programs of their own!... [A]ssurances provided by the United Nations were not "Enough!"...

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, statement written in Eating Grass, source [44]

Roughly two weeks after experiencing the 1971 winter war, on 20 January 1972 Bhutto rallied a conference of nuclear scientists and engineers at Multan.[ citation needed ] While at the Multan meeting scientists were wondering why the President, who had so much on his hands in those trying days, was paying so much attention to the scientists and engineers in the nuclear field.[ citation needed ] At the meeting Bhutto slowly talked about the recent war and the country's future, pointing out the existence of the country was in great mortal danger.[ citation needed ] While the academicians listened to Bhutto carefully, Bhutto said: "Look, we're going to have the bomb". Bhutto asked them: "Can you give it to me? And how long will it take it to make a bomb?"[ citation needed ] Many of senior scientists had witnessed the war, and were emotionally and psychologically disturbed, therefore, the response was positive when the senior academic scientists replied: "Oh...Yes.. Yes... You can have it."[ citation needed ] There was a lively debate on the time needed to make the bomb, and finally one scientist dared to say that maybe it could be done in five years.[ citation needed ] Prime Minister Bhutto smiled, lifted his hand, and dramatically thrust forward three fingers and said: "Three years, I want it in three years." The atmosphere suddenly became electric.[ citation needed ] It was then that one of the junior scientist Siddique Ahmad Butt (a theoretical physicist), who under Munir Khan's guiding hand would come to play a major role in making the fission weapon possible – jumped to his feet and clamoured for his leader's attention.[ citation needed ] Siddique Ahmad Butt replied: "It can be done in three years." When Bhutto heard Butt's reply, Bhutto was very much amused and said: "Well.... Much as I appreciate your enthusiasm, this is a very serious political decision, which Pakistan must make, and perhaps all Third World countries must make one day, because it is coming. So can you boys do it?". Nearly all senior scientists replied in one tone: Yes... We can do it, given the resources and given the facilities." Bhutto ended the meeting by simply saying: "I shall find you the resources and I shall find you the facilities."[ citation needed ]

Before the 1970s, the nuclear deterrence was long established under the government of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, but was completely peaceful and devoted to civilian power needs. Bhutto, in his book The Myth of Independence in 1969 wrote that:

If Pakistan restricts or suspends her nuclear deterrence, it would not only enable India to blackmail Pakistan with her nuclear advantage, but would impose a crippling limitation on the development of Pakistan's science and technology.... Our problem in its essence, is how to obtain such a weapon in time before the crisis begin...

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto [45]

After India's nuclear test – codename Smiling Buddha—in May 1974, Bhutto sensed and saw this test as final anticipation for Pakistan's death. [36] In a press conference, held shortly after India's nuclear test, Bhutto said, "India's nuclear program is designed to intimidate Pakistan and establish "hegemony in the subcontinent". [46] Despite Pakistan's limited financial resources, Bhutto was so enthusiastic about the nuclear energy project, that he is reported to have said "Pakistanis will eat grass but make a nuclear bomb." [47]

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's militarisation was initiated on 20 January 1972 and, in its initial years, was implemented by Pakistan Army's Chief of Army Staff General Tikka Khan. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP-I) was inaugurated by Bhutto during his role as the President of Pakistan at the end of 1972. [43] The nuclear weapons programme was set up loosely based on the Manhattan Project of the 1940s under the administrative control of Bhutto. [42] And, senior academic scientists had direct access to Bhutto, who kept him informed about every inch of the development. Bhutto's Science Advisor, Abdus Salam's office was also sat up in Bhutto's Prime minister Secretariat. [42] On Bhutto's request, Salam had established and led the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) that marked the beginning of the nuclear deterrent programme. The TPG designed and developed the nuclear weapons as well as the entire programme. [42] Later, Munir Ahmad Khan had him personally approved the budget for the development of the programme. [42]

Wanting a capable administrator, Bhutto sought Lieutenant-General Rahimuddin Khan to chair the commission, which Rahimuddin declined, in 1971. [48] Instead, in January 1972, Bhutto chose a U.S.-trained nuclear engineer, Munir Khan, as chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as Bhutto realised he wanted an administrator who understood the scientific and economical needs of this technologically ambitious programme. Since 1965, Munir Khan had developed an extremely close and trusted relationship with Bhutto, and even after his death, Benazir and Murtaza Bhutto were instructed by their father to keep in touch with Munir Khan. In spring of 1976, Kahuta Research Facility, then known as Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), as part of codename Project-706 , was also established by Bhutto, and brought under nuclear scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan and the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers' Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali Akbar. [42]

Because Pakistan, under Bhutto, was not a signatory or party of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA), and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) had immediately cancelled fuel reprocessing plant projects with PAEC. And, according to Causar Nyäzie, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission officials had misled Bhutto and he sought on a long journey to try to get nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. [49] It was on the advice of A. Q. Khan that no fuel existed to reprocess and urged Bhutto to follow his pursuit of uranium enrichment. [49] Bhutto tried to show he was still interested in that expensive route and was relieved when Kissinger persuaded the French to cancel the deal. [49] Bhutto had trusted Munir Ahmad Khan's plans to develop the programme ingeniously, and the mainstream goal of showing such interest in French reprocessing plant was to give time to PAEC scientists to gain expertise in building its own reprocessing plants. By the time France's CEA cancelled the project, the PAEC had acquired 95% of the detailed plans of the plant and materials. [36]

Munir Ahmad Khan and Ishfaq Ahmad believed that since PAEC had acquired most of the detailed plans, work, plans, and materials, the PAEC, based on that 95% work, could build the plutonium reprocessing reactors on its own, Pakistan should stick to its original plan, the plutonium route. [36] Bhutto did not disagree but saw an advantage in establishing another parallel programme, the uranium enrichment programme under Abdul Qadeer Khan. [36] Both Munir Khan and Ahmed had shown their concern over on Abdul Qadeer Khan's suspected activities but Bhutto backed Khan when Bhutto maintained that: "No less than any other nation did what Abdul Qadeer Khan (is) doing; the Soviets and Chinese; the British and the French; the Indians and the Israelis; stole the nuclear weapons designs previously in the past and no one questioned them but rather tend to be quiet. We are not stealing what they (illegally) stole in the past (as referring the nuclear weapon designs) but we're taking a small machine which is not useful for making the atomic bomb but for a fuel". [42] International pressure was difficult to counter at that time, and Bhutto, with the help of Munir Ahmad Khan and Aziz Ahmed, tackled the intense heated criticism and diplomatic war with the United States at numerous fronts—while the progress on nuclear weapons remained highly classified. [42] [50] During this pressure, Aziz Ahmed played a significant role by convincing the consortium industries to sell and export sensitive electronic components before the United States could approach to them and try and prevent the consortium industries to export such equipments and components. [42] Bhutto slowly reversed and thwarted United States' any attempt to infiltrate the programme as he had expelled many of the American diplomatic officials in the country, under Operation Sun Rise, authorised by Bhutto under ISI. [42] On the other hand, Bhutto intensified his staunch support and eye-blindly backed Abdul Qadeer Khan to quietly bring the Urenco's weapon-grade technology to Pakistan, keeping the Kahuta Laboratories hidden from the outside world. [42] Regional rivals such as India and Soviet Union, had no basic intelligence on Pakistan's nuclear energy project during the 1970s, and Bhutto's intensified clandestine efforts seemed to be paid off in 1978 when the programme was fully matured. [42]

In a thesis written in The Myth of Independence, Bhutto argued that nuclear weapons would allow India to use its Air Force warplanes with small battlefield nuclear devices against the Pakistan Army cantonments, armoured and infantry columns and PAF bases and nuclear and military industrial facilities. [51] The Indian Air Force would not meet with an adverse reaction from the world community as long as civilian casualties could be kept to a minimum. [51] This way, India would defeat Pakistan, force its armed forces into a humiliating surrender and occupy and annexe the Northern Areas of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. India would then carve up Pakistan into tiny states based on ethnic divisions and that would be the end of the "Pakistan problem" once and for all. [51]

By the time Bhutto was ousted, this crash programme had fully matured in terms of technical development as well as scientific efforts. [42] By the 1977, PAEC and KRL had built their uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing plants, and selection for test sites, at Chagai Hills, was done by the PAEC. [8] The feasibility reports were submitted by both organisations on their works. [8] In 1977, the PAEC's Theoretical Physics Group had finished the designing of the first fission weapon, and KRL scientists succeeded in electromagnetic isotope separation of Uranium fissile isotopes. [8] In spite of this, still little had been done in the development of weapons, and Pakistan's nuclear arsenal were actually made by General Zia-ul-Haq's military regime, under the watchful eyes of several Naval admirals, Army and Air Force's generals including Ghulam Ishaq Khan. [49] In 1983, Bhutto's decision later proved to be right, when PAEC had conducted a cold test, near Kirana Hills, evidently made from non-fissioned plutonium. It has been speculated recently in the press that Dr. Khan's uranium enrichment designs were used by the Chinese in exchange for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and some highly enriched weapons grade uranium. [49] Later on this weapons grade uranium was offered back to the Chinese as the Pakistanis used their own materials. [49] In all, Bhutto knew that Pakistan had become a nuclear weapon state in 1978 when his friend Munir Ahmad Khan paid a visit to him in his jail cell.[ citation needed ] There, Munir Ahmad Khan told Bhutto that the process of weapon designing is finished and a milestone in the complex and difficult enrichment of weapon-grade fuel has been achieved by the PAEC and dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan of ERL.[ citation needed ] Bhutto called for an immediate nuclear test to be conducted, no response was issued by General Zia or any member of his government.[ citation needed ]

We (Pakistan)...know that (Israel) and (South Africa) have full nuclear capability—a Christian, Jewish and Hindu civilization have this [nuclear] capability ... the Islamic civilization is without it, but the situation (is) about to change!...

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto—called for a test from his jail cell, 1978 [52]

Prime Minister of Pakistan

Bhutto was sworn in as the prime minister of the country on 14 August 1973, after he had secured 108 votes in a house of 146 members. Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry was elected as the president under the new constitution. [53] During his five years of government, the Bhutto government made extensive reforms at every level of government. [54] Pakistan's capital and Western reforms that were begun and built in 1947 throughout the 1970s, were transformed and replaced with socialist system. [54] His policies were seen people friendly but did not produce long-lasting effects as the civil disorder against Bhutto began to take place in 1977. [54]

Constitutional reforms

Bhutto is considered the main architect of 1973 constitution as part of his vision to put Pakistan to road to parliamentary democracy. [55] One of the major achievements in Bhutto's life was drafting of Pakistan's first ever consensus constitution to the country. [55] Bhutto supervised the promulgation of 1973 constitution that triggered an unstoppable constitutional revolution through his politics wedded to the emancipation of the downtrodden masses, by first giving people a voice in the Parliament, and introducing radical changes in the economic sphere for their benefit. [55]

During his period in office the government carried out seven major amendments to the 1973 Constitution. [56] The First Amendment led to Pakistan's recognition of and diplomatic ties with Bangladesh. [53] The Second Amendment in the constitution declared the Ahmadis as non-Muslims, and defined the term non-Muslim. [53] [57] The rights of the detained were limited under the Third Amendment while the powers and jurisdiction of the courts for providing relief to political opponents were curtailed under the Fourth Amendment. [53] The Fifth Amendment passed on 15 September 1976, focused on curtailing the power and jurisdiction of the Judiciary. [53] This amendment was highly criticised by lawyers and political leaders. [53] The main provision of the Sixth Amendment extended the term of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and the High Courts beyond the age of retirement. [53] This Amendment was made in the Constitution to favour the then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who was supposed to be a friend of Bhutto. [53]

Industrial reforms

The Bhutto government carried out a number of reforms in the industrial sector. His reforms were twofold: nationalization, and the improvement of workers' rights. [58] In the first phase, basic industries like steel, chemical and cement were nationalized. This was done in 1972. [58] The next major step in nationalization took place on 1 January 1974, when Bhutto nationalised all banks. [58] The last step in the series was the nationalization of all flour, rice and cotton mills throughout the country. [58] This nationalisation process was not as successful as Bhutto expected. [58] Most of the nationalized units were small businesses that could not be described as industrial units, hence making no sense for the step that was taken. [58] Consequently, a considerable number of small businessmen and traders were ruined, displaced or rendered unemployed. In the concluding analysis, nationalisation caused colossal loss not only to the national treasury but also to the people of Pakistan. [58]

The Bhutto government established a large number of rural and urban schools, including around 6,500 elementary schools, 900 middle schools, 407 high schools, 51 intermediate colleges and 21 junior colleges. [54] Bhutto also abandoned the Western education system and most of the literature was sent back to Western world; instead his government encouraged the local academicians to publish books on their respected fields. Though the local books were made cheaper to the public, these reforms came with controversy. His government made Islamic and Pakistan studies compulsory in schools. Book banks were created in most institutions and over 400,000 copies of text-books were supplied to students. [59]

Bhutto is credited for establishing the world class Quaid-e-Azam University and Allama Iqbal Open University in Islamabad in 1974, as well as establishing Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan in 1973. In his role as Foreign Minister, and in 1967 with the help of Abdus Salam, established the Institute of Theoretical Physics. As Prime Minister, Bhutto made revolutionary efforts to expand the web of education. Bhutto established the Allama Iqbal Medical College in 1975. [60] In 1974, with the help of Abdus Salam, Bhutto gave authorisation of the International Nathiagali Summer College on Contemporary Physics (INSC) at the Nathiagali and as even as of today, INSC conference is still held on Pakistan, where thousands of scientists from all over the world are delegated to Pakistan to interact with Pakistan's academic scientists. In 1976, Bhutto established the Engineering Council, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Pakistan Academy of Letters and Cadet college Razmak in North Waziristan. A further four new Universities which have been established at Multan, Bahawalpur, and Khairpur. The People's Open University is another innovative venture which has started functioning from Islamabad. The Government's Education Policy provides for the remission of fees and the grant of a number of scholarships for higher education to the children of low-paid employees [59]

Seven thousand new hostel seats were planned to be added to the existing accommodation after the 1977 election. Bhutto said in 1975 he was aware "of the difficulties and deficiencies faced by college students in many of the existing hostels. Directions have, therefore, been issued that fans, water-coolers and pay-telephones must be provided in each and every hostel in as short a time as physically possible." [59]

Land, flood and agriculture reforms

During his period as prime minister, a number of land reforms were also introduced. [58] The important land reforms included the reduction of land ceilings and introducing the security of tenancy to tenant farmers. [58] The land ceiling was fixed to 150 acres (0.61 km2) of irrigated land and 300 acres (1.2 km2) of non-irrigated land. Another step that Bhutto took was to democratise Pakistan's Civil Service. [58] In Balochistan, the pernicious practice of Shishak and Sardari System was abolished. In 1976, the Bhutto government carried out the establishment of Federal Flood Commission (FFC), and was tasked to prepare national flood protection plans, and flood forecasting and research to harness floodwater. [61] [62] Bhutto later went on to upgrade a number of dams and barrages built in Sindh Province.

Bhutto was a strong advocate of empowering small farmers. He argued that if farmers were weak and demoralised then Pakistan's agricultural strength would be fragile, believing that farmers would not feel psychologically safe unless the country achieved self-sufficiency in food. [63] Therefore, the Bhutto government launched programs to put the country on road to self-sufficiency in rice hulling, sugar-milling and wheat husking industries. [63] Bhutto's government intensified the control of rice hulling, sugar and wheat husking factories, initially believing that public sector involvement would reduce the influence of multi-national corporations creating monopolies. [63] The Government initiated schemes for combating water logging and salinity. [63] Tax exceptions were also introduced for small landowners to encourage the growth of agriculture. [63] His nationalisation of Sindh-based industries heavily benefited the poor, but badly upset the influential feudal lords.

Economic policy

Bhutto introduced socialist economics policies while working to prevent any further division of the country. Major heavy mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering industries were immediately nationalised by Bhutto, and all of the industries came under direct control of government. Industries, such as KESC were under complete government control with no private influence in KESC decision. Bhutto abandoned Ayub Khan's state capitalism policies, and introduced socialist policies in a move to reduce income inequality. Bhutto also established the Port Qasim, Pakistan Steel Mills, the Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) and several cement factories. [58] [64] However, the growth rate of economy relative to that of the 1960s when East Pakistan was still part of Pakistan and large generous aid from the United States declined, after the global oil crises in 1973, which also had a negative impact on the economy. [65] Despite the initiatives undertaken by Bhutto's government to boost the country's economy, the economical growth remained at equilibrium level. [58] But Bhutto's policy largely benefited the poor and working class when the level of absolute poverty was sharply reduced, with the percentage of the population estimated to be living in absolute poverty falling from 46.50% by the end of 1979–80, under the General Zia-ul-Haq's military rule, to 30.78%. [58] [66] The land reform programme provided increased economic support to landless tenants, and development spending was substantially increased, particularly on health and education, in both rural and urban areas, and provided "material support" to rural wage workers, landless peasants, and urban wage workers. [58] [67]

Bhutto's nationalisation policies were initiated with an aim to put workers in control of the tools of production and to protect workers and small businesses. [68] However, economical historians argued that the nationalisation program initially effected the small industries and had devastating effects on Pakistan's economy shrunk Bhutto's credibility. [68] Conservative critics believed the nationalisation policies had damaged investor's confidence and government corruption in nationalised industries grew, although no serious corruption cases were ever proved against Bhutto by the military junta. [68] In 1974, Bhutto maintained that foreign companies and industries in Pakistan were except from nationalisation policies and his government would be willing to receive foreign investment to put up factories. [69] While commenting on his policies in 1973, Bhutto told the group of investors that belonged to the Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) that "activity of public sector or state sector prevents the concentration of economic power in few hands, and protects the small and medium entrepreneurs from the clutches of giant enterprises and vested interests." [65]

Bhutto's shift away from some socialist policies badly upset his democratic socialist alliance and many in the Pakistan Peoples Party, many of his colleagues, most notable Malik Meraj Khalid left Bhutto and departed to Soviet Union after resigning from Law Minister. [70] Continuous disagreement led the government's socialist alliance to collapse and further uniting with secular Independence Movement led by Asghar Khan. [70]

As part of his investment policies, Bhutto founded the National Development Finance Corporation (NDFC). In July 1973, this financial institute began operation with an initial government investment of 100 million PRs. It aim was finance public sector industrial enterprises but, later on, its charter was modified to provide finance to the private sector as well. The NDFC is currently the largest development finance institution of Pakistan performing diversified activities in the field of industrial financing and investment banking. 42 projects financed by NDFC have contributed Rs. 10,761 million to Pakistan's GDP and generated Rs. 690 million after-tax profits and 40,465 jobs. By the mid-1990s NDFC had a pool of resources amounting to US$878 million The Bhutto government increased the level of investment, private and public, in the economy from less than Rs. 7,000 million in 1971–72 to more than Rs. 17,000 million in 1974–75.

Banking and Export expansion

Banking reforms were introduced to provide more opportunities to small farmers and business such as forcing banks to ensure 70% of institutional lending should be for small land holders of 12.5 acres or less, which was a revolutionary idea at a time when banks only clients were the privileged classes. [65] The number of bank branches rose by 75% from December 1971 to November 1976, from 3,295 to 5,727. [64] It was one of the most radical move made by Bhutto, and the Bank infrastructure was expanded covering all towns and villages with a population of 5,000 in accordance with targets set after the nationalisation of banks. [64]

By end of the Bhutto government concentration of wealth had declined compared to height of the Ayub Khan era when 22 families owned 66% of industrial capital, and also controlled banking and 97% of insurance. [65]

Measures taken in the first few months of 1972 set a new framework for the revival of the economy. The diversion of trade from East Pakistan to international markets was completed within a short period. By 1974, exports exceeded one billion dollars, showing a 60% increase over the combined exports of East and West Pakistan before separation, it was achieved and benefited from when the world was in the midst of the major 1973 oil crisis and in the middle of global recession the national income of Pakistan increased by 15% and industrial production by as much as 20% in four years. [59]


Military operation

Following the secession of East Pakistan, calls for the independence of Balochistan by Baloch nationalists grew immensely. Surveying the political instability, Bhutto's central government sacked two provincial governments within six months, arrested the two chief ministers, two governors and forty-four MNAs and MPAs, obtained an order from the Supreme Court banning the National People's Party on the recommendation of Akbar Bugti, and charged everyone with high treason to be tried by a specially constituted Hyderabad tribunal of hand-picked judges.

In January 1973, Bhutto ordered the Pakistan Armed Forces to suppress a rising insurgency in the province of Balochistan. He dismissed the governments in Balochistan and the North-West Frontier Province once more. [37] Following the alleged discovery of Iraqi arms in Islamabad in February 1973, Bhutto dissolved the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan. The operation, under General Tikka Khan, soon took shape in a five-year conflict with the Baloch separatists. The sporadic fighting between the insurgency and the army started in 1973 with the largest confrontation taking place in September 1974. Later on, Pakistan Navy, under Vice-Admiral Patrick Julius Simpson, also jumped in the conflict as it had applied naval blockades to Balochistan's port. The Navy began its separate operations to seized the shipments sent to aid Baloch separatists. Pakistan Air Force also launched air operations, and with the support of navy and army, the air force had pounded the mountainous hidden havens of the Separatists. The Iranian military, also fearing a spread of the greater Baloch resistance in Iran, aided the Pakistani military as well. [71] Among Iran's contribution were 30 Huey cobra attack helicopters and $200 million in aid. [72]

Iraqi intervention

Iraq under Sunni President Saddam Hussein sent Iraqi made weapons to Pakistan's warm water ports. [73] Pakistan's navy mounted an effective blockade. [74] Saddam's government provided support for Baluchi separatists in Pakistan, hoping their conflict would spread to rival Iran. [73] In 1973, Iraq provided the Baluchis with conventional arms, and it opened an office for the Baluchistan Liberation Front (BLF) in Baghdad. This operation was supposed to be covert, but in 1973, the operation was exposed by M.I. when senior separatist leader Akbar Bugti defected to Bhutto, revealing a series of arms stored in the Iraqi Embassy. [73] On the midnight of 9 February 1973, Bhutto launched an operation to seize control of the Iraqi Embassy, and preparation for siege was hastily prepared. The operation was highly risky and a wrong step could have started a war between the two countries. The operation was carefully analysed and at 0:00hrs (12:00 am), the SSG Division accompanied by Army Rangers stormed the Embassy. Military Police arrested the Iraqi Ambassador, the military attaché, and Iraq's diplomatic staff. [73] Following the incident, authorities discovered 300 Soviet sub-machine guns with 50,000 rounds of ammunition and a large amount of money that was to be distributed amongst Baluchi separatist groups. [73] Bhutto was angered and frustrated. Without demanding an explanation, he ordered the Military Police to immediately expel the Iraqi Ambassador and his staff as persona non grata on the first available flight. [73]

The government announced the Iraqi plan to further dismember the country, and Bhutto's successful diplomatic offensive against Iraq isolated Saddam internationally with global condemnation. [73] This incident caused Pakistan to support Iran during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s. [73]


In order to avoid a replay of the East-Pakistan war, Bhutto launched economic and political reforms in the midst of the conflict. Bhutto government abolished the feudal system, the feudal lords continued to appropriate to themselves a generous share of government developmental funds whilst at the same time, they opposed and blackmailed the government whenever they could. [8] Gradually the tribesmen started coming out of the Sardars' quarantine. [8] Modern amenities, for instance medical aid, automobiles for passenger transport and schooling of children became available in the interior of Baluchistan for the first time, since 1947. [8] The Bhutto government also constructed 564 miles of new roads, including the key link between Sibi and Maiwand creating new trade and commerce centres. [8]

Passport reforms

Bhutto government gave the right of a passport to every citizen of Pakistan and facilitated millions of skilled and non-skilled Pakistanis to seek employment in the Gulf countries through a signing a number combination of bilateral agreements. [75] From Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, alone 35,000 workers were given the opportunity to work in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. [55] Bhutto used the Pakistani community of London to lobby and influence European governments to improve the rights of expatriate Pakistani communities in Europe. [76] The remittances from overseas Pakistanis, which now total around $US25 billion per annum, constitute a dependable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. [55]

Labour policy and social security

The labour policy was among the most important cornerstones of Bhutto's government and a comprehensive labour reforms initiated by the Bhutto government. [54] Shortly after assuming control, Bhutto's government imposed some conditions on the dismissal of workers. In 1973, the government instituted Labour Courts for the speedy redress of workers' grievances and the government also introduced a scheme for workers' participation in management, through the nationalisation policy. [54] This scheme provided for 20% participation by workers in management committees set up at factory level. The Government abolished the workers' contribution to the Social Security Fund; instead, the employers were made to increase their contribution from 4 to 6%. The government enhanced compensation rates under the Worker's Compensation Act. [54]

In 1972 the Bhutto government initially provided for some old age benefits for workers through group insurance, increased rates of compensation and higher rates of gratuity. [54] However, the policy did not benefited immediately, therefore, the government introduced a pension scheme of old age benefits which would provide a payment of Rs.75 a month to workers after retirement at the age of 55 for men and 50 for women, on condition that the worker had completed a minimum of 15 years insurable employment. [54] This applied to all factories, industries, and establishments employing ten or more workers drawing monthly wages up to Rs. 1,000. [54] Skilled workers who become invalid after five years of insurable employment were also made entitled to benefits under this scheme. [54]

Bhutto did not want to go for the western model where workers generally contribute along with the employers towards their old age benefits. [54] In view of Pakistan's conditions, Bhutto's government did not wish the financial burden of this scheme to fall even partly on the worker. [54] It was decided that the scheme be founded through a contribution from employers to the extent of 5% of the wage bill. [54]

Foreign policy

After assuming power, Bhutto sought to diversify Pakistan's relations away from the United States and, soon Pakistan left CENTO and SEATO. Bhutto developed close and strengthened the Arab relations, and Sino-Pak relations. [77] Bhutto believed in an independent Foreign Policy which had hitherto been the hand maiden of the Western Power, particularly independent from the United States' sphere of influence. [78] With Bhutto as Foreign minister, and Prime minister, Pakistan and Iran had cemented a special relationship, as Iran had provided military assistance to Pakistan. [78] The Sino-Pak relations were immensely improved, and Pakistan, under Bhutto, had built a strategic relationship with People's Republic of China, when PRC was isolated. [77] In 1974, Bhutto hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1974 where he delegated and invited leaders from the Muslim world to Lahore, Punjab Province of Pakistan. [5] Bhutto was a strong advocate of Afro-Asian Solidarity and had cemented ties with Afro-Asian and Islamic countries and by 1976 had emerged as the Leader of the Third World. [79]

Bhutto with Nixon in the Oval Office, 1971 Meeting with the President of Pakistan in the Oval Office - NARA - 194749.tif
Bhutto with Nixon in the Oval Office, 1971

Bhutto sought a peace agreement—Simla Agreement—with Indira Gandhi, Premier of India, and brought back 93,000 P.O.Ws to Pakistan and secured 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) held by India without compromising on Kashmir stance or recognising Bangladesh which were the key Indian demands. [5] Negotiating with a power that has dismembered the country was an open-challenge to Bhutto who smoothly convinced India to return the territory and the POWs back to Pakistan. [80] Before this conference, Bhutto and his colleagues did the comprehensive homework as Bhutto had realised that Arabs had still not succeeded in regaining territory lost in the 1967 war with Israel. [80] Therefore, capturing of land does not cry out for international attention the same way as the prisoners do. [80] According to Benazir Bhutto, Bhutto demanded the control of the territory in the first stage of the Agreement which surprised and shocked the Indian delegation. [80] In Bhutto's point of view, the POW problem was more of a humanitarian problem that could be tackled at any time, but the territorial problem was something that could be integrated in India as time elapses. [80] Indian Premier Gandhi was stunned and astonished at Bhutto's demand and reacted immediately by refusing Bhutto's demand. [80] However, Bhutto calmed her and negotiated with economic packages dealt with Gandhi. [80] Bhutto's knowledge and his intellectualism impressed Gandhi personally that Gandhi agreed to give the territory back to Bhutto in a first stage of the agreement. Signing of this agreement with Pakistan paying small price is still considered Bhutto's one of the huge diplomatic success. [80]

His vast knowledge, intelligence, and keen awareness of post-World War II, and the nuclear history, enabled him to craft the foreign policy which brought unmatched undivideds in Pakistan's foreign policy history. [81] Elements of his policy were continued by the successive governments to play a vital role in world's politics. [81] In 1974, Bhutto and his Foreign minister Aziz Ahmed brought a U.N. resolution, recommending and calling for the establishment of nuclear-weapon free zone in South Asia, whilst he and Aziz Ahmed aggressively attacked the Indian nuclear programme. [81] While Abdul Qadeer Khan was tasked with bringing the gas-centrifuge technology through the means of atomic proliferation, the goal of the resolution was achieved when Bhutto put India on the defensive position and promoted Pakistan as a non-proliferationist. [81]

East Asia

Since the 1960s, Bhutto had been an anti-SEATO and preferred a non-aligned policy. [82] Soon after assuming the office, Bhutto took a lengthy foreign trip to Southeast Asia, seeking closer and tighter relations with Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Burma, and North Korea. [82] His policy largely followed a tight and closer relations with China, normalised relationships with Soviet Union, built an Islamic bloc, and advocated a creation of new economical alliance largely benefiting the third and second world countries. [82]

All of these initiations and implications had disastrous effects on Japan, prompting Japan to oppose Bhutto, although Bhutto was a great admirer of Japan even though Japan was not a constituent part of Bhutto's foreign policy. [82] In the 1970s, Japan made several attempts to get close to Bhutto, sending its military officials, scientists, and parliamentary delegations to Pakistan. [82] Hence Japan went far by condemning India for carrying out a nuclear test, Smiling Buddha, in 1974, and publicly supported Pakistan's non-nuclear weapon policy and pledged to build several new nuclear power plants. [82] In 1970, Bhutto advised Japan not to be party of NPT, but Japan signed it but later regretted for not being properly progressed. [83]

In Bhutto's view, Japan had been under the United States' influence, and much bigger role of Japan in Asia would only benefit American interests in the region. [82] By the 1970s, Japan completely lost its momentum in Pakistan as Pakistan followed a strict independent policy. [82] Bhutto envisioned Pakistan's new policy as benefiting the economic relations rather than the military alliance which also affected Japan's impact on Pakistan. [82] However, much of the foreign policy efforts were reverted by General Zia-ul-Haq and ties were finally restored after Bhutto's execution. [82]

Arab world and Israel

Bhutto sought to improve Pakistan's ties with the Arab world, and sided with the Arab world during the Arab-Israeli conflict. [81] Colonel Gaddafi of former Socialist Libya considered Bhutto as one of his greatest inspirations and was said to be very fond of Bhutto's intellectualism. [81] In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, Pakistan's relations with the Arab world represented a watershed. [81] In both Pakistan and the Arab world, Pakistan's swift, unconditional and forthright offer of assistance to the Arab states was deeply appreciated. [81] In 1974, pressured by other Muslim nations, Pakistan eventually recognised Bangladesh as Mujib stated he would only go to the OIC conference in Lahore if Pakistan recognised Bangladesh. [81] [84] Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with Bangladesh on 18 January 1976 and relations improved in the following decades. [78] Bhutto aided the Syrian and Egyptian Air Force by sending the Pakistan Air Force and Navy's top fighter pilots where they flew combat missions against Israel. However, Iraq was not benefited with Bhutto policies.

In early 1977, Bhutto decided to use ISI to provide the credible intelligence on Iraqi nuclear program that Pakistan and the ISI had secretly gained. [73] The government passed intel that identified Iraqi nuclear program and the Osirak Nuclear Reactor at Osirak to Israel's Mossad . [73] Helping Israel to infiltrate Iraqi nuclear program was also continued by General Zia-ul-Haq as their policy to teach Iraq and Saddam Hussein a lesson for supporting the Baloch liberation fronts and movements. [73]

United States and Soviet Union

In 1974, India carried out a nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha , near Pakistan's eastern border. Bhutto unsuccessfully lobbied for the United States to impose economic sanctions on India. [85] However, at the request of Bhutto, Pakistan's Ambassador to the United States convened a meeting with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Kissinger told Pakistan's ambassador to Washington that the test is "a fait accompli and that Pakistan would have to learn to live with it," although he was aware this was a "little rough" on the Pakistanis. [85] In 1976, the ties were further severed with Bhutto as Bhutto had continued to administer the research on weapons, and in 1976, in a meeting with Bhutto and Kissinger, Kissinger had told to Bhutto, "that if you [Bhutto] do not cancel, modify or postpone the Reprocessing Plant Agreement, we will make a horrible example from you". [86] The meeting was ended by Bhutto as he had replied: For my country's sake, for the sake of people of Pakistan, I did not succumb to that black-mailing and threats. [86]

After this meeting, Bhutto intensified Pakistan's foreign policy towards more onto Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, and sought to developed relations with both Soviet Union and the United States. Bhutto was keenly aware of Great Britain's policy of "divide and rule", and American policy of "unite and rule". [77] In 1974, Bhutto, as Prime minister, visited Soviet Union.[ citation needed ] Prime Minister Bhutto deliberately undertook to improve relations with the Soviet Union and the Communist bloc.[ citation needed ] Bhutto sought to developed and alleviated the Soviet–Pakistani relations, with Soviet Union established Pakistan Steel Mills in 1972. [87] [ clarification needed ] The foundation stone for this gigantic project was laid on 30 December 1973 by Bhutto. Facing inexperience for the erection work of the integrated steel mill, Bhutto requested Soviet Union to send its experts. [87] Soviet Union sends dozens of advisors and experts, under Russian scientist Mikhail Koltokof, who supervised the construction of this integrated Steel Mills, with a number of industrial and consortium companies financing this mega-project. [87] [ failed verification ]

The relationship with United States was at low point and severed as United States was opposing Pakistan's nuclear detterrence programme. [77] Although, Richard Nixon enjoyed firmly strong relations with Bhutto and was a close friend of Bhutto, the graph of relation significantly went down under the Presidency of Jimmy Carter. [88] Carter tightened the embargo placed on Pakistan and placed a pressure through the United States Ambassador to Pakistan, Brigadier-General Henry Byroade. [88] The socialist orientation, and Bhutto's proposed left-wing theories, had badly upset the United States, further ringing bells of alarm in the United States as fearing Pakistan's loss as an ally in the Cold war. [88] The leftists and Bhutto's policy towards Soviet Union was seen sympathetic and had built a bridge for Soviet Union to have gain access in Pakistan's warm water ports, that something both United States and Soviet Union had lacked. [88] During the course of 1976 presidential election, Carter was elected as U.S. president, and his very inaugural speech Carter announced the determination to seek the ban of nuclear weapons. [88] With Carter's election, Bhutto lost all links to United States administration he had through President Nixon. [88] Bhutto had to face the embargo and pressure from the American President who was totally against the political objectives which Bhutto had set forth for his upcoming future plans. Carter indirectly announced his opposition to Bhutto, his ambition and the elections. [88]

Although, Carter placed an embargo on Pakistan, Bhutto under the technical guidance and diplomatic though Aziz Ahmed, succeeded to buy sensitive equipments, common metal materials, and electronic components, marked as "common items", hide the true nature of the intentions, greatly enhance the atomic bomb project, though a complete failure for Carter's embargo. [88] In a thesis written by historian Abdul Ghafoor Bhurgri, Carter keenly sabotaged Bhutto credibility, but did not wanted favoured his execution as Carter made a call to General Zia-ul-Haq to stop the act. [88] Therefore, senior leadership of Pakistan Peoples Party reached out to different country's ambassadors and high commissioners but did not meet with the U.S. ambassador, as the leadership knew the "noble" part played by Carter and his administration. [88] When Carter administration discovered Bhutto's act, the programme was reached to a well advanced level, and furthermore, had disastrous effect on SALT I Treaty which was soon collapse, a failure of President Carter to stop the atomic proliferation and arm race between Soviet Union and United States heightened. [88]

Afghanistan and Central Asia

Zulfiqar with Afghan King Zahir Shah Zulfiqar with Afghan King Zahir Shah.png
Zulfiqar with Afghan King Zahir Shah

In 1972, Bhutto initially tried to build friendly ties with Afghanistan but such attempts where rebuffed in 1973. [89] In 1974, Afghanistan began covert involvement in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which became increasingly disturbing for Bhutto's government. [90] Afghan President Dawood Khan's controversial Pashtunisation policies resulted in Pakistan with gruesome violence and civil disturbances. [90] The ISI quickly pointed out that President Daud was providing safe havens and training camps to anti-Pakistan militants and its intelligence agency had been a main arm of supporting the actions inside Pakistan, including providing support to Baloch separatists. [91] Therefore, Bhutto's government decided to retaliate, and Bhutto launched a covert counter-operation in 1974 under the command of Major-General Naseerullah Babar, who was then Director-General of the M.I. Directorate-General for Western Fronts (DGWI). [90] According to General Baber, it was an excellent idea and it had hard-hitting impact on Afghanistan. [90] The aim of this operation was to arm the Islamic fundamentalists and to instigate an attack in different parts of Afghanistan. [90] In 1974, Bhutto authorised a covert operation in Kabul and the Pakistan Air Force and the members of AI and the ISI successfully extradited Burhanuddin Rabbani, Jan Mohammad Khan, Gulbadin Hekmatyar, and Ahmad Shah Massoud to Peshawar, amid fear that Rabbani may be assassinated. [92] By the end of 1974, Bhutto gave final authorisation of covert operation to train Afghan mujaheddin to take on Daoud Khan's government. This operation was an ultimate success. [93]

By 1976 Daud had become concerned about his country's over dependence on the Soviet Union and the rising insurgency. On 7 June 1976, Bhutto paid a three-day state visit to Afghanistan, followed by a five-day visit of Daud Khan to Pakistan in August 1976. On 2 March 1977, an agreement on the resumption of air communications between Afghanistan and Pakistan was reached, as relations continued to improve. [94] Bhutto and Daud made an exchange of official visits to force Afghanistan to accept the Durand Line as the permanent border. [89] [91] However, these developments were interrupted as Bhutto was removed and Daud Khan was also overthrown in a military coup shortly after. [89] Western experts viewed Bhutto's policy as "astute policy" in regards to the border question, as it increased pressure on Afghanistan and very likely helped stimulate Afghan government's move towards accommodation. The Deputy Afghan Foreign Minister Abdul Samad Ghaus also admitted that before the compromise Afghanistan had been heavily involved inside Pakistan. [89]


Bhutto began facing considerable criticism and increasing unpopularity as his term progressed. Initially targeting the opposition leader Abdul Wali Khan and his National Awami Party (NAP), a democratic socialist party, the socialist and communist mass who gathered under Bhutto's leadership began to disintegrate, thus dividing and allying with secular fronts. Despite the ideological similarity of the two parties, clashes between them became increasingly fierce. This started with the federal government's ousting of the NAP provincial government in Balochistan for alleged secessionist activities, [95] and ended with the ban on the NAP. Subsequently, much of the NAP top leadership was arrested, after Bhutto's confidant Hyatt Scherpaoi was killed in a Peshawar bomb blast. Another notable figure, Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman died due to a cardiac arrest while in the office. Between the 1974 and 1976, many of Bhutto's original members had left Bhutto due to political differences or natural death causes. In 1974, Bhutto's trusted Science Advisor Abdus Salam also left Pakistan when Parliament declared Ahmadis as non-Muslims. With Salam's departure, the research on nuclear weapons slowed down the progress as Dr. Mubashir Hassan, now Bhutto's appointed Science Advisor, would focus on politics more than the science research. Many civil bureaucrats and military officers loyal to Bhutto were replaced by new faces. Bhutto found himself with new advisers and collaborators. [96]

Dissidence also increased within the PPP and the murder of dissident leader Ahmed Raza Kasuri's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime. Powerful PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar, former Governor of Punjab, openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime. [96] The political crisis in the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties remained suspended and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there were accused of human rights abuses and killing large numbers of civilians. [37]

On 8 January 1977, the opposition organized into the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA), [37] a nine-party coalition against the government of Bhutto and his allies. Bhutto called fresh elections, but the PNA did not obtain a clear majority. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, accusing their opponents of rigging the election. The dissidents ultimately claimed that 40 seats in the national assembly were rigged, and boycotted the provincial elections. In the face of the resulting low voter turnout, the PNA declared the newly elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Hard-line Islamist leaders such as Maulana Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime. [96] Mubashir Hassan, Science Advisor of Bhutto, feared a possible coup against Bhutto. [97] Hassan entered the dispute and made an unsuccessful attempt to reach an agreement with PNA. Most Islamists refused to meet with Hassan as they saw him as the architect of Bhutto's success. The same year, an intensive crackdown was initiated on the Pakistan Muslim League, a conservative front. [98] The People's National Party's President and former Leader of the Opposition Khan Vali Khan saw Bhutto's actions as his last stand against PNA, the Armed Forces and Bhutto, including his colleagues, were isolated. [99] [ failed verification ] In an open public seminar, Vali Khan quoted that "There is one possible grave for two people ... let us see who gets in first". [99] The Federal Security Force allegedly either arrested or extrajudicially killed members of the Muslim League. [98] Following this, amid protest and civil distress felt in Lahore, and People's Party lost the administrative control over the city. [98]

Military coup

On 3 July 1977, then-Major-General K.M. Arif secretly met Bhutto, revealing that the planning of a coup had been taking place in the General Combatant Headquarters (GHQ). [70] At this secret meeting, General Arif encouraged Bhutto to "rush the negotiation with the PNA, before it's too late". [70] Intensifying political and civil disorder prompted Bhutto to hold talks with PNA leaders, which culminated in an agreement for the dissolution of the assemblies and fresh elections under a government of national unity. [100] However, on 5 July 1977 Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops under the order of General Zia. [37] It is generally believed that the coup took place on the pretext of unrest despite Bhutto having reached an agreement with the opposition. [98]

Bhutto had good intelligence within the Army, and officers such as Major-General Tajamül Hussain Malik were loyal to him until the end. [98] However, General Zia-ul-Haq ordered a training programme with the officers from Special Air Service (SAS). [98] General Zia-ul-Haq ordered many of Bhutto's loyal officers to attend the first course. [98] However, classes for senior officers were delayed until the midnight. [98] None of the officers were allowed to leave until late in the evening before the coup. During this time, arrangements for the coup was made. [98]

General Zia announced that martial law had been imposed, the constitution suspended and all assemblies dissolved and promised elections within ninety days. Zia also ordered the arrest of senior PPP and PNA leaders but promised elections in October. Bhutto was released on 29 July and was received by a large crowd of supporters in his hometown of Larkana. He immediately began touring across Pakistan, delivering speeches to very large crowds and planning his political comeback. Bhutto was arrested again on 3 September before being released on bail on 13 September. Fearing yet another arrest, Bhutto named his wife, Nusrat, president of the Pakistan People's Party. Bhutto was imprisoned on 16 September and a large number of PPP leaders, notably Dr. Mubashir Hassan and activists were arrested and disqualified from contesting the elections. Observers noted that when Bhutto was removed from power in July 1977, thousands of Pakistanis cheered and were delighted. [101]

Arrests and trial

On 5 July 1977 the military, led by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, staged a coup. Zia relieved prime minister Bhutto of power, holding him in detention for a month. Zia pledged that new elections would be held in 90 days. He kept postponing the elections and publicly retorted during successive press conferences that if the elections were held in the presence of Bhutto his party would not return to power again.

Upon his release, Bhutto travelled around the country amid adulatory crowds of PPP supporters. He used to take the train from the south to the north, and en route would address public meetings at different stations. Several of these trains were late, some by days, in reaching their respective destinations and as a result Bhutto was banned from traveling by train. The last visit he made to the city of Multan in the province of Punjab marked the turning point in Bhutto's political career and ultimately, his life. In spite of the administration's efforts to block the gathering, the crowd was so large that it became disorderly, providing an opportunity for the administration to declare that Bhutto, along with Dr. Hassan, had been taken into custody because the people were against him and it had become necessary to protect him from the masses for his own safety.

On 3 September, the Army arrested Bhutto again on charges of authorising the murder of a political opponent in March 1974. [102] A 35-year-old politician Ahmed Raza Kasuri and his family had been ambushed, leaving Kasuri's father, Nawab Muhammad Ahmad Khan Kasuri, dead. Kasuri claimed that he was the actual target, accusing Bhutto of orchestrating the attack. Kasuri later claimed that he had been the target of 15 assassination attempts. Bhutto's wife Nusrat Bhutto assembled a team of top Pakistani lawyers for Bhutto's defence, led by Fakhruddin G. Ebrahim, Yahya Bakhtiar and Abdulhafiz Pirzada. Bhutto was released 10 days after his arrest after a judge, Justice KMA Samdani, found the evidence to be "contradictory and incomplete." As a result, Justice Samdani was immediately removed from the bench and placed at the disposal of the law ministry. Three days later Zia arrested Bhutto again on the same charges, this time under "martial law." When the PPP organised demonstrations among Bhutto's supporters, Zia cancelled the upcoming elections.

Bhutto was arraigned before the High Court of Lahore instead of in a lower court, thus depriving him of one level of appeal. The judge who had granted him bail had been removed. Five new judges were appointed, headed by Chief Justice of Lahore High Court Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain. [103] Hussain had previously served as Bhutto's Foreign secretary in 1965, and was alleged to have strongly disliked and distrusted Bhutto. [103] Hussain was not only a Zia appointee but also hailed from his home Jullundur district. [104]

The trial lasted five months, and Bhutto appeared in court in a dock specially built for the trial. Proceedings began on 24 October 1977. Masood Mahmood, the director general of the Federal Security Force (since renamed the Federal Investigation Agency), testified against Bhutto. Mahmood had been arrested immediately after Zia's coup and had been imprisoned for two months prior to taking the stand. In his testimony, he claimed Bhutto had ordered Kasuri's assassination and that four members of the Federal Security Force had organised the ambush on Bhutto's orders. The four alleged assassins were arrested and later confessed. They were brought into court as "co-accused" but one of them recanted his testimony, declaring that it had been extracted from him under torture. The following day, the witness was not present in court and the prosecution claimed that he had suddenly "fallen ill".

Bhutto's defence team fought the case efficiently and challenged the prosecution with evidence from an army logbook the prosecution had submitted.[ citation needed ] It showed that the jeep allegedly driven during the attack on Kasuri was not even in Lahore at the time. The prosecution had the logbook disregarded as "incorrect". During the cross-examination by the defence of witnesses, the bench often interrupted questioning. The 706-page official transcript contained none of the objections or inconsistencies in the evidence pointed out by the defence.[ citation needed ] Former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark called it a mock trial fought in a Kangaroo court.[ citation needed ] Having witnessed the trial, Clark later wrote:

The prosecution's case was based entirely on several witnesses who were detained until they confessed, who changed and expanded their confessions and testimony with each reiteration, who contradicted themselves and each other, who, except for Masood Mahmood... were relating what others said, whose testimony led to four different theories of what happened, absolutely uncorroborated by an eyewitness, direct evidence, or physical evidence. [105]

When Bhutto began his testimony on 25 January 1978, Chief Justice Maulvi Mushtaq closed the courtroom to all observers. Bhutto responded by refusing to say any more. Bhutto demanded a retrial, accusing the Chief Justice of bias, after Mushtaq allegedly insulted Bhutto's home province. The court refused his demand. [103]

Death sentence and appeal

Mausoleum of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and other Bhutto family members in Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, Sindh Mausoleum of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto.jpg
Mausoleum of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and other Bhutto family members in Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, Sindh

On 18 March 1978, Bhutto was declared guilty of murder, and was sentenced to death. [106] [107] [108] Bhutto's former Legal Minister, Abdul Hafiz Pirzada petitioned the Supreme Court for the release of Bhutto's Science Adviser, Mubashir Hassan, and to review Bhutto's death sentence based on the split decision. [108] The Supreme Court denied Hassan's release because he was held by Military Police, but the court agreed to hear the arguments. [108] After 12 days of proceedings, the Supreme Court concluded that the President of Pakistan can change a death sentence into life imprisonment. [108] Pirzada filed an application to then-Chief Martial Law Administrator. [108] However, General Zia-ul-Haq did not act immediately and claimed that the application had gone missing. [108]

Emotionally shattered, Pirzada informed Bhutto about the development and General Zia-ul-Haq's intention. [108] Therefore, Bhutto did not seek an appeal. [108] While he was transferred to a cell in Rawalpindi central jail, his family appealed on his behalf, and a hearing before the Supreme Court commenced in May. Bhutto was given one week to prepare. Bhutto issued a thorough rejoinder to the charges, although Zia blocked its publication. Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq adjourned the court until the end of July 1978, supposedly because five of the nine appeal court judges were willing to overrule the Lahore verdict. One of the pro-Bhutto judges was due to retire in July.

Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq presided over the trial, despite being close to Zia, even serving as Acting President when Zia was out of the country. Bhutto's lawyers managed to secure Bhutto the right to conduct his own defence before the Supreme Court. On 18 December 1978, Bhutto made his appearance in public before a packed courtroom in Rawalpindi. By this time he had been on death row for 9 months and had gone without fresh water for the previous 25 days.[ citation needed ] He addressed the court for four days, speaking without notes.

I did not kill that man. My God is aware of it. I am big enough to admit if I had done it, that admission would have been less of an ordeal and humiliation than this barbarous trial which no self respecting man can endure. I am a Muslim. A Muslim's fate is in the hands of God Almighty. I can face Him with a clear conscience and tell Him that I rebuilt His Islamic State of Pakistan from ashes into a respectable Nation. I am entirely at peace with my conscience in this black hole of Kot Lakhpat. I am not afraid of death. You have seen what fires I have passed through.

— Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, My Dearest Daughter: A letter from Death Cell, [109]

The appeal was completed on 23 December 1978. On 6 February 1979, the Supreme Court issued a guilty verdict, [110] a decision reached by a bare 4-to-3 majority. The Bhutto family had seven days in which to appeal. The court granted a stay of execution while it studied the petition. By 24 February 1979 when the next court hearing began, appeals for clemency arrived from many heads of state. Zia said that the appeals amounted to "trade union activity" among politicians.

On 24 March 1979 the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal. Zia upheld the death sentence. Bhutto was hanged at Central Jail Rawalpindi, on 4 April 1979, [111] after suffering severe torture in jail which resulted in vomiting and severe pain in chest, [112] and was buried at his family mausoleum in Garhi Khuda Baksh. [113]

During his imprisonment, Bhutto's children Murtaza and Benazir worked on rallying the international support for the release of their father. [114] Libya's Colonel Gaddafi sent his Prime Minister Abdus Salam Jalloud on an emergency trip to Pakistan to hold talks with Pakistan's military establishment for the release of Bhutto. [114] In a press conference, Jalloud told the journalists that Gaddafi had offered General Zia to exile him to Libya, and Prime Minister Jalloud stayed in the Islamabad International Airport where the specially designated Presidential aircraft waited for Bhutto. [114] However, after a week of staying at the airport, General Zia rejected Prime Minister Jalloud's request and upheld the death sentence. [114] Much of the Muslim world was shocked at Bhutto's execution. [114] Before being hanged, Bhutto made a final speech and his last words were: "Oh Lord, help me for... I am innocent." [115]

Re-opening of the Bhutto trial

On 2 April 2011, 32 years after Bhutto's trial and execution, the PPP (the ruling party at that time) filed a petition at the Supreme Court to reopen Bhutto's trial. At the Geo News , senior journalist Iftikhar Ahmad aired a series of televised interviews with those who played a major and often controversial role in Bhutto's death. A legal team was organized by the Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani's cabinet seeking to reopen the trial. [116] President Asif Ali Zardari gave his consent to the resulting presidential order named Article 186 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court taking up the petition on 13 April 2011. [117] Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry eventually presided the three-judge-bench (although it was expanded with law experts from four provinces of Pakistan), while Minister of Law Babar Awan counseled Bhutto's case. [118]

With immediate effect, Babar Awan resigned as Law Minister, even leaving the Justice Ministry entirely in order to legally counsel Bhutto's case completely independently. In his noting remarks, Chief Justice Chaudhry praised and appreciated the move by the senior PPP leadership and remarked the gesture as "historic". [119] In a crucial advancement, the Supreme Court ordered the decision on the legal status of Bhutto's execution to a to-be-formed larger bench. [120]

After a series of hearings at the Supreme Court, the case was adjourned and dismissed after the PPP approved the suspension of Babar Awan on 2 May 2012. [121]

Personal life

Bhutto's first marriage took place in 1943, to his cousin Shireen Amir Begum, however they separated. On 8 September 1951 Zulfiquar Ali Bhutto married Nusrat Ispahani of Iranian Kurdish origin, popularly known as Begum Nusrat Bhutto. Nusrat Ispahani. [122] in Karachi. Their first child, Benazir, was born in 1953. She was followed by Murtaza in 1954, Sanam in 1957 and Shahnawaz in 1958. [123]


The foundation stone is built by the Gomal University in the honour of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan. Foundation Stone Gomal University ZABhutto.jpg
The foundation stone is built by the Gomal University in the honour of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan.

Bhutto remains a controversial and widely discussed figure in Pakistan. While he was hailed for his nationalism, Bhutto was roundly criticized for intimidating his political opponents. By the time Bhutto was given the control of his country in 1971, Pakistan was in a state of disrepair and demoralization after a bloody civil war. [124] His political rivals had blamed his socialist policies for slowing down Pakistan's economic progress, as they caused poor productivity and high costs; however, Bhutto countered that he was merely addressing the massive inequality built up over the Ayub Khan (General) years. [29]

Bhutto is blamed by some quarters for causing the Bangladesh Liberation War. In 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq released former general Yahya Khan from prison and his Lieutenant-General Fazle Haq gave him the honorary guard of honor when the former general died in 1980. [29] After being released from house arrest after the 1977 coup Yahya said, "It was Bhutto, not Mujib, who broke Pakistan. Bhutto's stance in 1971 and his stubbornness harmed Pakistan's solidarity much more than Sheikh Mujib's six-point demand. It was his high ambitions and rigid stance that led to rebellion in East Pakistan. He riled up the Bengalis and brought an end to Pakistan's solidarity. East Pakistan broke away." [125] Other army men who lay blame for 1971 on Bhutto include future President Pervez Musharraf and East Pakistan's former Martial Law Administrator Syed Mohammad Ahsan. [126] Bhutto is also often criticised for human-rights abuses in Baluchistan by hardline Islamists as well as conservatives. [37] Bhutto's actions during the 1970s operation in Balochistan are also criticised for failing to bring about a lasting peace in the region.[ citation needed ]

Bhutto's international image is more positive, casting him as a secular internationalist. Domestically, despite the criticism, Bhutto still remains Pakistan's most popular leader. [37] During his premiership, Bhutto succeeded in uniting all the parties in getting the 1973 constitution enacted. [124] His determined and aggressive embrace of nuclear weapons for Pakistan has made him regarded as the father of Pakistan's nuclear-deterrence programme, which he pursued in spite of Pakistan's limited financial resources and strong opposition from the United States. [40] [43] [124] In 2006, The Atlantic described Bhutto as demagogic and extremely populist, but still Pakistan's greatest civilian leader. [36] Even though Henry Kissinger developed differences with Bhutto, in his 1979 memoir White House Years he conceded that Bhutto was "brilliant, charming, of global stature in his perception, a man of extraordinary abilities, capable of drawing close to any country that served Pakistan`s national interests". [127]

While, Bhutto's former Law Minister Mairaj Muhammad Khan described Bhutto as "a great man but cruel". [128] His family remained active and influential in politics, with first his wife[ citation needed ] and then his daughter becoming leader of the PPP political party. [129] His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto, was twice Prime Minister of Pakistan, and was assassinated on 27 December 2007, while campaigning for 2008 elections. [129] [ failed verification ] While his son, Murtaza Bhutto, served as the Member Parliament of Pakistan, and was also assassinated in a controversial police encounter. [129] [ failed verification ]

Roedad Khan, former statesman who served under Bhutto, further wrote in his book, Pakistan—A dream gone sour, that after 1971, Bhutto started extremely well, bringing the isolated, angered, apprehended, and dismembered nation back into her feet and gave the respectable place in the world, in a shortest period... With a gift of giving the nation a parliamentary system and furthermore the ambitious successful development of atomic bomb programme in a record time, are his greatest achievements in his life, for Pakistan and her people, but sadly deteriorated at the end". [130] Bhutto remains highly influential in country's public, scientific, and political circles; his name yet continues to resonate in Pakistan's collective memory. [101]

With all the criticism and opposition, Bhutto remained highly influential and respected figure even after his death. Bhutto is widely regarded as being among the most influential men in the history of Pakistan. [11] His supporters gave him the title Quaid-e-Awam (Leader of the people). [129] [ failed verification ]



  • Peace-Keeping by the United Nations, Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi, 1967
  • Political Situation in Pakistan, Veshasher Prakashan, New Delhi, 1968
  • The Myth of Independence, Oxford University Press, Karachi and Lahore, 1969
  • The Great Tragedy, Pakistan People's Party, Karachi, 1971
  • Marching Towards Democracy, (collections of speeches), 1972
  • Politics of the People (speeches, statements and articles), 1948–1971
  • The Third World: New Directions, Quartet Books, London, 1977
  • My Pakistan, Biswin Sadi Publications, New Delhi, 1979
  • If I am Assassinated, Vikas, New Delhi, 1979 on-line Archived 18 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  • My Execution, Musawaat Weekly International, London, 1980
  • New Directions, Narmara Publishers, London, 1980

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Pakistan</span> Former provincial wing of Pakistan (1955–1971)

East Pakistan was a Pakistani province established in 1955 by the One Unit Policy, renaming the province as such from East Bengal, which nowadays is split up between India and Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Myanmar, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistanis were popularly known as "Pakistani Bengalis"; to distinguish this region from India's state West Bengal, East Pakistan was known as "Pakistani Bengal". In 1971, East Pakistan became the newly independent state Bangladesh, which means "state of Bengal" in Bengali.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yahya Khan</span> Chief Martial Law Administrator and President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971

General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan ; commonly known as Yahya Khan, was a Pakistani army officer who served concurrently as the Chief Martial Law Administrator and President of Pakistan from 25 March 1969 until his resignation on 20 December 1971. During his rule, he ordered Operation Searchlight in an effort to suppress Bengali nationalism which triggered the Bangladesh Liberation War. He was central to the perpetration of the Bangladesh genocide, the genocide of the populace of modern-day Bangladesh which resulted in death of 300,000–3,000,000 Bengalis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq</span> President of Pakistan from 1978 to 1988

General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq HI, GCSJ, ร.ม.ภ, was a Pakistani four-star general and statesman who became the sixth President of Pakistan after a successful coup on the famous left-wing government of Bhutto, supported by right-wing Islamist political parties and declaration of martial law in 1977. Zia served in office until his death in a plane crash in 1988. He remains the country's longest-serving de facto head of state and Chief of Army Staff.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pakistan People's Party</span> Social-democratic political party in Pakistan

The Pakistan People's Party is a centre-left, social-democratic political party in Pakistan. It is currently the third largest party in the National Assembly. The party was founded in 1967, when a number of prominent left-wing politicians in the country joined hands against the military dictatorship of President Ayub Khan, under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Affiliated with Socialist International, the PPP's platform has formerly been socialist, and its stated priorities continue to include transforming Pakistan into a social-democratic state, promoting secular and egalitarian values, establishing social justice, and maintaining a strong military. The party, alongside the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz and the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, is one of the 3 largest political parties of Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ghulam Ishaq Khan</span> President of Pakistan from 1988 to 1993

Ghulam Ishaq Khan, was a Pakistani bureaucrat who served as the seventh president of Pakistan, elected in 1988 until his resignation in 1993. He was the founder of his namesake Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tikka Khan</span> Pakistani general

General Tikka Khan was a Pakistan Army general who was the first chief of army staff from 3 March 1972 until retiring on 1 March 1976. Along with Yahya Khan, he is considered a chief architect of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide which according to independent researchers led to the deaths of 300,000 to 3,000,000 people.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abdul Wali Khan</span> Pakistani politician

Khan Abdul Wali Khan was a Pakistani secular democratic socialist and Pashtun leader, and served as president of Awami National Party. Son of the prominent Pashtun nationalist leader Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Wali Khan was an activist and a writer against the British Raj like his father.

Kausar Niazi, born as Muhammad Hayyat Khan and commonly known as MaulanaKausar Niazi, was a Pakistani politician and a religious leader in Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). Niazi, in Bhutto's premiership cabinet, was a most powerful federal minister in Pakistan during 1974 till 1977. Niazi was one of the close aids and trusted confidents of Bhutto who remained loyal to Bhutto until his death. He was born in Musakhel, Punjab, Pakistan. His father Fateh Khan Niazi Luqi-khel and uncle Muzaffar Khan Niazi Luqi-khel were among the leading persons of the area. He was a religious scholar and orator, who made a name for himself in politics, and was a member of Bhutto's Federal Cabinet. He served as a minister and assisted Bhutto for 6 years. He was also a member of the Pakistan Peoples Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abdul Hafeez Pirzada</span> Pakistani politician (1935–2015)

Abdul Hafeez Pirzada was a Pakistani lawyer, legal theorist, and politician, who served variously as minister for information, minister for law, minister for finance, and minister for education under president and later prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from 1971 to 1977. As law minister, he is credited as a principal draftsman of the Constitution of Pakistan, passed in 1973.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aziz Ahmed (civil servant)</span> Pakistani statesman and diplomat

Aziz Ahmed HPk was a career Pakistani statesman and a diplomat during the Cold War, serving in the capacity as 12th Foreign Minister of Pakistan from 1973 until 1977. Prior to that, Ahmad served as the Pakistan Ambassador to the United States (1959–63) and eventually appointed as Foreign secretary (1960–67) by President Ayub Khan.

Mumtaz Ali Khan Bhutto, was a Pakistani politician who served as 8th Governor of Sindh and later the 13th Chief Minister of Sindh. He was also the first cousin of late Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who was the Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1970s operation in Balochistan</span> Conflict between Pakistani forces and Baloch separatists

The 1970s operation in Balochistan was a five-year military conflict in Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan, between the Pakistan Army and Baloch separatists and tribesmen that lasted from 1973 to 1978.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1970 Pakistani general election</span> Elections for members of National Assembly of Pakistan

General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970 to elect members of the National Assembly. They were the first general elections since the independence of Pakistan and ultimately the only ones held prior to the independence of Bangladesh. Voting took place in 300 general constituencies, of which 162 were in East Pakistan and 138 in West Pakistan. A further thirteen seats were reserved for women, who were to be elected by members of the National Assembly.

The political history of Pakistan is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders of Pakistan. Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom on 14 August 1947, when the Presidencies and provinces of British India were divided by the United Kingdom, in a region which is commonly referred to as the Indian subcontinent. Since its independence, Pakistan has had a colorful yet turbulent political history at times, often characterized by martial law and inefficient leadership.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Libya–Pakistan relations</span> Bilateral relations

The Libya–Pakistan relations are the international and bilateral relations between Libya and Pakistan. The relations remains friendly and bonded throughout its history as both countries shares similar religious identities, cultural links, particularly their Islamic heritage. The bilateral relations were established in the 1950s when King Idris agreed to provide financial aid to the then impoverished Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muslim League (Pakistan)</span> Political party in Pakistan

The Muslim League was the original successor of the All-India Muslim League that led the Pakistan Movement to achieve an independent nation. Five of the country's Prime Ministers have been affiliated with this party, namely Liaquat Ali Khan, Khwaja Nazimuddin, M. A. Bogra, Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, and I. I. Chundrigar. The Muslim League was defeated in the 1955 elections to the Constituent Assembly by a political alliance known as the United Front. However, Prime Minister C. M. Ali and Prime Minister Chundrigar were appointed to lead a minority government. The party was dissolved in 1958 after the declaration of Martial Law by General Muhammad Ayub Khan, the Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Project-706</span> Code name for Pakistans Nuclear Bomb Program

Project-706, also known as Project-786 was the codename of a research and development program to develop Pakistan's first nuclear weapons. The program was initiated by Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1974 in response to the Indian nuclear tests conducted in May 1974. During the course of this program, Pakistani nuclear scientists and engineers developed the requisite nuclear infrastructure and gained expertise in the extraction, refining, processing and handling of fissile material with the ultimate goal of designing a nuclear device. These objectives were achieved by the early 1980s with the first successful cold test of a Pakistani nuclear device in 1983. The two institutions responsible for the execution of the program were the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and the Kahuta Research Laboratories, led by Munir Ahmed Khan and Abdul Qadeer Khan respectively. In 1976 an organization called Special Development Works (SDW) was created within the Pakistan Army, directly under the Chief of the Army Staff (Pakistan) (COAS). This organization worked closely with PAEC and KRL to secretly prepare the nuclear test sites in Baluchistan and other required civil infrastructure.

The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like The Struggle, Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)

The family of head of state and government in Pakistan is an unofficial title for the family of the head of state or head of government of a country. In Pakistan, the term First Family usually refers to the head of state or head of government, and their immediate family which comprises their spouse and their descendants. In the wider context, the First Family may comprise the head of state or head of government's parents, siblings and extended relatives.

Conservatism in Pakistan, generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan. American historian Stephen Cohen describes several political constants in Pakistan's conservatism: respect for tradition, the rule of law and the Islamic religion which is an integral in the idea of Pakistan.


  1. "The multipurpose Muslim League". Dawn (newspaper). 13 August 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  2. 1 2 Chitkara, M.G. (1996). Benazir – a profile. New Delhi: APH Publ. Corp. p. 69. ISBN   978-8170247524 . Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  3. "Six-point Programme". Banglapedia.
  4. Jalal, Ayesha (16 September 2014). The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics. ISBN   9780674744998.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Sharmila Farooqi, Member of PAS (2011). "ZA Bhutto – architect of a new Pakistan". Sharmila Farooqi, member of Sindh Provincial Assembly of Pakistan. Sharmila Faruqui. Retrieved 15 April 2001. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the maker of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the architect of Pakistan.
  6. 1 2 "Deposed Pakistani PM is executed". BBC On This Day. British Broadcasting Corporation. 4 April 1979. Retrieved 28 December 2007. sentenced to death for the murder of a political opponent
  7. Hoodbhoy, Pervez Amerali (23 January 2011). "Pakistan's nuclear bayonet". The Herald . Dawn Group of Newspapers. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Global Security.org (2011). "Balochistan Insurgency – Fourth conflict 1973–77". Global Security.org. Global Security.org. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  9. Pakistan, Zia and after. Abhinav Publications. 1989. pp. 20–35. ISBN   978-81-7017-253-6.
  10. Blood, Peter (1994). "Pakistan – Zia-ul-Haq". Pakistan: A Country Study . Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 28 December 2007. ... hanging ... Bhutto for complicity in the murder of a political opponent...
  11. 1 2 Hassan, Nadir (14 April 2011). "In memorian: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". Dawn. Retrieved 8 August 2011. The one person in Pakistan's recent history whose death transcends symbolism is Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Bhutto gave the country its last and best constitution and by inspiring millions through force of rhetoric....Dawn
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Pakistan Peoples Party (2011). "Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)". PPP. PPP medial Cell. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2001.
  13. "Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali" . Retrieved 7 November 2006.
  14. "Bhutto Family". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  15. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto | prime minister of Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  16. "Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)". Pakistan Peoples Party. 2011. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013.
  17. Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. pp.  291–93. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
  18. 1 2 "Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali, (5 Jan. 1928–4 April 1979)". WHO'S WHO & WHO WAS WHO. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u152312 . Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  19. Willey, Fay; Jenkins, Loren (16 April 1979). "The Ghost of Bhutto". Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Suraiya, Jug (14 May 2011). "Dealing with a Superpower by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto". Bombay Times . The Times Group of India. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  21. Government Officials (1962). Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto speaks in support of China for membership of United Nations (Television Production). Beijing, People's Republic of China: Government of China and Pakistan Government. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021.
  22. H. W. Brands, The Foreign Policies of Lyndon Johnson: Beyond Vietnam, Texas A&M University Press (1999), p.171 ISBN   089096873X
  23. 1 2 Government Officials (1962). Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's historic visit to China (Television Production). Beijing, People's Republic of China: Government of China and Pakistan. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021.
  24. Hancock, Ewa (21 March 2007). "Friendly Relations: Pakistan and Poland" (JPG). Eva Hancock. Warsaw Voice. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  25. "Pakistan in Europe" (JPG). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 March 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  26. 1 2 US Country Studies. "Ayub Khan" (PHP). Retrieved 7 November 2006.
  27. 1 2 Sublettle, Carey (15 October 1965). "Historical Background: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". Nuclear weapons archives. Federation of American Scientists (FAS). Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 US Country Studies. "Yahya Khan and Bangladesh" (PHP). Retrieved 7 November 2006.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 Hassan, Mubashir (2000). The Mirage of Power: An Inquiry into the Bhutto Years, 1971–1977. Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-579300-5.
  30. Ashraf Mumtaz (16 December 2011). "Ayub, Yahya, Bhutto, Mujib played part". The Nation. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  31. Blood, Archer, Transcript of Selective Genocide Telex, Department of State, United States
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 Mir, Hamid (18 April 2011). "Bhutto, Sheikh Mujib, and United States". Newsgroup:  www.jang.com.pk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  33. 1 2 Nayar, Kuldip (1 October 2006). Scoop! : Inside Stories from Partition to the Present. United Kingdom: HarperCollins (1 October 2006). pp. 213 pages. ISBN   978-81-7223-643-4.
  34. PPP. "The Legacy". Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  35. Hossain, A. A. (1 May 2012). "Islamic Resurgence in Bangladesh's Culture and Politics: Origins, Dynamics and Implications". Journal of Islamic Studies. 23 (2): 165–198. doi:10.1093/jis/ets042.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Langewiesche, William (November 2005). "The Wrath of Khan". The Atlantic.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 US Country Studies. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved 7 November 2006.
  38. Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin. pp.  346–47. ISBN   978-0-395-73097-3.
  39. Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved 7 November 2006.
  40. 1 2 International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS) (3 May 2006). "Bhutto was father of Pakistan's Atom Bomb Programme". 2006 Dossier of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies through the 2006 dossier. Initial research and publishing was done by The News International of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2011. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan is not the father of the Pakistan atom bomb project. It is [Zulfikar Ali] Bhutto!. Focusing on the efforts of Bhutto since 1958, when he became a minister in the Ayub cabinet. Surprisingly, the dossier has paid rich tributes to the services of Bhutto for developing the nuclear programme. The dossier, in a chapter on Pakistan's nuclear programme and imports, reveals that Dr AQ Khan can only be accorded many epithets, including "founder of Pakistan uranium enrichment programme".The First 2006 dossier published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)
  41. Rehman, Shahid-ur (1999). Long Road to Chagai. Vol. 1 (1 ed.). Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Printwise Publications. pp. 21–23. ISBN   978-969-8500-00-9.
  42. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Rehman, Shahid-ur (1999). "Chapter 5 "The Theoretical Physics Group: A Cue to Manhattan Project?"". Long Road to Chagai. Vol. 1 (1 ed.). Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Printwise Publications. pp. 55–101. ISBN   978-969-8500-00-9.
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS); Fitzpatrick, Mark (3 May 2007). "Bhutto, not A. Q. Khan, was the Father of Pak nuke programme". 2007 Final Dossier of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies through the last 2007 dossier. Initial research and publishing was done by the Directorate-General for the News Intelligence of Pakistan's Jang Media Cell. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2011. Dr Abdul Q. Khan, a metallurgical engineer, is not the Father of the Pakistan bomb. It is Zulfi Ali Bhutto. Dr A.Q. Khan should only be accorded many epithets, including "founder of Pakistan uranium enrichment programme"...The News International, pg 1–6
  44. Khan, Feroz Hassan (2012). "The Route to Nuclear Ambition". Eating grass: the making of the Pakistani bomb. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 119–120. ISBN   978-0804776011.
  45. Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali (1969). The Myth of Independence. Oxford University Press. p. 153.
  46. "The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), United States". Archived from the original on 18 September 2011.
  47. Siddiqi, Shahid R. (14 February 2010) How safe are Pakistan's nuclear assets, Dawn newspaper
  48. Niazi, Maulana Kausar (1991) Last Days of Premier Bhutto. p. 61
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Niazi, Maulana Kausar (1991) Last Days of Premier Bhutto. Chapter 9: The Reprocessing Plant—The Inside Story
  50. "US lobbied to stop Pakistan nuclear drive: documents". AFP. Pakistan. 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  51. 1 2 3 Bhutto, pp. 159–359
  52. "Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Program - 1998: The Year of Testing". nuclearweaponarchive.org.
  53. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Raza, pp. 15–17
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Bhutto". Bhutto. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  55. 1 2 3 4 5 Malik, M.A. (2 October 2011). "PPP sticks to revolutionary culture". The Nation. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. "Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, besides lifting Pakistan from the ashes after the Dhaka debacle and giving the first ever consensus constitution to the country, revolution through his politics wedded to the emancipation of the downtrodden masses by giving them a voice and introducing radical changes in the economic sphere for their benefit".... M.A. Malik, The Nation
  56. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: An architect of New Pakistan, From Chaos to Stability and The Constitution, pp. 5–14
  57. "Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1974" . Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Raza, pp. 17–20
  59. 1 2 3 4 "Bhutto". Bhutto. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  60. University Press (17 August 2019). "Allama Iqbal Medical University". Allama Iqbal Medical University.
  61. Qureshi, Ali Ahmed (24 August 2010). "Mind-boggling hard-heartedness". Dawn News. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010.
  62. Arshad H Abbasi (17 August 2010). "The Floods in Pakistan – institutional failures". Tribune Express, 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  63. 1 2 3 4 5 Asa, Akiro Mayashot. "Japanese TV interview with Bhutto". 4 March 1973. Japanese State Television. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  64. 1 2 3 "Bhutto's Nationalization". Robber Barons, researcher at the Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. The Bhutto government's credit allocation policy made it mandatory on banks to divert credit into areas which otherwise would not have received credit under normal commercial banking. The rationing of credit might look unreasonable in 1997 but it was revolutionary, considering the situation in 1977 when banks were serving only industrial clients of a privileged class... Robber Barons
  65. 1 2 3 4 Tariq, Farooq. "Pakistan—Social and economic crisis: background and perspectives: The civilian rule of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto". International Journal for Socialist Renewal.
  66. Raza, pp. 21–28
  67. Butt, Muhammad Shoaib and Bandara, Jayatilleke S. (2008) Trade liberalization and regional disparity in Pakistan. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   0203887182
  68. 1 2 3 Siddiqui, Irfan. "The wavey economy". Irfan Siddiqui (in Urdu). Irfan Siddiqui and the Jang News Group. Archived from the original on 22 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  69. Grubbve, Peter (1972). "Peter Grubbve interviewing Bhutto". Stern . Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  70. 1 2 3 4 Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan:Between Mosque and Military; §From Islamic Republic to Islamic State. United States: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (July 2005). pp. 395 pages. ISBN   978-0-87003-214-1.
  71. "Pakistan risks new battlefront". BBC News. 17 January 2005. Retrieved 8 April 2006.
  72. Waiting for the Worst: Baluchistan, 2006. balochwarna.com
  73. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Laurie Mylroie (2005). Study of Revenge: The First World Trade Center Attack and Saddam Hussein's War Against America. United States: Summary Publishing ltd. ISBN   978-0-8447-4169-7.
  74. Selig Harrison (2005). In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptation. Selig Harrison. ISBN   978-1-4128-0469-1.
  75. Malik, M.A. (2 October 2011). "PPP sticks to revolutionary culture". The Nation. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011. "Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, besides lifting Pakistan from the ashes after the Dhaka debacle and giving the first ever consensus constitution to the country, revolution through his politics wedded to the emancipation of the downtrodden masses by giving them a voice and introducing radical changes in the economic sphere for their benefit".... M.A. Malik, The Nation
  76. "Bhutto's Visit to United Kingdom". Pakistan Television. PTV. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021.
  77. 1 2 3 4 "India's twin obsessions: China and Pakistan". Times of Bombay. 15 October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  78. 1 2 3 "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: The Legacy of Zuli Bhutto". PPPUSA. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  79. "Z.A. Bhutto". Ariftx.tripod.com. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  80. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ajithkumar, M P. "Secret of Shimla Agreement". M P Ajithkumar (Lecturer in History, Sanathana Dharma College, Alappuzha). M.P Ajithkumar. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  81. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Khan, Iqbal Ahmad (5 April 2009). "Bhutto's foreign policy legacy". The Dawn News Archives. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  82. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Malik, Ahmad Rashid (2009). Pakistan-Japan Relations: Continuity §Convergence and Divergence (1971–1977). United States, Canada, and Pakistan: Routledge Publications. pp. 145–190. ISBN   978-0-203-89149-0.
  83. Malik, Ahmad Rashid (2009). Pakistan-Japan Relations: Continuity §Japanese reaction to Indian bomb. United States, Canada, and Pakistan: Routledge Publications. pp. 145–190. ISBN   978-0-203-89149-0.
  84. Hagerty, Devin T. (2005) South Asia in world politics, Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN   0742525872. p. 73.
  85. 1 2 "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". historycommons.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  86. 1 2 "Zulfikar Bhutto had blamed US for his 'horrible' fate". Zee News. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  87. 1 2 3 "Pakistan Steel: Our History". Pakistan Steel Mills. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  88. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Bhurgari, Abdul Ghafoor. "The Falcon of Pakistan". Abdul Ghafoor Bugari. Abdul Ghafoor Bugari and Sani Penhwar, Member of Parliament. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  89. 1 2 3 4 Wirsing, Robert (1991). Pakistan's Security after Zia. ISBN   9780312060671.
  90. 1 2 3 4 5 Amin, Abdul Hameed (2001). "Remembering our Warriors: Major-General Baber and Bhutto's Operation Cyclone". Pakistan Military Consortium and Directorate for the Military History Research (DMHR). Pakistan Defence Journal. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  91. 1 2 Pashtunistan, GlobalSecurity
  92. Mir, Hamid (22 September 2011). "Master Rabbani's Mistake" (in Urdu). jang.com.pk. Archived from the original on 22 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  93. "Time line of Pakistan Afghanistan relations". Paklinks.com. 2 October 2004. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  94. "Afghanistan & Pakistan Relations. The Timeline". Paklinks.com. 2 October 2004. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  95. Ahmed, Eqbal (October 1977). "Militarism and the State Pakistan: Military Intervention". Le Monde diplomatique . Archived from the original on 30 September 2007 via Articles by Eqbal Ahmed.
  96. 1 2 3 Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved 7 November 2006.
  97. Hassan, Mubashir (2000). The Mirage of Power: An Inquiry into the Bhutto Years, 1971–1977. Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-579300-5. "The Final Days of Socialism in Pakistan", pp. 296 ff.
  98. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "People's Party and Lahore". 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  99. 1 2 "There is one possible grave for two people ... let us see who gets in first" . Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  100. Mazari, Sherbaz (2000) A Journey into disillusionment. Oxford University Press. ISBN   0195790766
  101. 1 2 Husain, Irfan (4 April 2009). "Living to Bhutto's Ghost". Pakistan Herald. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  102. Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. US: Houghton Mifflin. p.  438. ISBN   978-0-395-73097-3.
  103. 1 2 3 Aqil, Tariq (7 December 2004). "Judicial Murder of a Prime Minister". Chowk.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012.
  104. Talbot, Ian (1998). Pakistan, a Modern History . NY: St. Martin's Press. pp.  258. ISBN   9780312216061.
  105. Hassan, PhD (Civil engineering), Mubashir (2000). Mirage of Power§ Zulfi Bhutto: a man lives within enemies. The Oxford University Press.
  106. "Pakistan Sentences Bhutto to Death For Murder Plot". The New York Times. 18 March 1978.
  107. PLD 1978 Lahore 523 (Criminal Original Case No. 60 of 1977)
  108. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Zaman, Fakhar. "Pakistan Peoples Party: A Past and Present" (Google docs). Fakhar Zaman. Fakhar Zaman and Pakistan Peoples Party's Media Research Cell Directorate. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  109. My Dearest Daughter: A letter from the Death Cell (2007) Archived 5 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine My Dearest Daughter: A letter from the Death Cell (2007)
  110. PLD 1979 SC 53 (Criminal Appeal No. 11 of 1978)
  111. "Bhutto Hanged In Pakistan Jail For Murder Plot". The New York Times. 4 April 1979.
  112. February 24, INDERJIT BADHWAR; June 15, 2014 ISSUE DATE; October 10, 1981UPDATED; Ist, 2014 12:54. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto narrates the torture he suffered in his death cell". India Today. Retrieved 6 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  113. Zulifikar Ali Bhutto's Memorial Page at Find A Grave. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  114. 1 2 3 4 5 Khalil, Tahier. "Gaddafi made an enormest effort for Bhutto's release". Tahir Khalil of Jang Media Group. Tahir Khalil, special correspondent to the Middle East Evens (Text only in Urdu). Archived from the original on 21 October 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  115. "Bhutto's Last Words". YouTube . Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  116. "Cabinet to seek to re-open the case". Hürriyet Daily News. 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  117. Article 186(a) in the Part VII— The Judicature, Constitution of Pakistan
  118. "CJ likely to appoint 10 amici curiae in ZAB reference". Dawn. 13 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011.
  119. "Babar Awan resigns to plead Bhutto case". thenews.com.pk. 13 April 2011. Archived from the original on 16 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  120. "ZAB case: SC decides to form new bench". The News Tribe. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  121. Order, 17 January 2012 (Reference No. 1 of 2011)
  122. "Interview with Vali Nasr". Resetdoc.org. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  123. Outubuddin (31 December 1977). "Husna Sheikh: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's secret wife". India Today. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  124. 1 2 3 Syed, PhD, Anwar (12 April 2011). "Analysis: The legacy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". Daily Times.
  125. Halim, Parvez (9 March 2011). "Bhutto broke Pakistan, not Mujib". Probe News Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  126. Cowasjee, Ardeshir (17 September 2000). "Gen Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan – 4". Dawn.
  127. Kissinger, Henry A. (1979) White House Years. Simon & Schuster. ISBN   1451636431 (2011 edition)
  128. Khan, Mairaj Muhammad, Former Minister of Manpower and Labour under Bhutto, as quoted in Lamb, Christina (1991) Waiting for Allah. Hamish Hamilton Ltd. ISBN   0241130557
  129. 1 2 3 4 Khan, Rashid Ahmad (4 April 2011). "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: The Man and his legacy". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  130. Khan, Roedad. "Pakistan A Dream Gone Sour" . Retrieved 27 January 2012.


Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Sindhi)
ذُوالفِقار علی بُھٹّو
Z A Bhutto (President of Pakistan).jpg
Bhutto in (1971)
4th President of Pakistan
Chief Martial Law Administrator
In office
20 December 1971 13 August 1973
Party political offices
New office Leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Pakistan
Succeeded by
Chief Martial Law Administrator
Succeeded by
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Minister of Defence
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of the Interior
Succeeded by
Preceded by Speaker of the National Assembly
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of Pakistan
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of the Interior
Succeeded by
Inamul Haq Khan