Zygmunt Wiehler (10 February 1890, Kraków, Austria-Hungary –26 December 1977, Warsaw) was a Polish popular and film music composer and director.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe from 1867 to 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) and placed them on an equal footing. It broke apart into several states at the end of World War I.
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.765 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Wiehler attended the Music Conservatory in Kraków. From 1907 he was connected professionally to many theaters in the country, and in the 1920s and 1930s, he was a musical manager and director in Warsaw cabarets ("Wodewil", "Qui pro quo", "Banda", "Perskie Oko", "Morskie Oko", "Ananas", "Wielka Rewia", "Cyganeria"). He prepared music to be presented under the theatrical director Leon Schiller. During 1935-39 he was the musical manager of Feliks Parnell's Ballet. At the dance festival during the 1936 Olympics in Berlin he shared in a medal for the Parnell Ballet. At the start of the occupation (1939–40) he played piano in Warsaw cafés, then (1940–44) directed in public theaters. After the war, he divided his time between Łódź and Warsaw theaters. At the end of the 1950s he turned to his own composing. He wrote nearly a thousand songs, of which many became hits. He is buried in Powązki Cemetery (Section 287-VI-9/10).
Leon Schiller or Leon Schiller de Schildenfeld was a Polish theatre and film director, as well as critic and theatre theoretician. He also wrote theatre and radio screenplays and composed music. He was born in Kraków under the Austrian rule during the foreign Partitions of Poland, to a family of Austrian origin that had been ennobled by Empress Maria Theresa.
Łódź is the third-largest city in Poland and a former industrial hub. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 687,702 (2018). It is the capital of Łódź Voivodeship, and is approximately 120 kilometres (75 mi) south-west of Warsaw. The city's coat of arms is an example of canting, as it depicts a boat (łódź), which alludes to the city's name.
Powązki Cemetery, also known as the Stare Powązki is a historic cemetery located in the Wola district, western part of Warsaw, Poland. It is the most famous cemetery in the city, and one of the oldest, having been established in 1790. The necropolis features graves of many illustrious individuals from Polish history, including those interred along the "Avenue of Notables" created in 1925. It is estimated that over 1 million people have been buried at Powązki.
The Three Hearts is a 1939 Polish romantic comedy film directed by Michał Waszyński and starring Jerzy Pichelski, Aleksander Żabczyński and Elżbieta Barszczewska. It was based on a novel by Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz.
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In common with other European countries, the most frequent and most popular form of theatre in Poland is dramatic theatre, based on the existence of relatively stable artistic companies. It is above all a theatre of directors, who decide on the form of its productions and the appearance of individual scenes. There is no strict division in Poland between theatre and film directors and actors, therefore many stage artists are known to theatre goers from films of Andrzej Wajda, for example: Wojciech Pszoniak, Daniel Olbrychski, Krystyna Janda, Jerzy Radziwiłowicz, and from films of Krzysztof Kieślowski, actors such as Jerzy Stuhr, Janusz Gajos and others.
Karol Maciej Szymanowski was a Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century. He is considered a member of the late 19th-/early 20th-century modernist movement Young Poland and widely viewed as one of the greatest Polish composers.
Władysław Szpilman was a Polish pianist and classical composer of Jewish descent. Szpilman is widely known as the central figure in the 2002 Roman Polanski film The Pianist, which was based on Szpilman's autobiographical account of how he survived the German occupation of Warsaw and the Holocaust.
Eugeniusz Bodo was a film director, producer and one of the most popular Polish actors and comedians of the inter-war period. He starred in some of the most popular Polish film productions of the 1930s, including His Excellency, The Shop Assistant, Czy Lucyna to dziewczyna? and Pieśniarz Warszawy. A skilled singer, he became one of the icons of Polish musical comedies of the time and a "symbol of Polish commercial cinema". Towards the end of that decade he also became a successful entrepreneur, a co-owner of a successful film studio, a café and a producers company. Arrested by the Soviets in the aftermath of the German and Soviet invasion of Poland, he perished in the Gulag.
Henryk Wars was a Polish pop music composer. He composed scores for 50 films during the interwar period in Poland and 60 more in the United States.
The Warsaw Concerto is a short work for piano and orchestra by Richard Addinsell, written for the 1941 British film Dangerous Moonlight, which is about the Polish struggle against the 1939 invasion by Nazi Germany. In performance it normally lasts just under ten minutes. The concerto is an example of programme music, representing both the struggle for Warsaw and the romance of the leading characters in the film. It became very popular in Britain during World War II.
Jan Wiktor Kiepura was a Polish singer (tenor) and actor.
Marian Hemar (1901–1972), born Marian Hescheles, was a Polish poet, journalist, playwright, comedy writer, and songwriter. Hemar himself stated that before the outbreak of World War II he had already written 1,200 songs, including such widely popular hits as Może kiedyś innym razem and Upić się warto . Hemar was a final nom de plume adopted by Marian in his literary career. It was formed from the first two letters of his last name, Hescheles, and the first three letters of his given name, Marian.
The Grand Theatre in Warsaw or the Great Theatre—National Opera is a theatre complex, opera company, and home of the Polish National Ballet, located on historic Theatre Square in Warsaw, Poland. The Warsaw Grand Theatre is one of the largest theatres in Europe and in the world, with a seating capacity of over 2000.
Polish culture during World War II was suppressed by the occupying powers of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, both of whom were hostile to Poland's people and cultural heritage. Policies aimed at cultural genocide resulted in the deaths of thousands of scholars and artists, and the theft and destruction of innumerable cultural artifacts. The "maltreatment of the Poles was one of many ways in which the Nazi and Soviet regimes had grown to resemble one another", wrote British historian Niall Ferguson.
Eugenia Umińska was a Polish violinist.
Piotr Perkowski was a Polish composer.
Zygmunt Białostocki was a Polish Jewish musician. He composed many popular Polish pre-war songs, and worked as conductor and a première pianist in Warsaw between the World Wars.
Henryk Gold was a Polish Jewish composer, arranger, and orchestra director.
Adam Aston was a Polish singer, actor, and pianist of Jewish origin. He sang in Polish, Hebrew and Yiddish and was one of the most popular artists in interwar Poland. He often worked with Henryk Wars. He also went under the names Adam Wiński, Adam Stanisław Lewinson, recorded also under names J. Kierski, Adam Winski and Ben-Lewi. He used the name Ben-Lewi when recording in Hebrew.
Tadeusz Olsza, born Tadeusz Blomberg, was a Polish film and stage actor, cabaret singer, dancer and director born in Warsaw. From 1915 to 1917, he taught vocal classes at Warsaw Conservatory. Starting in 1921 he performed in such Warsaw cabarets and vaudevilles as Stańczyk, Karuzela, Nietoperz, Stara Banda, Qui Pro Quo, Perskie Oko, Morskie Oko, Nowości, and Cyruliku Warszawskim. He was known for his parody of Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski, a Polish physician, general and politician.
Tadeusz Szeligowski was a Polish composer, educator, lawyer and music organizer. His works include the operas The Rise of the Scholars, Krakatuk and Theodor Gentlemen, the ballets The Peacock and the Girl and Mazepa ballets, two violin concertos, chamber and choral works.
Antoni Fertner was a Polish stage actor and one of the earliest Polish film actors. His first film, Antoś pierwszy raz w Warszawie premiered October 22, 1908. It is the earliest surviving Polish feature film and considered to be the founding date of Polish Film. He is considered to be the first recognizable star of Polish Cinema. His favorite brand of comedy was farce, which with the help of musical comedy revived his career in the 1930s.
Janusz Józefowicz is a Polish director, choreographer, actor and dancer.