1890 United States Census

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1890 United States Census
  1880
1900  
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
1890 U.S. Census form.jpg
1890 Census form
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 2, 1890 (1890-06-02)
Total population62,979,766
Percent changeIncrease2.svg 25.5%

The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time. The data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas, and the District of Columbia.

United States Census Decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: “Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years”. Section 2 of the 14th Amendment amended Article I, Section 2 to include that the "respective Numbers" of the "several States" will be determined by "counting the whole number of persons in each State... excluding Indians not taxed...” The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce.

1880 United States Census 10th U.S. national census

The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census. It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census in which a city – New York – recorded a population of over one million.

American frontier Western frontier of the United States c. 1850–1900

The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last remaining western territories as states in 1959. This era of massive migration and settlement was particularly encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as "Manifest destiny".

Contents

This was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Chicago, and Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census also saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles (currently 57th) would supplant it.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Chicago city and county seat of Cook County, Illinois, United States

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most-populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most-populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is also the most-populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second-most-populous county in the US, and portions of the city extend westward into neighboring DuPage County. It is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third-most-populous in the nation.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Census questions

The 1890 census collected the following information: [1]

Union (American Civil War) United States national government during the American Civil War

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states and four border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America, also known as "the Confederacy" or "the South".

Confederate States of America (de facto) federal republic in North America from 1861 to 1865

The Confederate States of America — commonly referred to as the Confederacy — was an unrecognized republic in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves. Convinced that white supremacy and the institution of slavery were threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion to the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War. Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens described its ideology as being centrally based "upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and normal condition".

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War, one of the most studied and written about episodes in U.S. history, was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Methodology

The Hollerith tabulator was used to tabulate the 1890 census--the first time a census was tabulated by machine. The illustration is of a Hollerith tabulator that has been modified for the first 1890 tabulation, the family, or rough, count--the punched card reader has been removed, replaced by a simple keyboard. See: Truesdell, 1965, The Development of Punched Card Tabulation ..., US GPO, p.61 1890 Census Hollerith Electrical Counting Machines Sci Amer.jpg
The Hollerith tabulator was used to tabulate the 1890 census—the first time a census was tabulated by machine. The illustration is of a Hollerith tabulator that has been modified for the first 1890 tabulation, the family, or rough, count—the punched card reader has been removed, replaced by a simple keyboard. See: Truesdell, 1965, The Development of Punched Card Tabulation ..., US GPO, p.61

The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter (1889–1893) and Carroll D. Wright (1893–1897). Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, and tabulated by machine. [2] The net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, and the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. [3] The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, count, was announced after only six weeks of processing (punched cards were not used for this tabulation). [4] [5] The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was widely believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. [6]

Herman Hollerith American statistician and inventor

Herman Hollerith was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting. He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company that was amalgamated in 1911 with three other companies to form a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, which was renamed IBM in 1924. Hollerith is regarded as one of the seminal figures in the development of data processing. His invention of the punched card tabulating machine marks the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems, and his concept dominated that landscape for nearly a century.

Tabulating machine electromechanical machine used to summarise information and perform accounting calculations

The tabulating machine was an electromechanical machine designed to assist in summarizing information stored on punched cards. Invented by Herman Hollerith, the machine was developed to help process data for the 1890 U.S. Census. Later models were widely used for business applications such as accounting and inventory control. It spawned a class of machines, known as unit record equipment, and the data processing industry.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

Significant findings

The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850. [7]

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

1850 United States Census Seventh U.S. national census seeing 35.9% increase since 1840

The United States Census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876—an increase of 35.9 percent over the 17,069,453 persons enumerated during the 1840 Census. The total population included 3,204,313 slaves.

The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, [8] and that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U.S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. [9]

Data availability

The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. Almost all the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D.C. in 1921. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke and water (although the actual damage may have been closer to 15–25%). The damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. [10] [11] In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations.[ citation needed ]

Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, [12] but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

State rankings

RankStatePopulation
01New York6,003,174
02Pennsylvania5,258,113
03Illinois3,826,352
04Ohio3,672,329
05Missouri2,679,185
06Massachusetts2,238,947
07Texas2,235,527
08Indiana2,192,404
09Michigan2,093,890
10Iowa1,912,297
11Kentucky1,858,635
12Georgia1,837,353
13Tennessee1,767,518
14Wisconsin1,693,330
15Virginia1,655,980
16North Carolina1,617,949
17Alabama1,513,401
18New Jersey1,444,933
19Kansas1,428,108
20Minnesota1,310,283
21Mississippi1,289,600
22California1,213,398
23South Carolina1,151,149
24Arkansas1,128,211
25Louisiana1,118,588
26Nebraska1,062,656
27Maryland1,042,390
28West Virginia762,794
29Connecticut746,258
30Maine661,086
31Colorado413,249
32Florida391,422
33New Hampshire376,530
34Washington357,232
35South Dakota348,600
36Rhode Island345,506
37Vermont332,422
38Oregon317,704
XOklahoma258,657
XDistrict of Columbia [13] 230,392
XUtah210,779
39North Dakota190,983
40Delaware168,493
XNew Mexico160,282
41Montana142,924
42Idaho88,548
XArizona88,243
43Wyoming60,705
44Nevada47,355
XAlaska33,426

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation [14] Region (2016) [15]
01 New York New York 1,515,301 Northeast
02 Chicago Illinois 1,099,850 Midwest
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,046,964 Northeast
04 Brooklyn New York 806,343 Northeast
05 St. Louis Missouri 451,770 Midwest
06 Boston Massachusetts 448,477 Northeast
07 Baltimore Maryland 434,439 South
08 San Francisco California 298,997 West
09 Cincinnati Ohio 296,908 Midwest
10 Cleveland Ohio 261,353 Midwest
11 Buffalo New York 255,664 Northeast
12 New Orleans Louisiana 242,039 South
13 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 238,617 Northeast
14 Washington District of Columbia 230,392 South
15 Detroit Michigan 205,876 Midwest
16 Milwaukee Wisconsin 204,468 Midwest
17 Newark New Jersey 181,830 Northeast
18 Minneapolis Minnesota 164,738 Midwest
19 Jersey City New Jersey 163,003 Northeast
20 Louisville Kentucky 161,129 South
21 Omaha Nebraska 140,452 Midwest
22 Rochester New York 133,896 Northeast
23 Saint Paul Minnesota 133,156 Midwest
24 Kansas City Missouri 132,716 Midwest
25 Providence Rhode Island 132,146 Northeast
26 Denver Colorado 106,713 West
27 Indianapolis Indiana 105,436 Midwest
28 Allegheny Pennsylvania 105,287 Northeast
29 Albany New York 94,923 Northeast
30 Columbus Ohio 88,150 Midwest
31 Syracuse New York 88,143 Northeast
32 New Haven Connecticut 86,045 Northeast
33 Worcester Massachusetts 84,655 Northeast
34 Toledo Ohio 81,434 Midwest
35 Richmond Virginia 81,388 South
36 Paterson New Jersey 78,347 Northeast
37 Lowell Massachusetts 77,696 Northeast
38 Nashville Tennessee 76,168 South
39 Scranton Pennsylvania 75,215 Northeast
40 Fall River Massachusetts 74,398 Northeast
41 Cambridge Massachusetts 70,028 Northeast
42 Atlanta Georgia 65,533 South
43 Memphis Tennessee 64,495 South
44 Wilmington Delaware 61,431 South
45 Dayton Ohio 61,220 Midwest
46 Troy New York 60,956 Northeast
47 Grand Rapids Michigan 60,278 Midwest
48 Reading Pennsylvania 58,661 Northeast
49 Camden New Jersey 58,313 Northeast
50 Trenton New Jersey 57,458 Northeast
51 Lynn Massachusetts 55,727 Northeast
52 Lincoln Nebraska 55,154 Midwest
53 Charleston South Carolina 54,955 South
54 Hartford Connecticut 53,230 Northeast
55 St. Joseph Missouri 52,324 Midwest
56 Evansville Indiana 50,756 Midwest
57 Los Angeles California 50,395 West
58 Des Moines Iowa 50,093 Midwest
59 Bridgeport Connecticut 48,866 Northeast
60 Oakland California 48,682 West
61 Portland Oregon 46,385 West
62 Saginaw Michigan 46,322 Midwest
63 Salt Lake City Utah 44,843 West
64 Lawrence Massachusetts 44,654 Northeast
65 Springfield Massachusetts 44,179 Northeast
66 Manchester New Hampshire 44,126 Northeast
67 Utica New York 44,007 Northeast
68 Hoboken New Jersey 43,648 Northeast
69 Savannah Georgia 43,189 South
70 Seattle Washington 42,837 West
71 Peoria Illinois 41,024 Midwest
72 New Bedford Massachusetts 40,733 Northeast
73 Erie Pennsylvania 40,634 Northeast
74 Somerville Massachusetts 40,152 Northeast
75 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 39,385 Northeast
76 Kansas City Kansas 38,316 Midwest
77 Dallas Texas 38,067 South
78 Sioux City Iowa 37,806 Midwest
79 Elizabeth New Jersey 37,764 Northeast
80 Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania 37,718 Northeast
81 San Antonio Texas 37,673 South
82 Covington Kentucky 37,371 South
83 Portland Maine 36,425 Northeast
84 Tacoma Washington 36,006 West
85 Holyoke Massachusetts 35,637 Northeast
86 Fort Wayne Indiana 35,393 Midwest
87 Binghamton New York 35,005 Northeast
88 Norfolk Virginia 34,871 South
89 Wheeling West Virginia 34,522 South
90 Augusta Georgia 33,300 South
91 Youngstown Ohio 33,220 Midwest
92 Duluth Minnesota 33,115 Midwest
93 Yonkers New York 32,033 Northeast
94 Lancaster Pennsylvania 32,011 Northeast
95 Springfield Ohio 31,895 Midwest
96 Quincy Illinois 31,494 Midwest
97 Mobile Alabama 31,076 South
98 Topeka Kansas 31,007 Midwest
99 Elmira New York 30,893 Northeast
100 Salem Massachusetts 30,801 Northeast

Related Research Articles

Punched card recording medium

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Digital data can be used for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery.

Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer."

Electronic data processing (EDP) can refer to the use of automated methods to process commercial data. Typically, this uses relatively simple, repetitive activities to process large volumes of similar information. For example: stock updates applied to an inventory, banking transactions applied to account and customer master files, booking and ticketing transactions to an airline's reservation system, billing for utility services. The modifier "electronic" or "automatic" was used with "database processing" (DP), especially c. 1960, to distinguish human clerical data processing from that done by computer.

Powers Accounting Machine

The Powers Accounting Machine was an information processing device developed in the early 20th century for the U.S. Census Bureau. It was then produced and marketed by the Powers Accounting Machine Company, an information technology company founded by the machine's developer. The company thrived in the early 20th century as a producer of tabulating machines. It was a predecessor to the current Unisys corporation.

Unit record equipment electromechanical data processing machine

Starting at the end of the nineteenth century, well before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical machines called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines. Unit record machines came to be as ubiquitous in industry and government in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century as computers became in the last third. They allowed large volume, sophisticated data-processing tasks to be accomplished before electronic computers were invented and while they were still in their infancy. This data processing was accomplished by processing punched cards through various unit record machines in a carefully choreographed progression. This progression, or flow, from machine to machine was often planned and documented with detailed flowcharts that used standardized symbols for documents and the various machine functions. All but the earliest machines had high-speed mechanical feeders to process cards at rates from around 100 to 2,000 per minute, sensing punched holes with mechanical, electrical, or, later, optical sensors. The operation of many machines was directed by the use of a removable plugboard, control panel, or connection box. Initially all machines were manual or electromechanical. The first use of an electronic component was in 1937 when a photocell was used in a Social Security bill-feed machine. Electronic components were used on other machines beginning in the late 1940s.

1980 United States Census National census

The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11.4 percent over the 203,184,772 persons enumerated during the 1970 Census. It was the first census in which a state – California – recorded a population of 20 million people, as well as the first in which all states recorded populations of over 400,000.

1860 United States Census National census

The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,321, an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,191,875 persons enumerated during the 1850 Census. The total population included 3,953,761 slaves.

1870 United States Census Ninth U.S. national census; first to provide detailed demographic info on African Americans

The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. It was conducted by the Census Bureau from June 1,1870 to August 23, 1871. The 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African-American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The total population was 38,925,598 with a resident population of 38,558,371 individuals, a 22.62% increase from 1860. The 1870 Census' population estimate was controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.

1900 United States Census National census

The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 Census.

1920 United States Census National census

The Fourteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 Census.

1930 United States Census National census

The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census.

1940 United States Census National census

The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, and information about wages. This census introduced sampling techniques; one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939. This was the first census in which every state (48) had a population greater than 100,000.

1950 United States Census National census

The Seventeenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,697,361, an increase of 14.5 percent over the 131,669,275 persons enumerated during the 1940 Census. This was the first census in which:

James Legrand Powers was a US inventor and entrepreneur, the founder of Powers Accounting Machine Company.

References

  1. "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981. pp. 44 (p. 50 of PDF). Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  2. Truesdell, Leon E. (1965). The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census: 1890-1940. US GPO.
  3. Report of the Commissioner of Labor In Charge of The Eleventh Census to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1895. Washington, DC: United States Government Publishing Office. July 29, 1895. OCLC   867910652 . Retrieved November 13, 2015. Page 9: "You may confidently look for the rapid reduction of the force of this office after the 1st of October, and the entire cessation of clerical work during the present calendar year. ... The condition of the work of the Census Division and the condition of the final reports show clearly that the work of the Eleventh Census will be completed at least two years earlier than was the work of the Tenth Census." — Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner of Labor in Charge
  4. "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  5. Truesdell, Leon E. (1965) The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census 1890-1940, US GPO, p.61
  6. Austrian, Geoffrey D. (1982). Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN   0-231-05146-8.
  7. Dippie, Brian W. (1982). The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press. p. ??. ISBN   0-8195-5056-6. The data yielded by this census provided strong evidence that the United States' policies towards Native Americans had had a significant impact on the enumeration of the census in the second half of the 19th century. US domestic policy combined with wars, genocide, famine, disease, a declining birthrate, and exogamy (with the children of biracial families declaring themselves to be white rather than Indian) accounted for the decrease in the enumeration of the census. Chalk, Frank; Jonassohn, Kurt (1990). The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies . New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN   0-300-04446-1.
  8. Porter, Robert; Gannett, Henry; Hunt, William (1895). "Progress of the Nation", in "Report on Population of the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890, Part 1". Bureau of the Census. pp. xviii–xxxiv.
  9. Turner, Frederick Jackson (1969). The Early Writings of Frederick Jackson Turner Compiled by Everett E. Edwards. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press.
  10. Blake, Kellee (Spring 1996). "First in the Path of the Firemen: The Fate of the 1890 Population Census, Part 1". Prologue Magazine . Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. ISSN   0033-1031. OCLC   321015582 . Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  11. Blake, Kellee (Spring 1996). "First in the Path of the Firemen: The Fate of the 1890 Population Census, Part 3". Prologue Magazine . Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration. ISSN   0033-1031. OCLC   321015582 . Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  12. US Census Bureau, Census History Staff. "Availability of 1890 Census - History - U.S. Census Bureau". www.census.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  13. The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790.
  14. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  15. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.