1910 United States Census

Last updated

Thirteenth Census
of the United States
  1900
1920  
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 15, 1910
Total population92,228,496
Percent changeIncrease2.svg 21.0%
Most populous state New York
9,113,614
Least populous state Nevada
81,875

The Thirteenth United States Census , conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation.

United States Census Decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: “Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years”. Section 2 of the 14th Amendment amended Article I, Section 2 to include that the "respective Numbers" of the "several States" will be determined by "counting the whole number of persons in each State... excluding Indians not taxed...” The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection. The term is commonly used in mathematics and computer science to refer to a listing of all of the elements of a set. The precise requirements for an enumeration depend on the discipline of study and the context of a given problem.

Contents

Census questions

The 1910 census collected the following information: [1]

Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

Column titles

The column titles in the census form are as follows:

LOCATION. Street, avenue, road, etc.
House number (in cities or towns).
1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation.
2. Number of family in order of visitation.


3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family.

Enter surname first, then the given name and middle initial, if any.

Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910.


RELATION.

4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.


PERSONAL DESCRIPTION.

5. Sex.

6. Color or race.

7. Age at last birthday.

8. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.

9. Number of years of present marriage.

10. Mother of how many children: Number born.

11. Mother of how many children: Number now living.


NATIVITY.

Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country.

12. Place of birth of this Person.

13. Place of birth of Father of this person.

14. Place of birth of Mother of this person.


CITIZENSHIP.

15. Year of immigration to the United States.

16. Whether naturalized or alien.


17. Whether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spoken.


OCCUPATION.

18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, salesman, laborer, etc.,

19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, farm, etc.

20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account.


If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.

22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909.


EDUCATION.

23. Whether able to read.

24. Whether able to write.

25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909.


OWNERSHIP OF HOME.

26. Owned or rented.

27. Owned free or mortgaged.

28. Farm or house.

29. Number of farm schedule.


30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy.


31. Whether blind (both eyes).


32. Whether deaf and dumb.


State rankings

RankStatePopulation
1 New York 9,113,614
2 Pennsylvania 7,665,111
3 Illinois 5,638,591
4 Ohio 4,767,121
5 Texas 3,896,542
6 Massachusetts 3,366,416
7 Missouri 3,293,335
8 Michigan 2,810,173
9 Indiana 2,700,876
10 Georgia 2,609,121
11 New Jersey 2,537,167
12 California 2,377,549
13 Wisconsin 2,333,860
14 Kentucky 2,289,905
15 Iowa 2,224,771
16 North Carolina 2,206,287
17 Tennessee 2,184,789
18 Alabama 2,138,093
19 Minnesota 2,075,708
20 Virginia 2,061,612
21 Mississippi 1,797,114
22 Kansas 1,690,949
23 Oklahoma 1,657,155
24 Louisiana 1,656,388
25 Arkansas 1,574,449
26 South Carolina 1,515,400
27 Maryland 1,295,346
28 West Virginia 1,221,119
29 Nebraska 1,192,214
30 Washington 1,141,990
31 Connecticut 1,114,756
32 Colorado 799,024
33 Florida 752,619
34 Maine 742,371
35 Oregon 672,765
36 South Dakota 583,888
37 North Dakota 577,056
38 Rhode Island 542,610
39 New Hampshire 430,572
40 Montana 376,053
41 Utah 373,351
42 Vermont 355,956
x District of Columbia 331,069
43 Idaho 325,594
44 Delaware 202,322
45 Wyoming 145,965
46 Nevada 81,875

Special Notation

In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona, Alaska and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union. The 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged, then (43) New Mexico, (44) Idaho, (45) Arizona, (46) Delaware, (47) Hawaii, (48) Wyoming, (49) Nevada and (50) Alaska.

New Mexico U.S. state in the United States

New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America; its capital and cultural center is Santa Fe, which was founded in 1610 as capital of Nuevo México, while its largest city is Albuquerque with its accompanying metropolitan area. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona; its other neighboring states are Oklahoma to the northeast, Texas to the east-southeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi (314,920 km2), it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate.

Arizona U.S. state in the United States

Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

Alaska U.S. state in the United States

Alaska is a U.S. state in the northwest extremity of the United States West Coast, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast. Its most extreme western part is Attu Island, and it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. It is the largest U.S. state by area and the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the 3rd least populous and the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States; nevertheless, it is by far the most populous territory located mostly north of the 60th parallel in North America: its population—estimated at 738,432 by the United States Census Bureau in 2015—is more than quadruple the combined populations of Northern Canada and Greenland. Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, and oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. United States armed forces bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy.

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation [2] Region (2016) [3]
01 New York New York 4,766,883 Northeast
02 Chicago Illinois 2,185,283 Midwest
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,549,008 Northeast
04 St. Louis Missouri 687,029 Midwest
05 Boston Massachusetts 670,585 Northeast
06 Cleveland Ohio 560,663 Midwest
07 Baltimore Maryland 558,485 South
08 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 533,905 Northeast
09 Detroit Michigan 465,766 Midwest
10 Buffalo New York 423,715 Northeast
11 San Francisco California 416,912 West
12 Milwaukee Wisconsin 373,857 Midwest
13 Cincinnati Ohio 363,591 Midwest
14 Newark New Jersey 347,469 Northeast
15 New Orleans Louisiana 339,075 South
16 Washington District of Columbia 331,069 South
17 Los Angeles California 319,198 West
18 Minneapolis Minnesota 301,408 Midwest
19 Jersey City New Jersey 267,779 Northeast
20 Kansas City Missouri 248,381 Midwest
21 Seattle Washington 237,194 West
22 Indianapolis Indiana 233,650 Midwest
23 Providence Rhode Island 224,326 Northeast
24 Louisville Kentucky 223,928 South
25 Rochester New York 218,149 Northeast
26 Saint Paul Minnesota 214,744 Midwest
27 Denver Colorado 213,381 West
28 Portland Oregon 207,214 West
29 Columbus Ohio 181,511 Midwest
30 Toledo Ohio 168,497 Midwest
31 Atlanta Georgia 154,839 South
32 Oakland California 150,174 West
33 Worcester Massachusetts 145,986 Northeast
34 Syracuse New York 137,249 Northeast
35 New Haven Connecticut 133,605 Northeast
36 Birmingham Alabama 132,685 South
37 Memphis Tennessee 131,105 South
38 Scranton Pennsylvania 129,867 Northeast
39 Richmond Virginia 127,628 South
40 Paterson New Jersey 125,600 Northeast
41 Omaha Nebraska 124,096 Midwest
42 Fall River Massachusetts 119,295 Northeast
43 Dayton Ohio 116,577 Midwest
44 Grand Rapids Michigan 112,571 Midwest
45 Nashville Tennessee 110,364 South
46 Lowell Massachusetts 106,294 Northeast
47 Cambridge Massachusetts 104,839 Northeast
48 Spokane Washington 104,402 West
49 Bridgeport Connecticut 102,054 Northeast
50 Albany New York 100,253 Northeast
51 Hartford Connecticut 98,915 Northeast
52 Trenton New Jersey 96,815 Northeast
53 New Bedford Massachusetts 96,652 Northeast
54 San Antonio Texas 96,614 South
55 Reading Pennsylvania 96,071 Northeast
56 Camden New Jersey 94,538 Northeast
57 Salt Lake City Utah 92,777 West
58 Dallas Texas 92,104 South
59 Lynn Massachusetts 89,336 Northeast
60 Springfield Massachusetts 88,926 Northeast
61 Wilmington Delaware 87,411 South
62 Des Moines Iowa 86,368 Midwest
63 Lawrence Massachusetts 85,892 Northeast
64 Tacoma Washington 83,743 West
65 Kansas City Kansas 82,331 Midwest
66 Yonkers New York 79,803 Northeast
67 Youngstown Ohio 79,066 Midwest
68 Houston Texas 78,800 South
69 Duluth Minnesota 78,466 Midwest
70 St. Joseph Missouri 77,403 Midwest
71 Somerville Massachusetts 77,236 Northeast
72 Troy New York 76,813 Northeast
73 Utica New York 74,419 Northeast
74 Elizabeth New Jersey 73,409 Northeast
75 Fort Worth Texas 73,312 South
76 Waterbury Connecticut 73,141 Northeast
77 Schenectady New York 72,826 Northeast
78 Hoboken New Jersey 70,324 Northeast
79 Manchester New Hampshire 70,063 Northeast
80 Evansville Indiana 69,647 Midwest
81 Akron Ohio 69,067 Midwest
82 Norfolk Virginia 67,452 South
83 Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania 67,105 Northeast
84 Peoria Illinois 66,950 Midwest
85 Erie Pennsylvania 66,525 Northeast
86 Savannah Georgia 65,064 South
87 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 64,205 South
88 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 64,186 Northeast
89 Fort Wayne Indiana 63,933 Midwest
90 Charleston South Carolina 58,833 South
91 Portland Maine 58,571 Northeast
92 East St. Louis Illinois 58,547 Midwest
93 Terre Haute Indiana 58,157 Midwest
94 Holyoke Massachusetts 57,730 Northeast
95 Jacksonville Florida 57,699 South
96 Brockton Massachusetts 56,878 Northeast
97 Bayonne New Jersey 55,545 Northeast
98 Johnstown Pennsylvania 55,482 Northeast
99 Passaic New Jersey 54,773 Northeast
100 South Bend Indiana 53,684 Midwest

Data availability

An example of a 1910 U.S. census form with August H. Runge 1910 census Runge.jpg
An example of a 1910 U.S. census form with August H. Runge

The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s; after which the original sheets were destroyed. [4] The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations also host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.

Microform Forms with microreproductions of documents

Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used.

National Archives and Records Administration independent agency of the United States government which preserves and provides access to federal records

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical records. It is also tasked with increasing public access to those documents which make up the National Archive. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations. NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress.

Microdata from the 1910 census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

In the study of survey and census data, microdata is information at the level of individual respondents. For instance, a national census might collect age, home address, educational level, employment status, and many other variables, recorded separately for every person who responds; this is microdata.

In statistics, aggregate data are data combined from several measurements. When data is aggregated, groups of observations are replaced with summary statistics based on those observations.

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a historical GIS project to create and freely disseminate a database incorporating all available aggregate census information for the United States between 1790 and 2010. The project has created one of the largest collections in the world of statistical census information, much of which was not previously available to the research community because of legacy data formats and differences between metadata formats. The statistical and geographic data are disseminated free of charge through a sophisticated online data access system.

Notes

  1. "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981. pp. 45 (p. 51 of PDF). Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  2. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  3. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  4. Algonquin Area Public Library District. "Census Secrets" (PDF). Retrieved May 17, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]

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