1990 United States Census

Last updated

Twenty-first Census
of the United States
  1980
2000  
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
1990USCensusLogo.svg
Census Logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 1990
Total population248,709,873
Percent changeIncrease2.svg 9.8%
Most populous state California
29,760,021
Least populous state Wyoming
453,588

The Twenty-first United States Census , conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 Census. [1]

United States Census Decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: “Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years”. Section 2 of the 14th Amendment amended Article I, Section 2 to include that the "respective Numbers" of the "several States" will be determined by "counting the whole number of persons in each State... excluding Indians not taxed...” The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

Barbara Everitt Bryant is an American market researcher who became the first woman to head the United States Census Bureau. She directed the bureau from 1989 to 1993 including the 1990 United States Census, and later also directed the American Customer Satisfaction Index.

Contents

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

It was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians.

To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople. [2] The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062. [3]

Bill Cosby American actor, comedian, author, producer, musician, activist, sex offender

William Henry Cosby Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, actor, musician, author, and convicted sex offender. He held an active career for over six decades before being convicted and imprisoned for sex offenses in 2018.

Magic Johnson American basketball player

Earvin "Magic" Johnson Jr. is an American retired professional basketball player and former president of basketball operations of the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played point guard for the Lakers for 13 seasons. After winning championships in high school and college, Johnson was selected first overall in the 1979 NBA draft by the Lakers. He won a championship and an NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award in his rookie season, and won four more championships with the Lakers during the 1980s. Johnson retired abruptly in 1991 after announcing that he had contracted HIV, but returned to play in the 1992 All-Star Game, winning the All-Star MVP Award. After protests from his fellow players, he retired again for four years, but returned in 1996, at age 36, to play 32 games for the Lakers before retiring for the third and final time.

Alfre Woodard American film, stage, and television actress

Alfre Woodard is an American actress, producer, and political activist. Woodard has been named one of the most versatile and accomplished actors of her generation. She has been nominated once for an Academy Award and Grammy Award and 18 times for an Emmy Award and has also won a Golden Globe Award and three Screen Actors Guild Awards.

This was the first census since 1890 in which Chicago was not the second-largest city, having been overtaken by Los Angeles. As of the 2020 Census, Los Angeles is expected to remain the nation's second-largest city.

Chicago city and county seat of Cook County, Illinois, United States

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most-populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most-populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is also the most-populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second-most-populous county in the US, and portions of the city extend westward into neighboring DuPage County. It is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third-most-populous in the nation.

Los Angeles City in California

Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, and the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of nearly four million, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America.

State rankings

Rank
State
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1Flag of California.svg  California 23,667,90229,760,021Increase2.svg 6,092,119Increase2.svg 25.7%
2Flag of New York.svg  New York 17,558,07217,990,455Increase2.svg 432,383Increase2.svg 2.5%
3Flag of Texas.svg  Texas 14,229,19116,986,510Increase2.svg 2,757,319Increase2.svg 19.4%
4Flag of Florida.svg  Florida 9,746,32412,937,926Increase2.svg 3,191,602Increase2.svg 32.7%
5Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 11,863,89511,881,643Increase2.svg 17,748Increase2.svg 0.15%
6Flag of Illinois.svg  Illinois 11,426,51811,430,602Increase2.svg 4,084Increase2.svg 0.0%
7Flag of Ohio.svg  Ohio 10,797,63010,847,115Increase2.svg 49,485Increase2.svg 0.4%
8Flag of Michigan.svg  Michigan 9,262,0789,295,297Increase2.svg 33,219Increase2.svg 0.4%
9Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 7,364,8237,730,188Increase2.svg 365,365Increase2.svg 4.96%
10Flag of North Carolina (1885-1991).svg  North Carolina 5,881,7666,628,637Increase2.svg 746,871Increase2.svg 12.7%
11Flag of the State of Georgia (1956-2001).svg  Georgia 5,463,1056,478,216Increase2.svg 1,015,111Increase2.svg 18.6%
12Flag of Virginia.svg  Virginia 5,346,8186,187,358Increase2.svg 840,540Increase2.svg 15.7%
13Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 5,737,0376,016,425Increase2.svg 279,388Increase2.svg 4.87%
14Flag of Indiana.svg  Indiana 5,490,2245,544,159Increase2.svg 53,935Increase2.svg 0.98%
15Flag of Missouri.svg  Missouri 4,916,6865,117,073Increase2.svg 200,387Increase2.svg 4.1%
16Flag of Wisconsin.svg  Wisconsin 4,705,7674,891,769Increase2.svg 186,002Increase2.svg 3.9%
17Flag of Tennessee.svg  Tennessee 4,591,1204,877,185Increase2.svg 286,065Increase2.svg 6.2%
18Flag of Washington.svg  Washington 4,132,1564,866,692Increase2.svg 734,536Increase2.svg 17.8%
19Flag of Maryland.svg  Maryland 4,216,9754,781,468Increase2.svg 564,493Increase2.svg 13.4%
20Flag of Minnesota.svg  Minnesota 4,075,9704,375,099Increase2.svg 299,129Increase2.svg 7.3%
21Flag of Louisiana (1912-2006).svg  Louisiana 4,205,9004,219,973Increase2.svg 14,073Increase2.svg 0.3%
22Flag of Alabama.svg  Alabama 3,893,8884,040,587Increase2.svg 146,699Increase2.svg 3.8%
23Flag of Kentucky.svg  Kentucky 3,660,7773,685,296Increase2.svg 24,519Increase2.svg 0.67%
24Flag of Arizona.svg  Arizona 2,718,2153,665,228Increase2.svg 947,013Increase2.svg 34.8%
25Flag of South Carolina.svg  South Carolina 3,121,8203,486,703Increase2.svg 364,883Increase2.svg 11.7%
26Flag of Colorado.svg  Colorado 2,889,9643,294,394Increase2.svg 404,430Increase2.svg 14.0%
27Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 3,107,5763,287,116Increase2.svg 179,540Increase2.svg 5.8%
28Flag of Oklahoma.svg  Oklahoma 3,025,2903,145,585Increase2.svg 120,295Increase2.svg 4.0%
29Flag of Oregon.svg  Oregon 2,633,1052,842,321Increase2.svg 209,216Increase2.svg 7.9%
30Flag of Iowa.svg  Iowa 2,913,8082,776,755Decrease2.svg -137,053Decrease2.svg -4.7%
31Flag of Mississippi (1894-1996).png  Mississippi 2,520,6382,573,216Increase2.svg 52,578Increase2.svg 2.1%
32Flag of Kansas.svg  Kansas 2,363,6792,477,574Increase2.svg 113,895Increase2.svg 4.8%
33Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas 2,286,4352,350,725Increase2.svg 64,290Increase2.svg 2.8%
34Flag of West Virginia.svg  West Virginia 1,949,6441,793,477Decrease2.svg -156,167Decrease2.svg -8.0%
35Flag of Utah (1913-2011).svg  Utah 1,461,0371,722,850Increase2.svg 261,813Increase2.svg 17.9%
36Flag of Nebraska.svg  Nebraska 1,569,8251,578,385Increase2.svg 8,560Increase2.svg 0.54%
37Flag of New Mexico.svg  New Mexico 1,302,8941,515,069Increase2.svg 212,175Increase2.svg 16.3%
38Flag of Maine.svg  Maine 1,124,6601,227,928Increase2.svg 103,268Increase2.svg 9.2%
39Flag of Nevada (1929-1991).svg  Nevada 800,4931,201,833Increase2.svg 401,340Increase2.svg 50.1%
40Flag of New Hampshire.svg  New Hampshire 920,6101,109,252Increase2.svg 188,642Increase2.svg 20.5%
41Flag of Hawaii.svg  Hawaii 964,6911,108,229Increase2.svg 143,538Increase2.svg 14.8%
42Flag of Idaho.svg  Idaho 943,9351,006,749Increase2.svg 62,814Increase2.svg 6.65%
43Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island 947,1541,003,464Increase2.svg 56,310Increase2.svg 5.9%
44Flag of Montana.svg  Montana 786,690799,065Increase2.svg 12,375Increase2.svg 1.6%
45Flag of South Dakota (1963-1992).svg  South Dakota 690,768696,004Increase2.svg 5,236Increase2.svg 0.76%
46Flag of Delaware.svg  Delaware 594,338666,168Increase2.svg 71,830Increase2.svg 12.1%
47Flag of North Dakota.svg   North Dakota 652,717638,800Decrease2.svg -13,917Decrease2.svg -2.1%
Flag of Washington, D.C. (1938).svg  District of Columbia 638,333606,900Decrease2.svg -31,433Decrease2.svg -4.9%
48Flag of Vermont.svg  Vermont 511,456562,758Increase2.svg 51,302Increase2.svg 10.0%
49Flag of Alaska.svg  Alaska 401,851550,043Increase2.svg 148,192Increase2.svg 36.8%
50Flag of Wyoming.svg  Wyoming 469,557453,588Decrease2.svg -15,969Decrease2.svg -3.4%
 Flag of the United States.svg  United States 226,545,805248,709,87322,164,0689.8%

Reapportionment

The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election.

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

1992 United States presidential election 52nd quadrennial presidential election in the United States

The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates.

Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 19 seats being switched. [4]

Gained seven seatsGained four seatsGained three seatsGained one seatLost one seatLost two seatsLost three seats
California Florida Texas Arizona
Georgia
North Carolina
Virginia
Washington
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Montana
New Jersey
West Virginia
Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York

City rankings

Top five

Rank
City
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1Flag of New York City.svg  New York, NY 7,071,6397,322,564Increase2.svg 250,925Increase2.svg 3.5%
2Flag of Los Angeles, California.svg  Los Angeles, CA 2,966,8503,485,398Increase2.svg 518,548Increase2.svg 17.5%
3Flag of Chicago, Illinois.svg  Chicago, IL 3,005,0722,783,726Decrease2.svg -221,346Decrease2.svg -7.4%
4Flag of Houston, Texas.svg  Houston, TX 1,595,1381,630,553Increase2.svg 35,415Increase2.svg 2.2%
5Flag of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.svg  Philadelphia, PA 1,688,2101,585,577Decrease2.svg -102,633Decrease2.svg -6.1%

Top 100

RankCityStatePopulation [5] Region (2016) [6]
01 New York New York 7,322,564 Northeast
02 Los Angeles California 3,485,398 West
03 Chicago Illinois 2,783,726 Midwest
04 Houston Texas 1,630,553 South
05 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,585,577 Northeast
06 San Diego California 1,110,549 West
07 Detroit Michigan 1,027,974 Midwest
08 Dallas Texas 1,006,877 South
09 Phoenix Arizona 983,403 West
10 San Antonio Texas 935,933 South
11 San Jose California 782,248 West
12 Baltimore Maryland 736,014 South
13 Indianapolis Indiana 731,327 Midwest
14 San Francisco California 723,959 West
15 Jacksonville Florida 635,230 South
16 Columbus Ohio 632,910 Midwest
17 Milwaukee Wisconsin 628,088 Midwest
18 Memphis Tennessee 610,337 South
19 Washington District of Columbia 606,900 South
20 Boston Massachusetts 574,283 Northeast
21 Seattle Washington 516,259 West
22 El Paso Texas 515,342 South
23 Cleveland Ohio 505,616 Midwest
24 New Orleans Louisiana 496,938 South
25 Nashville-Davidson Tennessee 488,374 South
26 Denver Colorado 467,610 West
27 Austin Texas 465,622 South
28 Fort Worth Texas 447,619 South
29 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 444,719 South
30 Portland Oregon 437,319 West
31 Kansas City Missouri 435,146 Midwest
32 Long Beach California 429,433 West
33 Tucson Arizona 405,390 West
34 St. Louis Missouri 396,685 Midwest
35 Charlotte North Carolina 395,934 South
36 Atlanta Georgia 394,017 South
37 Virginia Beach Virginia 393,069 South
38 Albuquerque New Mexico 384,736 West
39 Oakland California 372,242 West
40 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 369,879 Northeast
41 Sacramento California 369,365 West
42 Minneapolis Minnesota 368,383 Midwest
43 Tulsa Oklahoma 367,302 South
44 Honolulu Hawaii 365,272 West
45 Cincinnati Ohio 364,040 Midwest
46 Miami Florida 358,548 South
47 Fresno California 354,202 West
48 Omaha Nebraska 335,795 Midwest
49 Toledo Ohio 332,943 Midwest
50 Buffalo New York 328,123 Northeast
51 Wichita Kansas 304,011 Midwest
52 Santa Ana California 293,742 West
53 Mesa Arizona 288,091 West
54 Colorado Springs Colorado 281,140 West
55 Tampa Florida 280,015 South
56 Newark New Jersey 275,221 Northeast
57 Saint Paul Minnesota 272,235 Midwest
58 Louisville Kentucky 269,063 South
59 Anaheim California 266,406 West
60 Birmingham Alabama 265,968 South
61 Arlington Texas 261,721 South
62 Norfolk Virginia 261,229 South
63 Las Vegas Nevada 258,295 West
64 Corpus Christi Texas 257,453 South
65 St. Petersburg Florida 238,629 South
66 Rochester New York 231,636 Northeast
67 Jersey City New Jersey 228,537 Northeast
68 Riverside California 226,505 West
69 Anchorage Alaska 226,338 West
70 Lexington-Fayette Kentucky 225,366 South
71 Akron Ohio 223,019 Midwest
72 Aurora Colorado 222,103 West
73 Baton Rouge Louisiana 219,531 South
74 Stockton California 210,943 West
75 Raleigh North Carolina 207,951 South
76 Richmond Virginia 203,056 South
77 Shreveport Louisiana 198,525 South
78 Jackson Mississippi 196,637 South
79 Mobile Alabama 196,278 South
80 Des Moines Iowa 193,187 Midwest
81 Lincoln Nebraska 191,972 Midwest
82 Madison Wisconsin 191,262 Midwest
83 Grand Rapids Michigan 189,126 Midwest
84 Yonkers New York 188,082 Northeast
85 Hialeah Florida 188,004 South
86 Montgomery Alabama 187,106 South
87 Lubbock Texas 186,206 South
88 Greensboro North Carolina 183,521 South
89 Dayton Ohio 182,044 Midwest
90 Huntington Beach California 181,519 West
91 Garland Texas 180,650 South
92 Glendale California 180,038 West
93 Columbus Georgia 178,681 South
94 Spokane Washington 177,196 West
95 Tacoma Washington 176,664 West
96 Little Rock Arkansas 175,795 South
97 Bakersfield California 174,820 West
98 Fremont California 173,339 West
99 Fort Wayne Indiana 173,072 Midwest
100 Arlington Virginia 170,936 South

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References

  1. "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  2. Brown, Frank Dexter (February 1990). "The 1990 Census: Will Blacks Be Counted Out?". Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd. 20 (7): 195. ISSN   0006-4165 . Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  3. PIO, US Census Bureau, Census History Staff,. "The "72-Year Rule" – History – U.S. Census Bureau". www.census.gov. Retrieved October 26, 2015.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  4. "1990 Apportionment Results". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  5. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  6. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.