2000s (decade)

Last updated

September 11 attacksEuroIraq WarWar on TerrorSocial media2008 Summer OlympicsFinancial crisis of 2007–20082004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami2000s (decade)
From left, clockwise: The World Trade Center on fire and the Statue of Liberty during the 9/11 attacks; the euro enters into European currency in 2002; a statue of Saddam Hussein being toppled during the Iraq War in 2003; U.S. troops heading toward an army helicopter during the War on Terror; social media through the Internet spreads across the world; a Chinese soldier gazes at the 2008 Summer Olympics commencing; an economic crisis, the largest since the Great Depression, hits the world in 2008; a tsunami from the Indian Ocean following an earthquake kills over 230,000 in 2004.
Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009.

A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek: δεκάς, translit. dekas), which means a group of ten. Other words for spans of years also come from Latin: biennium, triennium, quadrennium, lustrum, century, millennium.

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Contents

The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Internet Global system of connected computer networks

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. Globalization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology. With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that's associated with social and cultural aspects. However, conflicts and diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalization, and modern globalization.

The economic growth of the 2000s had considerable social, environmental, and mass extinction consequences, and raised demand for diminishing energy resources. [6] [7] Economic growth was still vulnerable, however, as demonstrated by the financial crisis of 2007–08. [8]

Social sustainability

Social sustainability? is the least defined and least understood of the different ways of approaching sustainability and sustainable development. Social sustainability has had considerably less attention in public dialogue than economic and environmental sustainability.

Natural environment All living and non-living things occurring naturally, generally on Earth

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. This environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate, weather and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components:

Holocene extinction extinction event during the current Holocene geological epoch

The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity. The large number of extinctions spans numerous families of plants and animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and arthropods. With widespread degradation of highly biodiverse habitats such as coral reefs and rainforests, as well as other areas, the vast majority of these extinctions are thought to be undocumented, as no one is even aware of the existence of the species before they go extinct, or no one has yet discovered their extinction. The current rate of extinction of species is estimated at 100 to 1,000 times higher than natural background rates.

Name for the decade

In the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the '80s, the '90s, etc. [9] [10] [11] Orthographically, the decade can be written as the "2000s" or the "'00s". Common suggestions for referring to this decade: "2000s", "Two-thousands", "Twenty Hundreds", "Twenty-ohs", "00s" (pronounced "Ohs", "Oh Ohs", "Double Ohs" or "Ooze", "Zeros", "Double Zeros"), [10] [12] [13] "the Noughties", "the Noughts", "the Aughts", "the Aughties", "the Oughties". Other suggestions from 45 countries suggest the "double nothings", "zilches", "oh-zone", "oh-something". [14] When the "20" is dropped, the individual years within the decade are usually referred to as starting with an "oh", such as "oh-seven" to refer to the year 2007. During the decade of the 2000s, it was more common to hear years referred to starting with "two-thousand (and)" rather than "twenty-oh". Starting around the middle of the 2010s, it became more common to refer to the individual years of the previous decade as "twenty-oh-seven" or "twenty-oh-eight" than it had been during the 2000s, although the "two thousand (and)" pattern is still far more common.[ citation needed ]

The 2010s is the current decade in the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2019.

Politics and wars

The War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001. [15] [16] The International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Hussein's rule as Iraqi President and the Ba'ath Party in Iraq. Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, and the Mumbai attacks related to al-Qaeda in 2008. The European Union expanded its sanctions amid Iran's failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions.

War on Terror International military campaign that started after 11 September 2001

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U.S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, and then "war on terror" a few days later in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was immediately criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U.S.; it was never used as a formal designation of U.S. operations in internal government documentation.

War in Afghanistan (2001–present) war in Afghanistan since 2001

The War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–14) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present), followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001. The U.S. was initially supported by the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia and later by a coalition of over 40 countries, including all NATO members. The war's public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power. The War in Afghanistan is the second longest war in United States history, behind the Vietnam War.

September 11 attacks Attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

The War on Terror generated extreme controversy around the world, with questions regarding the justification for certain U.S. actions leading to a loss of support for the American government, both in and outside the United States. [17] Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and Hamas. The greatest loss of life due to natural disaster came from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which caused a tsunami that killed around one quarter-million people and displaced well over a million others. Cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property value came in 2005, when Hurricane Katrina flooded nearly the entire city of New Orleans. The resulting political fallout was severely damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its perceived failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States and became the first African-American U.S. president when he succeeded Bush in 2009. [18]

Criticism of the War on Terror addresses the morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, as well as other issues surrounding the War on Terror. It also touches upon criticism against the phrase itself, which was branded as a misnomer. The notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven highly contentious, with critics charging that participating governments exploited it to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, and infringe upon human rights. It is argued that the term war is not appropriate in this context, since there is no identifiable enemy and that it is unlikely international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means.

Middle East region that encompasses Western Asia and Egypt

The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey, and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation while Bahrain is the smallest. The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century.

Israel country in the Middle East

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.

Terrorist attacks

The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower. North face south tower after plane strike 9-11.jpg
The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.

The most prominent terrorist attacks committed against civilian population during the decade include:

Wars

The most prominent armed conflicts of the decade include:

International wars

The War on Terror War on Terror montage1.png
The War on Terror
The Iraq War Iraq header 2.jpg
The Iraq War
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict Gazamontage.png
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict

Civil wars and guerrilla wars

Irregular combatants in North Darfur. The Arabic text on the bumper reads "The Sudan Liberation Army" (SLA). Darfur Jeep.jpg
Irregular combatants in North Darfur. The Arabic text on the bumper reads "The Sudan Liberation Army" (SLA).
Darfur refugee camp in Chad Darfur refugee camp in Chad.jpg
Darfur refugee camp in Chad

Coups

2006 Thai coup d'état Coup-d'etat-2-web-cnni.jpg
2006 Thai coup d'état

The most prominent coups d'état of the decade include:

Nuclear threats

Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility in Iran Natanz nuclear.jpg
Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility in Iran

National sovereignty

Democracy

During this decade, the peaceful transfer of power through elections first occurred in Mexico, Indonesia, Taiwan, Colombia, and several other countries. (See below.)

Prominent political events

George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States, 2001–2009 Bush delivers his second Inaugural address.jpg
George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States, 2001–2009
Barack Obama, the first African American president of the United States, was inaugurated in 2009 US President Barack Obama taking his Oath of Office - 2009Jan20.jpg
Barack Obama, the first African American president of the United States, was inaugurated in 2009

The prominent political events of the decade include:

North America

Canada
Mexico
United States of America
  • George W. Bush was sworn in succeeding Bill Clinton as the 43rd President of the United States on January 20, 2001, following a sharply contested election.
  • On October 26, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush signed the USA PATRIOT Act into law.
  • On February 15, 2003, anti-war protests broke out around the world in opposition to the U.S. Invasion of Iraq, in what the Guinness Book of World Records called the largest anti-war rally in human history. [66] In reaction, The New York Times writer Patrick Tyler wrote in a February 17 article that: ...the huge anti-war demonstrations around the world this weekend are reminders that there may still be two superpowers on the planet: the United States and world public opinion. [67]
  • On June 5, 2004, Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, died after having suffered from Alzheimer's disease for nearly a decade. His seven-day state funeral followed, spanning June 5–11. The general public stood in long lines waiting for a turn to view the casket. People passed by the casket at a rate of about 5,000 per hour (83.3 per minute resp. 1.4 per second) and the wait time was about three hours. In all, 104,684 passed through when Reagan lay in state. [68] [69]
  • Barack Obama was sworn in as the 44th President of the United States in 2009, becoming the nation's first African American president.

South America

Asia

Europe

Treaty of Lisbon Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg
Treaty of Lisbon

Notable world leaders

Note: Names of world leaders shown below in bold remained in power continuously throughout the decade.

Assassinations and attempts

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto.jpg
Benazir Bhutto

Disasters

Natural disasters

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand. 2004-tsunami.jpg
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.

The 2000s experienced some of the worst and most destructive natural disasters in history.

Earthquakes (including tsunamis)

  • On January 13, 2001, a 7.6 earthquake strikes El Salvador, killing 944 people.
  • On January 26, 2001, an earthquake hits Gujarat, India, killing more than 12,000.
  • On February 28, 2001, the Nisqually earthquake hits the Seattle metro area. It caused major damage to the old highway standing in the urban center of Seattle.
  • On February 13, 2001, a 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400.
  • On May 21, 2003, an earthquake in the Boumerdès region of northern Algeria kills 2,200.
  • On December 26, 2003, the massive 2003 Bam earthquake devastates southeastern Iran; over 40,000 people are reported killed in the city of Bam.
  • On December 26, 2004, one of the worst natural disasters in recorded history hits southeast Asia, when the largest earthquake in 40 years hits the entire Indian Ocean region. The massive 9.3 magnitude earthquake, epicentered just off the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, generates enormous tsunami waves that crash into the coastal areas of a number of nations including Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. The official death toll from the Boxing Day tsunami in the affected countries stands at approximately 230,000 people dead or still missing.
  • On October 8, 2005, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake kills about 80,000 people.
  • On May 12, 2008, over 69,000 are killed in central south-west China by the Wenchuan quake, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale. The epicenter was 90 kilometers (56 mi) west-northwest of the provincial capital Chengdu, Sichuan province.

Tropical cyclones, other weather, and bushfires

Flooding caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in 2005. KatrinaNewOrleansFlooded edit2.jpg
Flooding caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in 2005.

Epidemics

Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the eminent public health concerns of the 21st century, particularly as it pertains to pathogenic organisms (the term is not especially relevant to organisms which don't cause disease in humans).

The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001 caused a crisis in British agriculture and tourism. This epizootic saw 2,000 cases of the disease in farms across most of the British countryside. Over 10 million sheep and cattle were killed.

Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Hong Kong, with 8,273 cases and 775 deaths worldwide (9.6% fatality) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Within weeks, SARS spread from Hong Kong to infect individuals in 37 countries in early 2003.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the Office for National Statistics reported 1,629 MRSA-related deaths in England and Wales during 2005, indicating a MRSA-related mortality rate half the rate of that in the United States for 2005, even though the figures from the British source were explained to be high because of "improved levels of reporting, possibly brought about by the continued high public profile of the disease" during the time of the 2005 United Kingdom General Election. MRSA is thought to have caused 1,652 deaths in 2006 in UK up from 51 in 1993.

People in Mexico City wear masks on a train due to the swine flu outbreak, April 2009 Swine Flu Masked Train Passengers in Mexico City.jpg
People in Mexico City wear masks on a train due to the swine flu outbreak, April 2009

The 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) flu pandemic was also considered a natural disaster. On October 25, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama officially declared H1N1 a national emergency [84] Despite President Obama's concern, a Fairleigh Dickinson University PublicMind poll found in October 2009 that an overwhelming majority of New Jerseyans (74%) were not very worried or not at all worried about contracting the H1N1 flu virus. [85]

A study conducted in coordination with the University of Michigan Health Service is scheduled for publication in the December 2009 American Journal of Roentgenology warning that H1N1 flu can cause pulmonary embolism, surmised as a leading cause of death in this current pandemic. The study authors suggest physician evaluation via contrast enhanced CT scans for the presence of pulmonary emboli when caring for patients diagnosed with respiratory complications from a "severe" case of the H1N1 flu. [86]

March 21, 2010, worldwide update by the U.N.'s World Health Organization (WHO) states that "213 countries and overseas territories/communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 16,931 deaths." [87]

As of May 30, 2010, worldwide update by World Health Organization (WHO) more than 214 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 18,138 deaths. [88]

Footnote:

The Walkerton Tragedy is a series of events that accompanied the contamination of the water supply of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, by E. coli bacteria in May 2000. Starting May 11, 2000, many residents of the community of about 5,000 people began to simultaneously experience bloody diarrhea, gastrointestinal infections and other symptoms of E. coli infection. Seven people died directly from drinking the E. coli contaminated water, who might have been saved if the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission had admitted to contaminated water sooner, and about 2,500 became ill.

In 2001 a similar outbreak in North Battleford, Saskatchewan caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium affected at least 5,800 people.

Non-natural disasters

Vehicular wrecks

Stampedes

The 2005 Baghdad bridge stampede occurred on August 31, 2005, when 953 people died following a stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge, which crosses the Tigris river in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad.

Economics

The most significant evolution of the early 2000s in the economic landscape was the long-time predicted breakthrough of economic giant China, which had double-digit growth during nearly the whole decade. To a lesser extent, India also benefited from an economic boom [89] which saw the two most populous countries becoming an increasingly dominant economic force. [90] The rapid catching-up of emerging economies with developed countries sparked some protectionist tensions during the period and was partly responsible for an increase in energy and food prices at the end of the decade. The economic developments in the latter third of the decade were dominated by a worldwide economic downturn, which started with the crisis in housing and credit in the United States in late 2007, and led to the bankruptcy of major banks and other financial institutions. [91] The outbreak of this global financial crisis sparked a global recession, beginning in the United States and affecting most of the industrialized world.

The period takes its name from Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer (who later became Prime Minister), who decided to sell approximately half of the UK's gold reserves in a series of auctions. At the time, the UK's gold reserves were worth about US$6.5 billion, accounting for about half of the UK's US$13 billion foreign currency net reserves. [99]

Economic growth in the world

Shanghai becomes a symbol of the recent economic boom of China. Lujiazui Skyline from Bund.jpg
Shanghai becomes a symbol of the recent economic boom of China.

Between 1999 and 2009, according to the World Bank statistics for GDP: [104] [105]

Globalization and its discontents

Offshore outsourcing of jobs, such as this call centre in India, significantly increased during the decade as many multinational corporations moved their manufacturing and services from western countries to developing countries. An Indian call center.jpg
Offshore outsourcing of jobs, such as this call centre in India, significantly increased during the decade as many multinational corporations moved their manufacturing and services from western countries to developing countries.

The removal of trade and investment barriers, the growth of domestic markets, artificially low currencies, the proliferation of education, the rapid development of high tech and information systems industries and the growth of the world economy lead to a significant growth of offshore outsourcing during the decade as many multinational corporations significantly increased subcontracting of manufacturing (and increasingly, services) across national boundaries in developing countries and particularly in China and India, due to many benefits and mainly because the two countries which are the two most populous countries in the world provide huge pools from which to find talent and as because both countries are low cost sourcing countries. As a result of this growth, many of these developing countries accumulated capital and started investing abroad. Other countries, including the United Arab Emirates, Australia, Brazil and Russia, benefited from increased demand for their mineral and energy resources that global growth generated. The hollowing out of manufacturing was felt in Japan and parts of the United States and Europe which had not been able to develop successful innovative industries. Opponents point out that the practice of offshore outsourcing by countries with higher wages leads to the reduction of their own domestic employment and domestic investment. As a result, many customer service jobs as well as jobs in the information technology sectors (data processing, computer programming, and technical support) in countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have been or are potentially affected.

While global trade rose in the decade (partially driven by China's entry into the WTO in 2001), there was little progress in the multilateral trading system. International trade continued to expand during the decade as emerging economies and developing countries, in particular China and South-Asian countries, benefited low wages costs and most often undervalued currencies. However, global negotiations to reduce tariffs did not make much progress, as member countries of the World Trade Organization did not succeed in finding agreements to stretch the extent of free trade. [110] The Doha Round of negotiations, launched in 2001 by the WTO to promote development, failed to be completed because of growing tensions between regional areas. Nor did the Cancún Conference in 2003 find a consensus on services trade [111] and agricultural subsidies. [112]

The comparative rise of China, India, and other developing countries also contributed to their growing clout in international fora. In 2009, it was determined that the G20, originally a forum of finance ministers and central bank governors, would replace the G8 as the main economic council.

2007 Chinese export recalls In 2007 a series of product recalls and import bans were imposed by the product safety institutions of the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia and New Zealand against products manufactured in and exported from the mainland of the People's Republic of China (PRC) because of numerous alleged consumer safety issues.

Events in the confidence crisis included recalls on consumer goods such as pet food, toys, toothpaste, lipstick, and a ban on certain types of seafood. Also included are reports on the poor crash safety of Chinese automobiles, slated to enter the American and European markets in 2008. This created adverse consequences for the confidence in the safety and quality of mainland Chinese manufactured goods in the global economy.

The age of turbulence

People queuing outside a Northern Rock bank branch in Birmingham, United Kingdom on September 15, 2007, to withdraw their savings because of the Subprime mortgage crisis. Birmingham Northern Rock bank run 2007.jpg
People queuing outside a Northern Rock bank branch in Birmingham, United Kingdom on September 15, 2007, to withdraw their savings because of the Subprime mortgage crisis.

The decade was marked by two financial and economic crises. In 2000, the Dot-com bubble burst, causing turmoil in financial markets and a decline in economic activity in the developed economies, in particular in the United States. [113] However, the impact of the crisis on the activity was limited thanks to the intervention of the central banks, notably the U.S. Federal Reserve System. Indeed, Alan Greenspan, leader of the Federal Reserve until 2006, cut the interest rates several times to avoid a severe recession, [114] allowing an economic revival in the U.S. [115]

As the Federal Reserve maintained low interest rates to favor economic growth, a housing bubble began to appear in the United States. In 2007, the rise in interest rates and the collapse of the housing market caused a wave of loan payment failures in the U.S. The subsequent mortgage crisis caused a global financial crisis, because the subprime mortgages had been securitized and sold to international banks and investment funds. Despite the extensive intervention of central banks, including partial and total nationalization of major European banks, [116] [117] the crisis of sovereign debt became particularly acute, first in Iceland, though as events of the early 2010s would show, it was not an isolated European example. Economic activity was severely affected around the world in 2008 and 2009, [118] with disastrous consequences for carmakers. [119]

In 2007, the UK's Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown, delivered his final Mansion House speech as Chancellor before he moved into Number 10. Addressing financiers: "A new world order has been created", Everyone needed to follow the City's "great example", "an era that history will record as the beginning of a new Golden Age". [120]

Reactions of governments in all developed and developing countries against the economic slowdown were largely inspired by keynesian economics. The end of the decade was characterized by a Keynesian resurgence, [121] while the influence and media popularity of left-wing economists [122] Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman (Nobel Prize recipients in 2001 and 2008, respectively) did not stop growing during the decade. [123] Several international summits were organized to find solutions against the economic crisis and to impose greater control on the financial markets. The G-20 became in 2008 and 2009 a major organization, as leaders of the member countries held two major summits in Washington in November 2008 and in London in April 2009 to regulate the banking and financial sectors, [124] and also succeeding in coordinating their economic action and in avoiding protectionist reactions.

Energy crisis

Increase in oil prices US oil price in dollars from 1999 to 2008-10-17.svg
Increase in oil prices
Gas prices in late May 2008 May2008gasolineCA.jpg
Gas prices in late May 2008

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel. During 2003, the price rose above $30, reached $60 by August 11, 2005, and peaked at $147.30 in July 2008. [125] Commentators attributed these price increases to many factors, including reports from the United States Department of Energy and others showing a decline in petroleum reserves, worries over peak oil, Middle East tension, and oil price speculation. [126]

For a time, geopolitical events and natural disasters indirectly related to the global oil market had strong short-term effects on oil prices. These events and disasters included North Korean missile tests, the 2006 conflict between Israel and Lebanon, worries over Iranian nuclear plants in 2006 and Hurricane Katrina. By 2008, such pressures appeared to have an insignificant impact on oil prices given the onset of the global recession. The recession caused demand for energy to shrink in late 2008 and early 2009 and the price plunged as well. However, it surged back in May 2009, bringing it back to November 2008 levels. [127]

Many fast-growing economies throughout the world, especially in Asia, also were a major factor in the rapidly increasing demand for fossil fuels, which—along with fewer new petroleum finds, greater extraction costs, and political turmoil—forced two other trends: a soar in the price of petroleum products and a push by governments and businesses to promote the development of environmentally friendly technology (known informally as "green" technology). However, a side-effect of the push by some industrial nations to "go green" and utilize biofuels was a decrease in the supply of food and a subsequent increase in the price of the same. It partially caused the 2007 food price crisis, which seriously affected the world's poorer nations with an even more severe shortage of food. [128]

The rise of the euro

The euro became the currency of members of the Eurozone. Euro banknotes 2002.png
The euro became the currency of members of the Eurozone.

A common currency for most EU member states, the euro, was established electronically in 1999, officially tying all the currencies of each participating nation to each other. The new currency was put into circulation in 2002 and the old currencies were phased out. Only three countries of the then 15 member states decided not to join the euro (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden). In 2004 the EU undertook a major eastward enlargement, admitting 10 new member states (eight of which were former communist states). Two more, Bulgaria and Romania, joined in 2007, establishing a union of 27 nations.

The euro has since become the second largest reserve currency and the second most traded currency in the world after the US$. [129] As of October 2009, with more than €790 billion in circulation, the euro was the currency with the highest combined value of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the US$. [note 1]

Science and technology

Science

These are the 10 most significant scientific researches by year based on the annual award Breakthrough of the Year made by the AAAS journal, Science.

  • 2000: Full genome sequencing [130]
    • Ribosome Revelations
    • Fossil Find
    • One Word--Organics
    • New Cells for Old
    • Water, Water, Everywhere
    • Cosmic BOOMERANG
    • Good Reception
    • NEAR spacecraft
    • Quantum Curiosities
  • 2001: Nanocircuits or Molecular circuit [131]
    • RNA Ascending
    • So What's Neu?
    • Genomes Take Off
    • Superconductor Surprises
    • Guide Me Home
    • Climatic Confidence
    • Cancer in the Crosshairs
    • Banner Year for Bose-Einstein
    • Carbon Consensus
  • 2002: RNA interference [132]
    • Neutrino insights
    • Genome progress
    • CMB structure and polarization
    • Attosecond physics
    • TRP channels
    • Cryoelectron tomography
    • Adaptive optics
    • Retina receptors
    • The Toumaï fossil
  • 2003: Dark energy [133]
    • Genes for mental illness
    • Climate change impacts
    • RNA's many roles
    • Single-molecule techniques
    • Gamma ray bursts
    • Sex cells from stem cells
    • "Left-handed" materials
    • Y chromosome sequence
    • Anti-angiogenesis treatments
  • 2004: Spirit rover landed on Mars [134]
    • The Littlest Human
    • Clone Wars
    • Bose–Einstein Condensate
    • Hidden DNA Treasures
    • Prized Pulsar Pair
    • Documenting Diversity Declines
    • Splish, Splash
    • Healthy Partnerships
    • Genes, Genes Everywhere
  • 2005: Evolution in action [135]
    • Planetary probes
    • Plant development
    • Violent neutron stars
    • Genetics of brain disease
    • Earth's differentiation
    • Potassium channels
    • Climate change
    • Systems biology
    • ITER nuclear fusion experiment
  • 2006: Proof of the Poincaré conjecture [136]
    • Paleogenomics
    • Shrinking ice
    • Tiktaalik fossil fish
    • Cloaking technology
    • Macular degeneration patients
    • Biodiversity and speciation
    • Sub-diffraction-limit microscopy
    • LTP process for record new memories
    • Small piRNAs molecules
  • 2007: Human genetic variation [137]
    • Reprogramming cells
    • High-energy cosmic rays
    • Receptor visions
    • Beyond silicon: oxide interfaces
    • Quantum spin Hall effect
    • T cell division
    • Direct chemistry efficient
    • Memory and imagination
    • Computer solving checkers
  • 2008: Cellular reprogramming [138]
    • Seeing Exoplanets
    • Cancer Genes
    • New High-Temperature Superconductors
    • Watching Proteins at Work
    • Water to Burn
    • The Video Embryo
    • Fat of a Different Color
    • Proton's Mass "Predicted"
    • Sequencing Bonanza
  • 2009: Ardipithecus ramidus [139]
    • Opening Up the Gamma Ray Sky
    • ABA Receptors
    • Mock Monopoles Spotted
    • Live Long and Prosper
    • An Icy Moon Revealed
    • Gene Therapy Returns
    • Graphene Takes Off
    • Hubble Reborn
    • First X-ray Laser Shines
  • Insights of the Decade: survey that looked at the 10 insights that have changed science since the dawn of the new millennium.
    • The dark genome
    • Precision cosmology
    • Ancient DNA
    • Water on Mars
    • Reprogramming cells
    • The micobiome
    • Exoplanets
    • Inflammation
    • Metamaterials
    • Climate change research

Scientific Marks by Field

Archaeology
Biology
  • 2001 – The world's first self-contained artificial heart was implanted in Robert Tools.
  • 2003 – The Human Genome Project was completed, with 99% of the human genome sequenced to 99.99% accuracy.
  • 2005 – National Geographic Society and IBM established The Genographic Project, which aims to trace the ancestry of every living human down to a single male ancestor.
  • 2005 – Surgeons in France carried out the first successful partial human face transplant.
  • 2005 - Equipped with genome data and field observations of organisms from microbes to mammals, biologists made huge strides toward understanding the mechanisms by which living creatures evolve.
  • 2006 – Australian scientist Ian Frazer developed a vaccine for the Human Papillomavirus, a common cause of cervical cancer.
  • 2007 - RNA, long upstaged by its more glamorous sibling, DNA, is turning out to have star qualities of its own. Science hails these electrifying discoveries, which are prompting biologists to overhaul their vision of the cell and its evolution.
  • 2008 - By inserting genes that turn back a cell's developmental clock, researchers are gaining insights into disease and the biology of how a cell decides its fate.
  • 2008 - Launch of the 1000 Genomes Project an international research effort to establish by far the most detailed catalogue of human genetic variation.
  • 2009 - Launch of the Human Connectome Project to build a network map that will shed light on the anatomical and functional connectivity within the healthy human brain, as well as to produce a body of data that will facilitate research into brain disorders.
Mathematics
Physics
Space
Artist Concept of a NASA Mars Exploration Rover on Mars Opportunity in Endurance Crater (cropped).jpg
Artist Concept of a NASA Mars Exploration Rover on Mars
These images show water in a very young lunar crater on the side of the moon that faces away from Earth. Water Around Fresh Moon Crater.jpg
These images show water in a very young lunar crater on the side of the moon that faces away from Earth.

Technology

Automobiles

Communications

The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world. Texting.jpg
The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world.
  • The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world. The advent of text messaging made possible new forms of interaction that were not possible before, leading to positive implications such as having the ability to receive information on the move. Nevertheless, it also led to negative social implications such as "cyberbullying" and the rise of traffic collisions caused by drivers who were distracted as they were texting while driving. One such problem was the fad of Happy Slapping in Europe, in which an individual assaults an unwitting victim while others record the assault (commonly with a camera phone or a smartphone). Though the name usually refers to relatively minor acts of violence such as hitting or slapping the victim, more serious crimes such as manslaughter, [149] rape, and sexual assault have been classified as "happy slapping" by the media. [150]
  • Mobile internet, first launched in Japan with the i-mode in 1999, became increasingly popular with people in developed countries throughout the decade, thanks to improving cell phone capabilities and advances in mobile telecommunications technology, such as 3G.
  • E-mail continued to be popular throughout the decade, and began to replace "snail mail" (also known, more neutrally, as paper mail, postal mail, land mail, or simply mail or post) as the primary way of sending letters and other messages to people in faraway locations, though it has been available since 1971.
  • Social networking sites arose as a new way for people to stay in touch no matter where they are, as long as they have an internet connection. The first social networking sites were Friendster, Myspace, Facebook, and Twitter in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006, respectively. Myspace was the most popular social networking website until June 2009 when Facebook overtook Myspace in the number of American users. [151]
  • Smartphones, which combine mobile phones with the features of personal digital assistants and portable media players, first emerged in the 1990s but did not become very popular until late in the 2000s. Smartphones are rich in features and often have high resolution touchscreens and web browsers. The first modern smartphone was the iPhone. It was released on June 29, 2007 in the United States, and in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland and Austria in November 2007. It was the first smartphone to not include a physical keyboard, solely utilizing a touch screen and a home button.
  • Due to the major success of broadband Internet connections, Voice over IP begins to gain popularity as a replacement for traditional telephone lines.

Computing and Internet

In the 2000s, the Internet became a mainstay, strengthening its grip on Western society while becoming increasingly available in the developing world.

Google becomes the Internet's most visited website. Googlelogo.png
Google becomes the Internet's most visited website.
  • A huge jump in broadband internet usage globally – for example, from 6% of U.S. internet users in June 2000 [152] to what one mid-decade study predicted would be 62% by 2010. [153] By February 2007, over 80% of U.S. Internet users were connected via broadband and broadband internet has been almost a required standard for quality internet browsing. [154]
  • Wireless internet became prominent by the end of the decade, as well as internet access in devices besides computers, such as mobile phones and gaming consoles.
  • Email became a standard form of interpersonal written communication, with popular addresses available to the public on Hotmail (now Outlook.com), Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.
  • Normalisation became increasingly important as massive standardized corpora and lexicons of spoken and written language became widely available to laypeople, just as documents from the paperless office were archived and retrieved with increasing efficiency using XML-based markup.
  • Peer-to-peer technology gained massive popularity with file sharing systems enabling users to share any audio, video and data files or anything in digital format, as well as with applications which share real-time data, such as telephony traffic.
  • VPNs (virtual private networks) became likewise accessible to the general public, and data encryption remained a major issue for the stability of web commerce.
  • Boom in music downloading and the use of data compression to quickly transfer music over the Internet, with a corresponding rise of portable digital audio players. As a result, the entertainment industry struggled through the decade to find digital delivery systems for music, movies, and other media that reduce copyright infringement and preserve profit.
  • The USB flash drive replaces the floppy disk as the preferred form of low-capacity mobile data storage.
  • In February 2003, Dell announced floppy drives would no longer be pre-installed on Dell Dimension home computers, although they were still available as a selectable option and purchasable as an aftermarket OEM add-on. [155] On 29 January 2007, PC World stated that only 2% of the computers they sold contained built-in floppy disk drives; once present stocks were exhausted, no more standard floppies would be sold. [156]
  • During the decade, Windows 2000, XP, Microsoft Office 2003, Vista [ dubious ], and Office 2007 (and later Windows 7 [ dubious ]) become the ubiquitous industry standards[ dubious ] in personal computer software until the end of the decade, when Apple began to slowly gain market share. Windows ME and Microsoft Office XP were also released during the decade.
  • With the advent of the Web 2.0, dynamic technology became widely accessible, and by the mid-2000s, PHP and MySQL became (with Apache and nginx) the backbone of many sites, making programming knowledge unnecessary to publish to the web. Blogs, portals, and wikis become common electronic dissemination methods for professionals, amateurs, and businesses to conduct knowledge management typified by success of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia which launched on January 15, 2001, grew rapidly and became the largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet [157] [158] as well as the best known wiki in the world and the largest encyclopedia in the world.
  • Open-source software, such as the Linux operating system, the Mozilla Firefox web browser and VLC media player, gain ground.
  • Internet commerce became standard for reservations; stock trading; promotion of music, arts, literature, and film; shopping; and other activities.
  • During this decade certain websites and search engines became prominent worldwide as transmitters of goods, services and information. Some of the most popular and successful online sites or search engines of the 2000s included Google, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, eBay, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.
  • More and more businesses began providing paperless services, clients accessing bills and bank statements directly through a web interface.
  • In 2007 – The fast food chain McDonald's announced the introduction of free high speed wireless internet access at most of its 1,200 restaurants by the end of the year in a move which will make it the UK's biggest provider of such a service. [159]

Electronics

  • GPS (Global Positioning System) becomes very popular especially in the tracking of items or people, and the use in cars (see Automotive navigation systems). Games that utilize the system, such as geocaching, emerge and become popular.
  • Green laser pointers [160] appeared on the market circa 2000, and are the most common type of DPSS lasers (also called DPSSFD for "diode pumped solid state frequency-doubled").

In late 2004 and early 2005, came a significant increase in reported incidents linked to laser pointers – see Lasers and aviation safety. The wave of incidents may have been triggered in part by "copycats" who read press accounts of laser pointer incidents. In one case, David Banach of New Jersey was charged under federal Patriot Act anti-terrorism laws, after he allegedly shone a laser pointer at aircraft. [161]

  • Chip and PIN is the brand name adopted by the banking industries in the United Kingdom and Ireland for the rollout of the EMV smart card payment system for credit, debit and ATM cards.

Chip and PIN was trialled in Northampton, England from May 2003, and as a result was rolled out nationwide in the United Kingdom in 2004 with advertisements in the press and national television touting the "Safety in Numbers" slogan.

  • In 2009, Tesco (a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer) opened its first UK branch at which service robots were the only option at the checkout, in Kingsley, Northampton – its US chain, Fresh & Easy, already operates several branches like this. [162]
  • September 7, 2009, an EU watchdog warns of an "alarming increase" in cash machine fraud by organised criminal gangs across Europe using sophisticated skimming technology, together with an explosion in ram-raiding attacks on ATMs.

ATM crime in Europe jumped to €485m (£423m) in 2008 following a 149% rise in attacks on cash machines. Gangs are turning to Bluetooth wireless technology to transmit card and personal identification number (PIN) details to nearby laptops and using increasingly sophisticated techniques to skim cards.

More conventional smash-and-grab attacks are also on the rise, says Enisa, the European Network and Information Security Agency. It reports a 32% rise in physical attacks on ATMs, ranging from ram raids to the use of rotary saws, blowtorches and diamond drills. It blames the increase on gangs from eastern Europe. [163]

Robotics

The Da Vinci surgical robot which enables doing accurate robotic surgeries was introduced in the 2000s Laproscopic Surgery Robot.jpg
The Da Vinci surgical robot which enables doing accurate robotic surgeries was introduced in the 2000s

Transportation

The Segway was unveiled in December 2001 Segway PT (2006)-02.jpg
The Segway was unveiled in December 2001

Video

  • Digital cameras become widely popular due to rapid decreases in size and cost while photo resolution steadily increases. As a result, the digital cameras largely supplanted the analog cameras and the integration into mobile phones increase greatly. Since 2007, digital cameras started being manufactured with the face recognition feature built in.[ citation needed ]
  • Flat panel displays started becoming widely popular in the second half of the decade displacing cathode ray tubes. [173] [174]
  • Handheld projectors enter the market and are then integrated into cellphones. [ citation needed ]
  • DVR devices such as TiVo became popular, making it possible to record television broadcasts to a hard drive-based digital storage medium and allowing many additional features including the option to fast-forward through commercials or to use an automatic Commercial skipping feature. This feature created controversy, with major television networks and movie studios claiming it violates copyright and should be banned. With the commercial skipping feature, many television channels place advertisements on the bottom on the TV screen.[ citation needed ]
  • VOD technology became widely available among cable users worldwide, enabling the users to select and watch video content from a large variety of available content stored on a central server, as well as gaining the possibility to freeze the image, as well as fast-forward and rewind the VOD content.
  • DVDs, and subsequently Blu-ray Discs, replace VCR technology as the common standard in homes and at video stores.[ citation needed ]
  • Free Internet video portals like YouTube, Hulu, and Internet TV software solutions like Joost became new popular alternatives to TV broadcasts. [175]
  • TV becomes available on the networks run by some mobile phone providers, such as Verizon Wireless's Vcast. [ citation needed ]
  • "High-definition television" becomes very popular towards the second half of the decade, with the increase of HD television channels and the conversion from analog to digital signals. [176]

Miscellaneous

At the beginning of the decade the e-cigarette was invented Electronic Cigarette (cropped).jpg
At the beginning of the decade the e-cigarette was invented

Religion and Irreligion

New Atheism is the name given to the ideas promoted by a collection of modern atheist writers who have advocated the view that "religion should not simply be tolerated but should be countered, criticized, and exposed by rational argument wherever its influence arises." [177]

The term is commonly associated with individuals such as Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, and Christopher Hitchens (together called "the Four Horsemen of New Atheism" in a taped 2007 discussion they held on their criticisms of religion, a name that has stuck), [178] along with Victor J. Stenger, [179] Lawrence M. Krauss and A.C. Grayling. [180] Several best-selling books by these authors, published between 2004 and 2007, form the basis for much of the discussion of New Atheism. [181]

Several groups promoting no religious faith or opposing religious faith altogether – including the Freedom From Religion Foundation, American Atheists, Camp Quest, and the Rational Response Squad – have witnessed large increases in membership numbers in recent years, and the number of secularist student organizations at American colleges and universities increased during the 2000s. [182]

David Bario of the Columbia News Service wrote: [183]

Under the Bush administration, organizations that promote abstinence and encourage teens to sign virginity pledges or wear purity rings have received federal grants. The Silver Ring Thing, a subsidiary of a Pennsylvania evangelical church, has received more than $1 million from the government to promote abstinence and to sell its rings in the United States and abroad.

Prominent events and trends during the 2000s:

Population and social issues

Environment and climate change

Climate change and global warming became household words in the 2000s. Predictions tools made significant progress during the decade, UN-sponsored organisations such as the IPCC gained influence, and studies such as the Stern report influenced public support for paying the political and economic costs of countering climate change.

The global temperature kept climbing during the decade. In December 2009, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that the 2000s may have been the warmest decade since records began in 1850, with four of the five warmest years since 1850 having occurred in this decade. [219] [220] The WMO's findings were later echoed by the NASA and the NOAA. [221]

Scientific studies on climate helped establish a consensus. Global Warming Predictions Map.jpg
Scientific studies on climate helped establish a consensus.

Major natural disasters became more frequent and helped change public opinion. One of the deadliest heat waves in human history happened during the 2000s, mostly in Europe, with the 2003 European heat wave killing 37,451 people over the summer months. [222] In February 2009, a series of highly destructive bushfires started in Victoria, Australia, lasting into the next month. While the fires are believed to have been caused by arson, they were widely reported as having been fueled by an excessive heatwave that was due in part to climate change. It has also been alleged that climate change was a cause of increased storms intensity, notably in the case of Hurricane Katrina.

International actions

Climate change became a major issue for governments, populations and scientists. Debates on global warming and its causes made significant progress, as climate change denials were refuted by most scientific studies. Decisive reports such as the Stern Review and the 2007 IPCC Report almost established a climate change consensus. NGOs' actions and the commitment of political personalities (such as former U.S. Vice President Al Gore) also urged to international reactions against climate change. Documentary films An Inconvenient Truth and Home may have had a decisive impact.[ citation needed ]

Under the auspices of The UN Convention on Climate Change the Kyoto Protocol (aimed at combating global warming) entered into force on February 16, 2005. As of November 2009, 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol. [223] In addition The UN Convention on Climate Change helped coordinate the efforts of the international community to fight potentially disastrous effects of human activity on the planet and launched negotiations to set an ambitious program of carbon emission reduction that began in 2007 with the Bali Road Map. However, the representatives of the then 192 member countries of the United Nations gathered in December 2009 for the Copenhagen Conference failed to reach a binding agreement to reduce carbon emissions because of divisions between regional areas.

However, as environmental technologies were to make up a potential market, some countries made large investments in renewable energies, energy conservation and sustainable transport. Many governments launched national plans to promote sustainable energy. In 2003, the European Union members created an emission trading scheme, and in 2007 they assembled a climate and energy package to reduce further their carbon emission and improve their energy-efficiency. In 2009, the United States Obama administration set up the Green New Deal, a plan to create millions of jobs in sectors related to environmentalism.

The Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 requires local authorities in England to provide every household with a separate collection of at least two types of recyclable materials by 2010. [224]

Culture

Architecture

Commercialization and globalization resulted in mass migration of people from rural areas to urban areas resulting in high-profile skyscrapers in Asia and Europe. In Asia skyscrapers were constructed in India, China, Thailand, South Korea, and Japan.

Fine arts

Literature

Film

Usage of computer-generated imagery became more widespread in films during the 2000s. Documentary and mockumentary films, such as March of the Penguins and Super Size Me , were popular in the 2000s. 2004's Fahrenheit 9/11 by Michael Moore is the highest grossing documentary of all time. Online films became popular, and conversion to digital cinema started.

December 2009's Avatar , an American epic science fiction film written and directed by James Cameron, made extensive use of cutting edge motion capture filming techniques, and was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing (using the RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D, and IMAX 3D formats), and for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters.[ citation needed ] The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology. [241]

3D films became more and more successful throughout the 2000s, culminating in the unprecedented success of 3D presentations of Avatar.

In July 2005, it was reported that the Scottish actor and producer Sir Sean Connery had decided to retire, due to disillusionment with the "idiots now in Hollywood"' Telling The New Zealand Herald : "I'm fed up with the idiots... the ever-widening gap between people who know how to make movies and the people who greenlight the movies." [245]

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King , a 2003 epic fantasy-drama film directed by Peter Jackson based on the second and third volumes of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , was nominated for eleven Academy Awards and won all the categories for which it was nominated. [246] The film is tied for largest number of awards won with Ben-Hur (1959) and Titanic (1997).

The Passion of the Christ , a 2004 American film directed by Mel Gibson and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ, was highly controversial and received mixed reviews; however, it was a major commercial hit, grossing in excess of $600 million[ where? ] during its theatrical release, becoming the highest grossing R-rated film of all time.[ citation needed ]

The superhero film genre experienced renewed and intense interest throughout the 2000s. With high ticket and DVD sales, several new superhero films were released every year. The X-Men , Batman and Spider-Man series were particularly prominent, and other notable films in the genre included Daredevil (2003), The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), Hulk (2003), Hellboy (2004), Fantastic Four (2005), Iron Man (2008), The Incredible Hulk (2008), and Watchmen (2009). Some media commentators attributed the increased popularity of such franchises to the social and political climate in Western society since the September 11 terrorist attacks, [247] although others argued advances in special effects technology played a more significant role. [248]

For five years, between 2004's Home on the Range and 2009's The Princess and the Frog animated, musical, comedy films; Walt Disney Animation Studios stopped their production of traditional 2D animated films.

Award winners

Award2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Academy Award for Best Picture winners Gladiator [249] A Beautiful Mind [250] Chicago [251] The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King [252] Million Dollar Baby [253] Crash [254] The Departed [255] No Country for Old Men [256] Slumdog Millionaire [257] The Hurt Locker [258]
Palme d'Or winners at the Cannes Film Festival Dancer in the Dark [259] The Son's Room [260] The Pianist [261] Elephant [262] Fahrenheit 9/11 [263] L'Enfant [264] The Wind That Shakes the Barley [265] 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days [266] The Class [267] The White Ribbon [268]
César Award for Best Film winners The Taste of Others [269] Amélie [270] The Pianist [271] The Barbarian Invasions [272] Games of Love and Chance [273] The Beat That My Heart Skipped [274] Lady Chatterley [275] The Secret of the Grain [276] Séraphine [277] A Prophet [278]
Empire Award for Best Film Gladiator The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring [279] The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers [280] The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King [281] The Bourne Supremacy [282] King Kong [283] Casino Royale [284] The Bourne Ultimatum [285] The Dark Knight [286] Avatar [287]
Best films of the Sight & Sound annual pollN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A Brokeback Mountain [288] Caché [289] 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days [290] Hunger [291] A Prophet [292]
The highest-grossing film of the decade was Avatar (2009) Avatar Flight of Passage (33825582954).jpg
The highest-grossing film of the decade was Avatar (2009)

The 20 highest-grossing films of the decade are (in order from highest to lowest grossing)

Avatar , The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King , Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest , The Dark Knight , Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone , Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End , Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix , Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince , The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers , Shrek 2 , Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire , Spider-Man 3 , Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs , Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets , The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring , Finding Nemo , Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith , Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen , Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Shrek the Third . [293]

The top 15 highest-grossing film series of the decade are (in order from highest to lowest grossing)

Harry Potter film series, The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, Pirates of the Caribbean film series, Spider-Man film series, Shrek film series, Ice Age film series, Transformers film series, X-Men film series, Batman film series' Batman Begins and The Dark Knight , Star Wars Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith , The Da Vinci Code and Angels & Demons , The Matrix film series' The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions , The Chronicles of Narnia film series, Mission: Impossible film series' and The Mummy film series. [293]

Music

Eminem is considered one of the most successful artists of the decade. He sold 32 million albums and won multiple awards, including the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 2002. Eminem DJ Hero.jpg
Eminem is considered one of the most successful artists of the decade. He sold 32 million albums and won multiple awards, including the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 2002.

In the 2000s, the Internet allowed consumers unprecedented access to music. The Internet also allowed more artists to distribute music relatively inexpensively and independently without the previously necessary financial support of a record label. Music sales began to decline following the year 2000, a state of affairs generally attributed to unlicensed uploading and downloading of sound files to the Internet, a practice which became more widely prevalent during this time. Business relationships called 360 deals—an arrangement in which a company provides support for an artist, and, in exchange, the artist pays the company a percentage of revenue earned not only from sales of recorded music, but also live performances and publishing—became a popular response by record labels to the loss of music sales attributed to online copyright infringement. [294] [295]

In the 2000s, Hip hop reached a commercial peak and heavily influenced various aspects of popular culture and, in general, dominating the musical landscape of the decade. [296] [297] In fact, the best-selling musical artist of the decade was the American rapper Eminem, who sold 32 million albums. Other popular hip hop artists included Jay-Z, Nas, Kanye West, Ludacris, OutKast, Cam'ron, Pharrell, Snoop Dogg, 50 Cent, Nelly, Lil Wayne, T.I. and The Game. The genre was extremely diverse stylistically, including subgenres such as gangsta rap and Hyphy. Many hip hop albums were released to widespread critical acclaim.

Billboard magazine named Eminem as the artist with the best performance on the Billboard charts and named Beyoncé as the female artist of the decade. [298] [299] In the UK, the biggest selling artist of the decade is Robbie Williams*and the biggest selling band of the decade is Westlife. American recording artist Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, creating the largest public mourning since the death of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997. [300] [301] [302] On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah Haughton – an American recording artist, dancer, actress and model and eight others, were killed in an airplane crash in The Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat". On April 25, 2002, Lisa Lopes an American: rapper, dancer, and singer-songwriter, best known as a member of the R&B/hip-hop girl group TLC by her stage name Left Eye, was killed in a car crash in La Ceiba, Honduras. On October 30, 2002, Jason William Mizell (Jam Master Jay) of the hip hop group Run-D.M.C was shot and killed in a Merrick Boulevard recording studio in Jamaica, Queens. On December 25, 2006, James Brown – an American recording artist known as the "Godfather of Soul" died of pneumonia at the age of 73. On September 12, 2003, Johnny Cash – an American musician known as the "Man in Black" died of diabetes at the age of 71. On June 10, 2004, Ray Charles – an American musician best known as one of the pioneers of soul music died of liver failure at the age of 73. On November 29, 2001, George Harrison – an English musician best known of the guitarist of the Beatles died of lung cancer at the age of 58. Innovator, inventor, performer and guitar virtuoso Les Paul also died on August 12, 2009, at the age of 94. In 2002, Robbie Williams signed a record-breaking £80 million contract with EMI. [303] So far it is the biggest music deal in British history.

In Alternative rock, the garage rock revival and Post-punk revival entered the mainstream, with bands such as The Strokes, Interpol, The Killers, Arctic Monkeys and The White Stripes seeing commercial success. Other genres such as post-grunge, post-Britpop, nu metal, pop punk, post-hardcore, metalcore, and, in particular, emo rock, also achieved notability during the decade.

The 2000s gave rise a new trend in popular music in the proliferation of Auto-Tune. In the early 2000s, Auto-Tune had been common with artists such as *NSYNC and Eiffel 65. [295] Towards the end of the decade, electronic dance music began to dominate western charts (as it would proceed to in the following decade), and in turn helped contribute to a diminishing amount of rock music in the mainstream. [304] [305] Hip hop music also saw a decline in the mainstream in the late 2000s because of electronic music's rising popularity. [306]

According to The Guardian , music styles during the 2000s changed very little from how they were in the latter half of the 1990s. [307] The 2000s had a profound impact on the condition of music distribution. Recent advents in digital technology have fundamentally altered industry and marketing practices as well as players in unusual rapidity. [308] [309] [310] According to Nielsen Soundscan, by 2009 CDs accounted for 79 percent of album sales, with 20 percent coming from digital, representing both a 10 percent drop and gain for both formats in 2 years. [311]

Grime is a style of music that emerged from Bow, East London, England in the early 2000s, primarily as a development of UK garage, drum & bass, hip hop and dancehall. Pioneers of the style include English rappers Dizzee Rascal, Wiley, Roll Deep and Skepta.

Michael Jackson's final album, Invincible , released on October 30, 2001, and costing $30m to record, was the most expensive record ever made. [312]

The general socio-political fallout of Iraq War also extended to popular music. In July 2002, the release of English musician George Michael's song "Shoot the Dog" proved to be controversial. It was critical of George W. Bush and Tony Blair in the lead up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The video showed a cartoon version of Michael astride a nuclear missile in the Middle East and Tony and Cherie Blair in bed with President Bush. The Dixie Chicks are an American country music band. During a London concert ten days before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, lead vocalist Maines said, "we don't want this war, this violence, and we're ashamed that the President of the United States [ George W. Bush ] is from Texas". [313] The positive reaction to this statement from the British audience contrasted with the boycotts that ensued in the U.S., where "the band was assaulted by talk-show conservatives", [314] while their albums were discarded in public protest. [314] The original music video for the title song from American pop singer Madonna's American Life album was banned as music television stations thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq. [315]

Live 8 was a string of benefit concerts that took place on 2 July 2005, in the G8 states and in South Africa. They were timed to precede the G8 conference and summit held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Auchterarder, Scotland from 6–8 July 2005; they also coincided with the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. Run in support of the aims of the UK's Make Poverty History campaign and the Global Call for Action Against Poverty, ten simultaneous concerts were held on 2 July and one on 6 July. On 7 July, the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to poor nations from US$25 billion to US$50 billion by the year 2010. Half of the money was to go to Africa. More than 1,000 musicians performed at the concerts, which were broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks. [316]

In November 2006, the Rolling Stones' 'A Bigger Bang' tour was declared the highest-grossing tour of all time, earning $437 million.

In December 2009, a campaign was launched on Facebook by Jon and Tracy Morter, from South Woodham Ferrers, which generated publicity in the UK and took the 1992 Rage Against the Machine track "Killing in the Name" to the Christmas Number One slot in the UK Singles Chart, which had been occupied the four consecutive years from 2005 by winners from the TV show The X Factor. Rage's Zack de la Rocha spoke to BBC1 upon hearing the news, stating that:

"...We want to thank everyone that participated in this incredible, organic, grass-roots campaign. It says more about the spontaneous action taken by young people throughout the UK to topple this very sterile pop monopoly."

During the late 2000s, a new wave of chiptune culture took place, boosted by the release of software such as LittleSoundDJ [317] for the Game Boy. This new culture has much more emphasis on live performances and record releases than the demoscene and tracker culture, of which the new artists are often only distantly aware. [318]

Reunions

Duran Duran are an English new wave band, formed in Birmingham in 1978. The original five members reunited in the early 2000s.

On February 23, 2003, Simon and Garfunkel reunited to perform in public for the first time in a decade, singing "The Sound of Silence" as the opening act of the Grammy Awards. [319]

On 9 May 2006, British five-piece vocal pop Take That returned to the recorded music scene after more than ten years of absence, signing with Polydor Records. The band's comeback album, Beautiful World, entered the UK album chart at no. 1. [320]

On 10 December 2007 English rock band Led Zeppelin reunited for the one-off Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert at The O2 Arena in London. According to Guinness World Records 2009, Led Zeppelin set the world record for the "Highest Demand for Tickets for One Music Concert" as 20 million requests for the reunion show were rendered online. [321]

Internet

Fashion

Crop tops and low-rise pants popular throughout the early and mid 2000s. Hüfthose.jpg
Crop tops and low-rise pants popular throughout the early and mid 2000s.

Fashion trends of the decade drew much inspiration from 1960s, 1970s and 1980s styles. Hair styles included the bleached and spiked hair for boys and men and long and straight hair for girls and women continued, as well as many other hairstyles from the mid-late 1990s. Kelly Clarkson made chunky highlights fashionable in 2002 on American Idol and lasted until about 2007. Both women and men highlighted their hair until the late 2000s. [323]

The decade started with the futuristic Y2K fashion which was built on hype surrounding the new millennium. This dark, slinky style remained popular until 9/11 occurred and casual fashions had made a comeback once again. [324] Baggy cargo pants were extremely popular among both sexes [325] throughout the early and mid 2000s until about late 2007. Bell-bottoms were the dominant pant style for women until about 2006 when fitted pants began rising in popularity. [326] The late 1990s-style baggy pants remained popular throughout the early 2000s, but by 2003 boot-cut pants and jeans became the standard among men [327] until about 2008.

The 2000s saw a revival of 1980s fashion trends such as velour tracksuits in the early 2000s (an early 1980s fashion), and tapered pants in the later years (a late 1980s fashion). Skinny jeans became a staple clothing for young women and men. By 2009 with the Jerkin' movement playing a large part in the popularization of skinny jeans. Mass brands Gap and Levi launched their own lines for skinny jeans. [328] [329]

Throughout the early and mid 2000s, adults and children wore Skechers shoes. [330] The company used many celebrities to their advantage, including Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Carrie Underwood, and Ashlee Simpson. [330] By the late 2000s, flatter and more compact shoes came into style as chunky sneakers were no longer the mode.

"Geek chic" refers to a minor fashion trend that arose in the mid-2000s in which young individuals adopted stereotypically "geeky" fashions, such as oversized black Horn-rimmed glasses, suspenders/braces, and highwater trousers. The glasses—worn with non-prescription lenses or without lenses—quickly became the defining aspect of the trend, with the media identifying various celebrities as "trying geek" or "going geek" for their wearing such glasses, such as David Beckham, [331] Justin Timberlake [332] and Myleene Klass. [333] Meanwhile, in the sports world, many NBA players wore "geek glasses" during post-game interviews, drawing comparisons to Steve Urkel. [334] [335]

Emo fashion became popular amongst teenagers from 2005 to 2009, associated with the success of bands associated with the subculture (such as My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy, and Panic! at the Disco). The style is commonly identified with wearing black/dark coloured skinny jeans, T-shirts bearing the name of emo music groups and long side-swept bangs, often covering one or both eyes. [336] [337] The Scene subculture that emerged in the mid-late 2000s drew much inspiration from Emo style. [338]

Hip hop fashion was popular throughout the 2000s with clothing and shoe brands such as Rocawear, Phat Farm, G-Unit clothing, Billionaire Boys Club, Dipset clothing, Pelle Pelle, BAPE, Nike, Fubu, and Air Jordan. Followers of Hip Hop wore oversized shorts, jewelry, NFL and NBA jerseys, pants, and T-shirts. By the late 2000s this gave way more to fitted and vibrantly colored clothing, with men wearing skinny jeans as influenced by the Hyphy and Jerkin' movements. [339] [ better source needed ]

In cosmetic applications, a Botox injection, consisting of a small dose of Botulinum toxin, can be used to prevent development of wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles. [340] As of 2007, it is the most common cosmetic operation, with 4.6 million procedures in the United States, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Journalism

He says this Murdochisation of national discourse, which was at its height in the UK with The Sun in the 1980s, has now migrated to the US. "Murdoch encouraged an ugly tone, which he has now imported into the US and which we see every day on Fox News, with all its concomitant effects on American public life – that fierce hostility between right and left that never used to be there, not to anything remotely like the same extent." [342]

Radio

The 2000s saw a decrease in the popularity of radio as more listeners starting using MP3 players in their cars to customize driving music. Satellite radio receivers started selling at a much higher rate, which allowed listeners to pay a subscription fee for thousands of ad-free stations. Clear Channel Communications was the largest provider of radio entertainment in the United States with over 900 stations nationwide. Many radio stations began streaming their content over the Internet, allowing a market expansion far beyond the reaches of a radio transmitter.

During the 2000s, FM radio faced its toughest competition ever for in-car entertainment. iPod, satellite radio, and HD radio were all new options for commuters. CD players had a steady decline in popularity throughout the 2000s but stayed prevalent in most vehicles, while cassette tapes became virtually obsolete.

Television

The television genre Reality TV gained massive popularity over the decade with reality TV programs such as "Survivor", "Idol" and "Big Brother", for which local versions were produced over the years in many countries American Idol Experience - Disney's Hollywood Studios (3375313843).jpg
The television genre Reality TV gained massive popularity over the decade with reality TV programs such as "Survivor", "Idol" and "Big Brother", for which local versions were produced over the years in many countries

American television in the 2000s saw the sharp increase in popularity of reality television, with numerous competition shows such as American Idol , Dancing with the Stars , Survivor and The Apprentice attracting large audiences, as well as documentary or narrative style shows such as Big Brother , The Hills , The Real Housewives , Cheaters , among many others. The decade has since seen a steady decline in the number of sitcoms and an increase in reality shows, crime and medical dramas, such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation , House M.D. , and Grey's Anatomy , paranormal/crime shows like Medium (2005–2011) and Ghost Whisperer (2005–2010), and action/drama shows, including 24 and Lost . Comedy-dramas became more serious, dealing with such hot button issues, such as drugs, teenage pregnancy, and gay rights. Popular comedy-drama programs include Desperate Housewives , Ugly Betty , and Glee . Adult-oriented animated programming also continued a sharp upturn in popularity with controversial cartoons like * South Park (1997-–present) and Family Guy (1999–2002, 2005–present) along with the longtime running cartoon The Simpsons (1989–present). The decade also saw the return of prime time soap operas, a genre that had been popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, these include; Dawsons Creek (1998–2003) The O.C. (2003–2007), One Tree Hill (2003–2012), Desperate Housewives (2004–2012) was perhaps the most popular television series of this genre since Dallas and Dynasty in the 1980s, ER although started in 1994 ended its run in 2009 after 15 years.

The series was repeated in 2001 along with a new show. It tackled paedophilia and the moral panic in parts of the British media following the murder of Sarah Payne, focusing on the name-and-shame campaign conducted by the News of the World in its wake.

The WWE in 2002, made a split for the brands Raw and Smackdown!, also known as the WWE Brand Extension. This resulted in the WWE's purchase of their two biggest competitors, WCW and ECW. The brand extension would last until 2011. It also saw the rise of popular wrestlers like John Cena, Randy Orton, Dave Bautista, Jeff Hardy, CM Punk and Brock Lesnar.

The 2001 World Series between the New York Yankees and Arizona Diamondbacks became the first World Series to be played in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Super Bowl XXXVI between the New England Patriots and the St. Louis Rams became the first Super Bowl to be played in the wake of the September 11 attacks.

The X Factor in the UK has been subject to much controversy and criticism since its launch in September 2004. [366]

Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy: Super Bowl XXXVIII, which was broadcast live on February 1, 2004, from Houston, Texas, on the CBS television network in the United States, was noted for a controversial halftime show in which singer Janet Jackson's breast, adorned with a nipple shield, was exposed by singer Justin Timberlake for about half a second, in what was later referred to as a "wardrobe malfunction". The incident, sometimes referred to as Nipplegate, was widely discussed. Along with the rest of the halftime show, it led to an immediate crackdown and widespread debate on perceived indecency in broadcasting.[ citation needed ]

January 2005 – Jerry Springer: The Opera was the subject of controversy, when its UK television broadcast on BBC Two elicited 55,000 complaints. The most complained about television event ever. [367]

In May 2005, UK viewers inundated the Advertising Standards Authority with complaints regarding the continuous airing of the latest Crazy Frog advertisements. The intensity of the advertising was unprecedented in British television history. According to The Guardian , Jamster bought 73,716 spots across all TV channels in May alone — an average of nearly 2,378 slots daily — at a cost of about £8 million, just under half of which was spent on ITV. 87% of the population saw the Crazy Frog adverts an average of 26 times, 15% of the adverts appeared twice during the same advertising break and 66% were in consecutive ad breaks. An estimated 10% of the population saw the advert more than 60 times. This led to many members of the population finding the crazy frog, as its original name suggests, immensely irritating. [368]

Blue Peter (the world's longest-running children's television programme) rigged a phone-in competition supporting the UNICEF "Shoe Biz Appeal" on 27 November 2006. The person who appeared to be calling in the competition was actually a Blue Peter Team Player who was visiting that day. The visitor pretended to be a caller from an outside line who had won the phone-in and the chance to select a prize. The competition was rigged due to a technical error with receiving the calls. [369]

In July 2007, Blue Peter was given a £50,000 fine, by the Office of Communications (OFCOM) as a result of rigging the competition. [370]

I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! is a reality television game show series, originally created in the United Kingdom, and licensed globally to other countries. In its 2009 series, celebrity chef Gino D'Acampo killed, cooked and ate a rat. The Australian RSPCA investigated the incident and sought to prosecute D'Acampo and actor Stuart Manning for animal cruelty after this episode of the show was aired. ITV was fined £1,600 and the two celebrities involved were not prosecuted for animal cruelty despite being charged with the offense by the New South Wales Police.

Although there were less in this decade than there were in the 1990s, the 2000s still saw many popular and notable sitcoms, including 3rd Rock from the Sun , Spin City , Dharma & Greg , Everybody Loves Raymond , Malcolm in the Middle , The King of Queens , Arrested Development , How I Met Your Mother , Scrubs , Curb Your Enthusiasm , The Office , Entourage , The New Adventures of Old Christine , Rules of Engagement , Two and a Half Men , The Big Bang Theory , It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia , and 30 Rock , among many others. A trend seen in several sitcoms of the late 2000s was the absence of a laugh track.[ citation needed ]

The decade also saw the rise of premium cable dramas such as The Sopranos , Deadwood , The Wire , Battlestar Galactica , Breaking Bad and Mad Men . The critic Daniel Mendelsohn wrote a critique of Mad Men [371] in which he also claimed this last decade was a golden age for episodic television, citing Battlestar Galactica, The Wire , and the network series Friday Night Lights as especially deserving of critical and popular attention.

Ended series

The PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood aired its final episode on August 31, 2001. Two years later, its host and creator Fred Rogers died from stomach cancer.

Tomorrow's World was a long-running BBC television series, showcasing new developments in the world of science and technology. First aired on 7 July 1965 on BBC1, it ran for 38 years until it was cancelled in early 2003.

That '70s Show was an American television period sitcom based on the 1970s decade. The 1970s retro style permeated the 2000s decade. The show ended on May 18, 2006.

Brookside is a British soap opera set in Liverpool, England. The series began on the launch night of Channel 4 on 2 November 1982, and ran for 21 years until 4 November 2003.

In January 2004, the BBC cancelled the Kilroy show (which had run for 18 years), after an article entitled 'We owe Arabs nothing' written by its host Robert Kilroy-Silk was published in the Sunday Express tabloid newspaper.

Friends is an American sitcom which aired on NBC from September 22, 1994, to May 6, 2004. Friends received positive reviews throughout its run, and its series finale ("The Last One") ranked as the fifth most watched overall television series finale as well as the most watched single television episode of the 2000s on U.S. television.

Frasier , a spin-off TV series of Cheers (that ended in 1993), is an American sitcom that was broadcast on NBC for eleven seasons from September 16, 1993 to May 13, 2004 (only a week after the broadcast of the final episode of Friends). It was one of the most successful spin-off and popular series in television history, as well as one of the most critically acclaimed comedy series.

On 20 June 2006, after 42 years, British music chart show Top of the Pops was formally cancelled and it was announced that the last edition would be broadcast on 30 July 2006.

Grandstand is a British television sport program. Broadcast between 1958 and 2007, it was one of the BBC's longest running sports shows.

After 30 years, British television drama series Grange Hill (originally made by the BBC) was cancelled and the last episode was shown on 15 September 2008.

Series returns

The Flower Pot Men is a British children's programme, produced by BBC television, first transmitted in 1952, and repeated regularly for more than twenty years, which was produced in a new version in 2000.

Absolutely Fabulous , also known as Ab Fab, is a British sitcom. The show has had an extended and sporadic run. The first three series were broadcast on the BBC from 1992 to 1995, followed by a series finale in the form of a two-part television film entitled The Last Shout in 1996. Its creator Jennifer Saunders revived the show for a fourth series in 2001.

Gadget and the Gadgetinis is a spinoff of the classic series Inspector Gadget (1983–1986), developed by DiC in cooperation with Haim Saban's SIP Animation and produced from 2001 to 2003. There are 52 episodes.

Basil Brush from 1962 to 1984, The Basil Brush Show from 2002 to 2007. Basil Brush is a fictional anthropomorphic red fox, best known for his appearances on daytime British children's television. He is primarily portrayed by a glove puppet.

Shooting Stars is a British television comedy panel game broadcast on BBC Two as a pilot in 1993, then as 3 full series from 1995 to 1997, then on BBC Choice from January to December 2002 with 2 series before returning to BBC Two for another 3 series from 2008 until its cancellation in 2011.

Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The show is a significant part of British popular culture. The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. After an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot in the form of a television film, the programme was relaunched in 2005.

Family Fortunes is a British game show, based on the American game show Family Feud . The programme ran on ITV from 6 January 1980 to 6 December 2002 before being revived by the same channel in 2006 under the title of All Star Family Fortunes. Revived episodes are currently being shown on ITV on Sunday evenings and have been presented by Vernon Kay since 2006.

Gladiators is a British television entertainment series, produced by LWT for ITV, and broadcast between October 10, 1992, and January 1, 2000. It is an adaptation of the American format American Gladiators . The success of the British series spawned further adaptations in Australia and Sweden. The series was revived in 2008, before again being cancelled in 2009.

Rab C. Nesbitt is a British sitcom which began in 1988. The first series began on 27 September 1990 and continued for seven more, ending on 18 June 1999 and returning with a one-off special on 23 December 2008. [372]

Red Dwarf is a British comedy franchise which primarily comprises ten series (including a ninth mini-series named Back To Earth) of a television science fiction sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1993 and from 1997 to 1999 and on Dave in 2009.

Primetime Emmy Award for Best Drama

Video games

PlayStation 2 was released in 2000 and became the best-selling gaming console of the decade and of all time. PS2-Versions.png
PlayStation 2 was released in 2000 and became the best-selling gaming console of the decade and of all time.

The world of video games reached the 6th generation of video game consoles including the PlayStation 2, the Xbox, and the GameCube which started technically in 1998 with the release of Sega's Dreamcast, although some consider the true start in 2000 with the release of Sony's PlayStation 2. The 6th gen remained popular throughout the decade, but decreased somewhat in popularity after its 7th gen successors released technically starting in November 2005 with the release of Microsoft's Xbox 360, however, most people agree that 2006 is a 6th gen year since most games being released still released on 6th gen including the Xbox even though the 360 was already released, and the PlayStation 3 and the Wii didn't release until late 2006 which most people consider to be the true start of the 7th gen. It reached 7th Generation in the form of consoles like the Wii, the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 by the mid-2000s. The number-one-selling game console of the decade, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000 and remained popular up to the end of the decade, even after the PlayStation 3 was released. The PlayStation 2 was discontinued in January 2013. MMORPGs, originating in the mid-to-late 1990s, become a popular PC trend and virtual online worlds become a reality as games such as RuneScape (2001), Final Fantasy XI (2002), Eve Online (2003), Star Wars Galaxies: An Empire Divided (2003), World of Warcraft (2004), and Everquest II (2004), The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar (2007) and Warhammer Online: Age of Reckoning (2008) are released. These worlds come complete with their own economies and social organization as directed by the players as a whole. The persistent online worlds allow the games to remain popular for many years. World of Warcraft , premiered in 2004, remains one of the most popular games in PC gaming and is still being developed into the 2010s.

The Grand Theft Auto series sparked a fad of Mature-rated video games based on including gang warfare, drug use, and perceived "senseless violence" into gameplay. Though violent video games date back to the early 1990s, they became much more common after 2000. Despite the controversy, the 2004 game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas became the best selling PlayStation 2 game of all time, with 17.33 million copies sold for that console alone, from a total of 21.5 million in all formats by 2009; [373] as of 2011, 27.5 million copies of San Andreas were sold worldwide. [374]

The Call of Duty series was extremely popular during the 2000s, the diverse shooter franchise released multiple games throughout the 2000s that were positively critically reviewed and commercially successful.

Gears of War was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful third-person shooter franchise that released two games during the mid-late 2000s. Gears of War 1 was released in 2006 and was the first installment to the franchise, it was universally critically acclaimed and went on to sell over 5 million copies. The second installment to the franchise Gears of War 2 was released in 2008 and received widespread critical acclaim and also went on to sell over 5 million copies.

October 29, 2007 – Manhunt 2 – a controversial stealth-based psychological horror video game published by Rockstar Games was suspended by Take-Two Interactive (Rockstar's parent company) when it was refused classification in the United Kingdom, Italy and Ireland, and given an Adults Only (AO) rating in the United States. As neither Sony nor Nintendo allow AO titles on their systems, this effectively meant the game was banned in the US.

The sixth generation sparked a rise in first person shooter games led by Halo: Combat Evolved , which changed the formula of the first person shooter. Halo 2 started online console gaming and was on top of the Xbox Live charts until its successor, Halo 3 (for Xbox 360), took over. Some other popular first-person shooters during the 2000s include the Medal of Honor series, with Medal of Honor: Frontline 's release in 2002 bringing the first game in the series to 6th generation consoles.

In the late 2000s, motion controlled video games grew in popularity, from the PlayStation 2's EyeToy to Nintendo's successful Wii console. During the decade 3D video games become the staple of the video-game industry, with 2D games nearly fading from the market. Partially 3D and fully 2D games were still common in the industry early in the decade, but these have now become rare as developers look almost exclusively for fully 3D games to satisfy the increasing demand for them in the market. An exception to this trend is the indie gaming community, which often produces games featuring 'old-school' or retro gaming elements, such as Minecraft and Shadow Complex. These games, which are not developed by the industry giants, are often available in the form of downloadable content from services such as Microsoft's Xbox Live or Apple's App Store and usually cost much less than more major releases.

Dance Dance Revolution was released in Japan and later the United States, where it became immensely popular among teenagers. Another music game, Guitar Hero , was released in North America in 2005 and had a huge cultural impact on both the music and video games industries. It became a worldwide billion-dollar franchise within three years, spawning several sequels and leading to the creation of a competing franchise, Rock Band.

Japanese media giant Nintendo released 9 out of the 10 top selling games of the 2000s, further establishing the company's dominance over the market. [375]

Arcade video games had declined in popularity so much by the late 1990s, that revenues in the United States dropped to $1.33 billion in 1999, [376] and reached a low of $866 million in 2004. [377] Furthermore, by the early 2000s, networked gaming via computers and then consoles across the Internet had also appeared, [378] replacing the venue of head-to-head competition and social atmosphere once provided solely by arcades. [379]

The arcades also lost their status as the forefront of new game releases.

Worldwide, arcade game revenues gradually increased from $1.8 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2002, rivalling PC game sales of $3.2 billion that same year. [380] In particular, arcade video games are a thriving industry in China, where arcades are widespread across the country. [381] The US market has also experienced a slight resurgence, with the number of video game arcades across the nation increasing from 2,500 in 2003 to 3,500 in 2008, though this is significantly less than the 10,000 arcades in the early 1980s. As of 2009, a successful arcade game usually sells around 4000 to 6000 units worldwide. [382]

Sega Corporation, usually styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game software developer and an arcade software and hardware development company headquartered in Japan, with various offices around the world. Sega previously developed and manufactured its own brand of home video game consoles from 1983 to 2001, but a restructure was announced on January 31, 2001, that ceased continued production of its existing home console (Dreamcast), effectively exiting the company from the home console business. [383]

Neo Geo is a family of video game hardware developed by SNK. The brand originated in 1990 with the release of an arcade system, the Neo Geo MVS and its home console counterpart, the Neo Geo AES. The Neo Geo brand was officially discontinued in 2004.

Game of the Year

from the Game Developers Choice Awards starting in 2001 (awards are given to games of the previous calendar year).

Writing

Sports

The opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics, held in Beijing, China. 2008 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony 2.jpg
The opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics, held in Beijing, China.

The Sydney Games, held in 2000, followed the hundredth anniversary of the Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996. The Athens Games, in 2004, were also a strong symbol, for modern Olympic Games were inspired by the competitions organized in Ancient Greece. Finally, the Beijing Games saw the emergence of China as a major sports power, with the highest number of titles for the first time. The 2002 Salt Lake City and the 2006 Turin Winter Olympic Games were also major events, though slightly less popular.

A number of concerns and controversies over the 2008 Summer Olympics surfaced before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic games, and which received major media coverage. Leading up to the Olympics, there were concerns about human rights in China, such that many high-profile individuals, such as politicians and celebrities, announced intentions to boycott the games to protest China's role in the Darfur conflict, and Myanmar, its stance towards Tibet, or other aspects of its human rights record.

In a 2008 TIME magazine article entitled "Why Nobody's Boycotting Beijing", Vivienne Walt wrote: 'Leaders in power are more mindful of China's colossal clout in an increasingly shaky world economy, and therefore of the importance of keeping good relations with its government.' [385]

One of the most prominent events of the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing was the achievement of Michael Phelps the American swimmer, frequently cited as the greatest swimmer and one of the greatest Olympians of all time. [386] [387] [388] He has won 14 career Olympic gold medals, the most by any Olympian. As of August 2, 2009, Phelps has broken thirty-seven world records in swimming. Phelps holds the record for the most gold medals won in a single Olympics, his eight at the 2008 Beijing Games surpassed American swimmer Mark Spitz's seven-gold performance at Munich in 1972.

Usain Bolt of Jamaica dominated the male sprinting events at the Beijing Olympics, in which he broke three world records, allowing him to be the first man to ever accomplish this at a single Olympic game. He holds the world record for the 100 metres (despite slowing down before the finish line to celebrate), the 200 metres and, along with his teammates, the 4 × 100 metres relay.

The rise of the Ultimate Fighting Championship and the decline of the WWE started to bring wrestling fans away from wrestling, as they claimed that wrestling was not real and was only for entertainment; resulting in them switching to mixed martial arts.

In 2001, after the 9/11 attacks, both the National Football League and Major League Baseball canceled their upcoming games for a week. As a result, the World Series would be played in November for the first time and the Super Bowl would be played in February for the first time.

The sport of fox hunting is controversial, particularly in the UK, where it was banned in Scotland in 2002, and in England and Wales in November 2004 (law enforced from February 2005), though shooting foxes as vermin remained legal.

Ron Atkinson, is an English former football player and manager. In recent years he has become one of Britain's best-known football pundits. Ron Atkinson's media work came to an abrupt halt on 21 April 2004, when he was urged to resign from ITV by Brian Barwick after he broadcast a racial remark live on air about the black Chelsea player Marcel Desailly; believing the microphone to be switched off, he said, "...he [Desailly] is what is known in some schools as a lazy nigger". [389]

Association football's important events included two World Cups, one organized in South Korea and Japan, which saw Brazil win a record fifth title, and the other in Germany, which saw Italy win its fourth title. The regional competitions, the Copa América and UEFA European Championship, saw five nations rising the cup: Colombia (2001) and Brazil (2004, 2007) won the Copa América, while France (2000), Greece (2004) and Spain (2008) won the European Championship.

Rugby increased in size and audience, as the Rugby World Cup became the third most watched sporting event in the world with the 2007 Rugby World Cup organized in France.

Bloodgate is the nickname for a rugby union scandal involving the English team Harlequins in their Heineken Cup match against the Irish side Leinster on 12 April 2009. It was so called because of the use of fake blood capsules, and has been seen by some as one of the biggest scandals in rugby since professionalisation in the mid-1990s, indeed even as an argument against the professional ethos. The name is a pun on Watergate.

The New York Yankees won the first Major League Baseball World Series of the decade in 2000, as well as the last World Series of the decade in 2009. The Boston Red Sox won their first World Series since 1918 in 2004 and then again in 2007.

The Pittsburgh Steelers won a record sixth Super Bowl on February 1, 2009, against the Arizona Cardinals.

In September 2004, Chelsea footballer Adrian Mutu failed a drugs test for cocaine and was released on 29 October 2004. He also received a seven-month ban and a £20,000 fine from The Football Association.

Michael Schumacher, the most titled F1 driver, won five F1 World Championships during the decade and finally retired in 2006, yet eventually confirming his come-back to F1 for 2010. Lance Armstrong won all the Tour de France between 1999 and 2005, also an all-time record, but was later stripped of all his titles when evidence emerged of his use of performance-enhancing drugs. Swiss tennis player Roger Federer won 16 Grand Slam titles to become the most titled player.

The 2006 Italian football scandal, also known as "Calciopoli", involved Italy's top professional football leagues, Serie A and Serie B. The scandal was uncovered in May 2006 by Italian police, implicating league champions Juventus, and other major teams including A.C. Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio and Reggina when a number of telephone interceptions showed a thick network of relations between team managers and referee organisations. Juventus were the champions of Serie A at the time. The teams have been accused of rigging games by selecting favourable referees.

The 2006 FIFA World Cup Final in Berlin, Zinedine Zidane widely considered by experts and fans as one of the greatest football players of all time, was sent off in the 110th minute of the game, which was to be the last match of his career. After headbutting Marco Materazzi in the chest, Zidane did not participate in the penalty shootout, which Italy won 5–3. It was later discovered through interviews that Materazzi had insulted Zidane's mother and sister that last moment which is what led to Zidane's heightened anger and reaction.

January 11, 2007 – When English footballer David Beckham joined the Major League Soccer's Los Angeles Galaxy, he was given the highest player salary in the league's history; with his playing contract with the Galaxy over the next three years being worth US$6.5 million per year. [390] [391] [392] [393]

October 2007 – US world champion track and field athlete Marion Jones admitted that she took performance-enhancing drugs as far back as the 2000 Summer Olympics, and that she had lied about it to a grand jury investigating performance-enhancer creations.

November 29, 2007 – Portsmouth football manager Harry Redknapp angrily denied any wrongdoing after being arrested by police investigating alleged corruption in football: "If you are telling me this is how you treat anyone, it is not the society I grew up in." [394]

The 2008 Wimbledon final between Roger Federer of Switzerland and Rafael Nadal of Spain, has been lauded as the greatest match ever by many long-time tennis analysts. [395] [396] [397] [398]

British Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton, was disqualified from the 2009 Australian Grand Prix for providing "misleading evidence" during the stewards' hearing. He later privately apologised to FIA race director Charlie Whiting for having lied to the stewards.

In 2009, the World football transfer record was set by Spanish football club Real Madrid when it purchased Manchester United's Cristiano Ronaldo for £80 million (93 million). Manchester United veteran Sir Bobby Charlton said the world-record offer shocked him:

"It's a lot of money, it's crazy really. If you want to be in the race, you have to pay the price, it seems sometimes a little bit vulgar." [399]

Steroids also spread the sports world throughout the decade, mainly used in Major League Baseball. Players involved included Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa and Alex Rodriguez.

See also

Timeline

The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:

2000200120022003200420052006200720082009

Footnotes

  1. As of October 30,2009:
    Total EUR currency (coins and banknotes) in circulation 771.5 (banknotes) + 21.032 (coins) =792.53 billion EUR *1.48 (exchange rate) = 1,080 billion USD
    Total USD currency (coins and banknotes) in circulation 859 billion USD
    • "Table 2: Euro banknotes, values (EUR billions, unless otherwise indicated, not seasonally adjusted)" (PDF). ECB. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2009. 2009, October: Total banknotes: 771.5 (billion EUR)
    • "Table 4: Euro coins, values (EUR millions, unless otherwise indicated, not seasonally adjusted)" (PDF). ECB. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2009. 2009, October: Total coins: 21,032 (million EUR)
    • "Money Stock Measures". Federal Reserve Statistical Release. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Archived from the original on December 9, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009. Table 5: Not Seasonally Adjusted Components of M1 (Billions of dollars), not seasonally adjusted, October 2009: Currency: 859.3 (billion USD)
    • "Euro foreign exchange reference rates". ECB. Archived from the original on 2014-03-25. Retrieved December 13, 2009. Exchange rate October 30, 2009: 1 EUR = 1.48 USD

Related Research Articles

Hezbollah Shia Islamist militant group and political party based in Lebanon

Hezbollah —also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, along with its military wing by the United Kingdom, Australia and the European Union.

Palestinian National Authority interim government in Western Asia, governing West Bank Areas A and B since 1994 and, until 2006, the Gaza Strip

The Palestinian National Authority is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords. Following elections in 2006 and the subsequent Gaza conflict between the Fatah and Hamas parties, its authority had extended only in areas A and B of the West Bank. Since January 2013, the Fatah-controlled Palestinian Authority uses the name "State of Palestine" on official documents.

Israeli–Palestinian conflict military and political struggle between Israel and the Palestinians

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century. The origins to the conflict can be traced back to Jewish immigration, and sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine between Jews and Arabs. It has been referred to as the world's "most intractable conflict", with the ongoing Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching 52 years.

Robert Fisk English writer and journalist

Robert Fisk is an English writer and journalist. He has been Middle East correspondent intermittently since 1976 for various media; since 1989 he has been correspondent for The Independent, primarily based in Beirut. Fisk holds numerous British and international journalism awards, including the Press Awards Foreign Reporter of the Year seven times. He has published a number of books and reported on several wars and armed conflicts.

Second Intifada 2000–2005 Palestinian uprising

The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada, was a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence, and which the Palestinian describe as an uprising against Israel. The violence started in September 2000, after Ariel Sharon made a visit to the Temple Mount, seen by Palestinians as highly provocative; and Palestinian demonstrators, throwing stones at police, were dispersed by the Israeli army, using tear gas and rubber bullets.

Abdullah II of Jordan King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein has been King of Jordan since 1999. He belongs to the Hashemite family, who have ruled Jordan since 1921 and claim agnatic descent from Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.

Colin Farrell Irish actor

Colin James Farrell is an Irish actor. Farrell appeared in the BBC drama Ballykissangel in 1998, made his film debut in the Tim Roth-directed drama The War Zone in 1999, and was discovered by Hollywood when Joel Schumacher cast him as the lead in the war drama Tigerland in 2000. He then starred in Schumacher's psychological thriller Phone Booth (2002) where he plays a hostage in a New York city phone booth, and the American thrillers S.W.A.T. (2003) and The Recruit (2003), establishing his international box-office appeal. During that time, he also appeared in Steven Spielberg's science fiction thriller Minority Report (2002) and as the villain Bullseye in the superhero film Daredevil (2003).

The decade of the 2000s in film involved many significant developments in the film industries around the world, especially in the technology used. Building on developments in the 1990s, computers were used to create effects that would have previously been more expensive, from the subtle erasing of surrounding islands in Cast Away to the vast battle scenes such as those in Gladiator, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, The Matrix Reloaded, and 300.

Miss Earth Annual environmental-themed beauty contest

Miss Earth is an annual international environmental-themed beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness. Along with Miss World, Miss Universe, and Miss International, this pageant is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants – the most coveted beauty titles when it comes to international pageant competitions. The reigning titleholders dedicate their year to promote specific projects and often address issues concerning the environment and other global issues through school tours, tree planting activities, street campaigns, coastal clean ups, speaking engagements, shopping mall tours, media guesting, environmental fairs, storytelling programs to children, eco-fashion shows, and other environmental activities. The Miss Earth winner is the spokesperson for the Miss Earth Foundation, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and other environmental organizations. The Miss Earth Foundation also works with the environmental departments and ministries of participating countries, various private sectors and corporations, as well as Greenpeace and the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF).

Maggie Gyllenhaal American actress

Margalit Ruth "Maggie" Gyllenhaal is an American actress and producer. Part of the Gyllenhaal family, she is the daughter of filmmakers Stephen Gyllenhaal and Naomi Achs, and the older sister of actor Jake Gyllenhaal.

Tanith Belbin White American ice dancer

Tanith Jessica Louise Belbin White is a Canadian-American ice dancer and Olympic program host for NBC Sports. Though born in Canada, she holds dual citizenship and has competed for the United States since she began skating with Benjamin Agosto in 1998. With Agosto, Belbin is the 2006 Olympic silver medalist, four-time World medalist, three-time Four Continents champion (2004–2006), and five-time U.S. champion (2004–2008).

Quartet on the Middle East

The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The Quartet comprises the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, and Russia. The group was established in Madrid in 2002, recalling Madrid Conference of 1991, as a result of the escalating conflict in the Middle East. The Quartet's current Special Envoy is Kito de Boer, who assumed the position after the resignation of Tony Blair in 2015.

Ian Edginton is a British comic book writer, known for his work on such titles as X-Force, Scarlet Traces, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds and Leviathan.

George W. Bush 43rd President of the United States

George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Hezbollah has a military branch and is the sponsor of a number of lesser-known groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah itself. These groups include the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, and Followers of the Prophet Muhammad.

The 2000s in video gaming was a decade that was primarily dominated by Sony, Nintendo, the newcomer Microsoft, and their respective systems. Sega, being Nintendo's main rival in the 1980s and 1990s, left the console market in 2002 in favor of returning to the third party company they once were. Overall the decade saw the last of the low resolution three-dimensional polygons of the 1990s with the emergence of High Definition games, and often focused on developing immersive and interactive environments, implementing realistic physics, and improving artificial intelligence.

The following is a partial List of Israeli civilian casualties in the Second Intifada. According to the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, 887 of the 1,137 Israelis killed in attacks from September 2000 – 2005 were civilians. Another 8,341 Israelis were wounded during this period, and 5,676 were civilians while 2,665 were security forces. The majority of casualties have been caused by suicide bombings, though Israelis have been killed by planted bombs, shootings, stonings, stabbings, lynchings, rockets, and other methods of attack.

This article contains the results of the Republic of Ireland women's national football team between 2000 and 2009. During the 2000s the Republic of Ireland competed in three UEFA Women's Championship qualification campaigns – 2001, 2005 and 2009 – and three FIFA Women's World Cup campaigns – 2003, 2007 and 2011. They also played in the 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Algarve Cups. The Republic of Ireland also went on three tours of the United States – 2004, 2006 and 2008. During the decade the Republic of Ireland also enjoyed some minor successes. In 2000 they won the Celt Cup – a four team tournament that also featured Northern Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. In their 2005 UEFA Women's Euro campaign they also won their second level group, finishing above Romania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Malta. This effectively saw them promoted to the elite group of nations which competed directly for qualification to major tournaments.

References

  1. Ludden D (1998). The newness of globalization: A schematic view of the historical zones of territoriality University of Pennsylvania. Unfinished draft. Retrieved December 30, 2009. Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  2. Gordon PH; Meunier S (2001). The French challenge: Adapting to globalization. Washington, D.C.: Brookings.
  3. Heizo T; Ryokichi C (1998). "Japan". Domestic Adjustments to Globalization (CE Morrison & H Soesastro, Eds.). Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange, pp. 76–102. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
  4. Fry EH (2003). Local governments adapting to globalization. National League of Cities. Retrieved December 30, 2009. Archived January 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Haarstad H, Fløysand A (2007). "Globalization and the power of rescaled narratives: A case of opposition to mining in Tambogrande, Peru". Political Geography. 26 (3): 289–308. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2006.10.014.
  6. Swartz, Spencer (July 18, 2010). "China Tops U.S. in Energy Use". The Wall Street Journal . Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  7. "Is 'Peak Oil' Behind Us?". The New York Times . November 14, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-12-16. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  8. Roubini, Nouriel (May 28, 2009). "10 Risks to Global Growth". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2013-06-20. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  9. Hitchings, Leah (December 8, 2000). "Even with 10 years to decide, still no name for the decade". News.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  10. 1 2 "Why can't we name this decade?". Theweek.com. November 30, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  11. Rohrer, Finlo (December 31, 2009). "Decade dilemma". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
  12. Washington Examiner, December 1, 2009; modified March 16, 2012. Say, goodbye to the aughts, zeros, 2000s, whatever. retrieved March 1, 2013. Archived April 12, 2013, at Archive.today
  13. "What should we call the last decade?". slate.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  14. "Now We're Past the, Uh, First Decade, What Do We Call the Next One?". learningenglish.voanews.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  15. "Security Council Condemns, 'In Strongest Terms', Terrorist Attacks on the United States". United Nations. 12 September 2001. Archived from the original on 9 September 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2006. The Security Council today, following what it called yesterday's "horrifying terrorist attacks" in New York, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania, unequivocally condemned those acts, and expressed its deepest sympathy and condolences to the victims and their families and to the people and Government of the United States.
  16. "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11". CBC News. 29 October 2004. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2009. al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden appeared in a new message aired on an Arabic TV station Friday night, for the first time claiming direct responsibility for the 2001 attacks against the United States.
  17. "U.S. Losing War on Terror". NPR. 21 August 2007. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  18. "Historic moment as Obama sworn in". BBC News. January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-03-02. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  19. "U.S. troops' death toll in Afghanistan doubles in 2009". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 2013-11-15. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  20. "Hussein's Iraq and al Qaeda not linked, Pentagon says". CNN. March 13, 2008. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
  21. "Questions and Answers". Israel's Security Fence. The State of Israel. 22 February 2004. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2007. The Security Fence is being built with the sole purpose of saving the lives of the Israeli citizens who continue to be targeted by the terrorist campaign that began in 2000. The fact that over 800 men, women and children have been killed in horrific suicide bombings and other terror attacks clearly justifies the attempt to place a physical barrier in the path of terrorists. It should be noted that terrorism has been defined throughout the international community as a crime against humanity. As such, the State of Israel not only has the right but also the obligation to do everything in its power to lessen the impact and scope of terrorism on the citizens of Israel.
  22. Nissenbaum, Dion (January 10, 2007). "Death toll of Israeli civilians killed by Palestinians hit a low in 2006". Washington Bureau. McClatchy Newspapers. Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved April 16, 2007. Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in 2006 than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in 2000. Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors in 2006, down from a high of 289 in 2002 during the height of the uprising. Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others. Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since 2000[...] An Israeli military spokeswoman said one major factor in that success had been Israel's controversial separation barrier, a still-growing 250-mile (400 km) network of concrete walls, high-tech fencing and other obstacles that cuts through parts of the West Bank. ‘The security fence was put up to stop terror, and that's what it's doing,' said Capt. Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces. [...] Opponents of the wall grudgingly acknowledge that it has been effective in stopping bombers, though they complain that its route should have followed the border between Israel and the Palestinian territories known as the Green Line. [...] IDF spokeswoman Meir said Israeli military operations that disrupted militants planning attacks from the West Bank also deserved credit for the drop in Israeli fatalities.
  23. B'Tselem – Statistics – Fatalities, B'Tselem. Archived December 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  24. "Israel, the Conflict and Peace: Answers to FAQ." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs . November 3, 2003. April 20, 2009. Archived October 6, 2013[Timestamp length], at the Wayback Machine
  25. "Goldstone report: Israel and Palestinians respond to UN". BBC. January 29, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  26. "Confirmed figures reveal the true extent of the destruction inflicted upon the Gaza Strip; Israel's offensive resulted in 1,417 dead, including 926 civilians, 255 police officers, and 236 fighters" (Press release). Palestinian Centre for Human Rights. March 19, 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  27. GlobalSecurity.org, Second Chechnya War – 1999–??? Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  28. de Montesquiou, Alfred (October 16, 2006). "African Union Force Ineffective, Complain Refugees in Darfur". Washington Post. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  29. Nkrumah, Gamal (December 6, 2006). "Old dogs, new tricks". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  30. Lacey, Marc (May 11, 2005). "Tallying Darfur Terror: Guesswork with a Cause". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  31. President's Statement on Violence in Darfur, Sudan (statement released by The White House) 9 September 2004 President Meets with Darfur Advocates at the Wayback Machine (archived May 4, 2013)
  32. In Break With U.N., Bush Calls Sudan Killings Genocide. Jim VandeHei. The Washington Post. 2 June 2005.
  33. "President Meets with Darfur Advocates". The White House. 28 April 2006. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  34. Excerpts: US Congress resolution on Darfur, BBC 23 July 2004 Archived May 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  35. "Omar al-Bashir charged by Hague for orchestrating Darfur genocide". CSMonitor.com. Archived from the original on 2014-05-08.
  36. "ICC prosecutor seeks arrest of Sudan's Bashir". Reuters. July 14, 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-02-16. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
  37. Walker, Peter (14 July 2008). "Darfur genocide charges for Sudanese president". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  38. "Sudanese president charged with genocide". CBC News . 14 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  39. Cook, Colleen W., ed. (October 16, 2007). CRS Report for Congress: Mexico's Drug Cartels (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 7.
  40. Carl, Traci (March 10, 2009). "Progress in Mexico drug war is drenched in blood". Associated Press. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  41. "High U.S. cocaine cost shows drug war working: Mexico". Reuters. September 14, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  42. Sullivan, Mark P., ed. (December 18, 2008). "Mexico – U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress". CRS Report for Congress: Mexico and the 112th Congress (PDF). Congressional Research Service. pp. 2, 13, 14
  43. The attorney general's office says that 9 of 10 victims are members of organized-crime groups. Miller Llana, Sara (16 August 2009). "Briefing: How Mexico is waging war on drug cartels". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  44. 1 2 "Armed Conflicts Report – India-Andhra Pradesh". Ploughshares.ca. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
  45. "India is 'losing Maoist battle'". BBC News. September 15, 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-03-19. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  46. "India's Naxalites: A spectre haunting India". The Economist. April 12, 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-05-23. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
  47. "Chhatisgarh attack 'consequence' of Green Hunt: Maoist leader". Hindustan Times. India. April 6, 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-12-28. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  48. White, Matthew (October 2010). "Mid-Range Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Users.erols.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  49. Sri Lanka military, rebels trade death toll claims Reuters India – March 1, 2008. Archived May 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  50. "Red Cross 'gravely concerned' about conditions in Swat Valley". CNN. May 31, 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  51. "Pakistan Assessment 2011". SATP.org. Archived from the original on 2014-02-15. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  52. Madsen, Wayne (May 17, 2002). "Report Alleges U.S. Role in Angola Arms-for-Oil Scandal". CorpWatch. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
  53. Yemen Accuses Iran of Meddling in its Internal Affairs Archived October 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  54. Ploughshares.com Archived May 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  55. "Yemeni military battles Shi'ite rebels". The Age . Australia. March 20, 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-03-25. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  56. Sheikh, Abdi (September 16, 2008). "Nearly 9,500 Somalis die in insurgency-group". Reliefweb.int. Retrieved February 13, 2012.