2000s

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From top left, clockwise: The World Trade Center on fire and the Statue of Liberty during the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001; the euro enters into European currency in 2002; a statue of Saddam Hussein being toppled during the Iraq War in 2003, and in 2006, Hussein would be executed for crimes against humanity; U.S. troops heading toward an army helicopter in Afghanistan during the war on terror; social media through the Internet spreads across the world; a Chinese soldier gazes at the 2008 Summer Olympics commencing in Beijing; the largest economic crisis since the Great Depression hits the world in 2008; a tsunami from the Indian Ocean earthquake kills over 230,000 in 2004, and becomes the strongest earthquake since the 1964 Alaska earthquake 2000s decade montage3.png2008 Beijing OlympicsThe Great Recession
From top left, clockwise: The World Trade Center on fire and the Statue of Liberty during the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 ; the euro enters into European currency in 2002; a statue of Saddam Hussein being toppled during the Iraq War in 2003, and in 2006, Hussein would be executed for crimes against humanity; U.S. troops heading toward an army helicopter in Afghanistan during the war on terror ; social media through the Internet spreads across the world; a Chinese soldier gazes at the 2008 Summer Olympics commencing in Beijing; the largest economic crisis since the Great Depression hits the world in 2008; a tsunami from the Indian Ocean earthquake kills over 230,000 in 2004, and becomes the strongest earthquake since the 1964 Alaska earthquake

The 2000s (pronounced "two-thousands"; shortened to the '00s and known as the aughts or noughties) was a decade that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009.

Contents

The early part of the decade saw the long predicted breakthrough of economic giants in Asia, like India and China, which had double-digit growth during nearly the whole decade. It is also benefited from an economic boom, which saw the two most populous countries becoming an increasingly dominant economic force. The rapid catching-up of emerging economies with developed countries sparked some protectionist tensions during the period and was partly responsible for an increase in energy and food prices at the end of the decade. The economic developments in the latter third of the decade were dominated by a worldwide economic downturn, which started with the crisis in housing and credit in the United States in late 2007 and led to the bankruptcy of major banks and other financial institutions. The outbreak of this global financial crisis sparked a global recession, beginning in the United States and affecting most of the industrialized world.

The decade saw the rise of the Internet, which grew from covering 6.7% to 25.7% of the world population. This contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] social networking sites arose as a new way for people to stay in touch from distant locations, as long as they had an internet connection. Myspace was the most popular social networking website until June 2009, when Facebook overtook it in number of American users. Email continued to be popular throughout the decade and began to replace "snail mail" as the primary way of sending letters and other messages to people in distant locations. Google, YouTube, Ask.com and Wikipedia emerged to become among the top 10 most popular websites. Amazon overtook eBay as the most-visited e-commerce site in 2008. AOL significantly declined in popularity throughout the decade, falling from being the most popular website to no longer being within the top 10. Excite and Lycos fell outside the top 10, and MSN fell from the second to sixth most popular site, though it quadrupled its monthly visits. Yahoo! maintained relatively stable popularity, remaining the most popular website for most of the decade.

The war on terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001. The International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. In 2003, a United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Hussein's rule as Iraqi President and the Ba'ath Party in Iraq. Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. The Second Congo War, the deadliest conflict since World War II, ended in July 2003. Further wars that ended included the Algerian Civil War, the Angolan Civil War, the Sierra Leone Civil War, the Second Liberian Civil War, the Nepalese Civil War, and the Sri Lankan Civil War. Wars that began included the conflict in the Niger Delta, the Houthi insurgency in Yemen, and the Mexican drug war.

Climate change and global warming became common concerns in the 2000s. Prediction tools made significant progress during the decade, UN-sponsored organizations such as the IPCC gained influence, and studies such as the Stern report influenced public support for paying the political and economic costs of countering climate change. The global temperature kept climbing during the decade. In December 2009, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that the 2000s may have been the warmest decade since records began in 1850, with four of the five warmest years since 1850 having occurred in this decade. The WMO's findings were later echoed by the NASA and the NOAA. Major natural disasters included Cyclone Nargis in 2008 and earthquakes in Pakistan and China in 2005 and 2008, respectively. The deadliest natural disaster [lower-alpha 1] and most powerful earthquake of the 21st century occurred in 2004 when a 9.1–9.3 Mw earthquake and its subsequent tsunami struck multiple nations in the Indian Ocean, killing 230,000 people. [6]

Usage of computer-generated imagery became more widespread in films produced during the 2000s, especially with the success of 2001's Shrek and 2003's Finding Nemo , the latter becoming the best-selling DVD of all time. Anime films gained more exposure outside Japan with the release of Spirited Away . December 2009's Avatar became the highest-grossing film. Documentary and mockumentary films, such as March of the Penguins , Super Size Me , Borat and Surf's Up , were popular in the 2000s. 2004's Fahrenheit 9/11 by Michael Moore was the highest grossing documentary of all time. Online films became popular, and conversion to digital cinema started. Video game consoles released in this decade included the PlayStation 2, the Xbox, the GameCube, the Wii, the PlayStation 3 and the Xbox 360; while portable video game consoles included Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable. Wii Sports was the decade's best-selling console video game, while New Super Mario Bros. was the decade's best-selling portable video game. J. K. Rowling was the best-selling author in the decade overall thanks to the Harry Potter book series, although she did not pen the best-selling individual book, being second to The Da Vinci Code . [7] Eminem was named the music artist of the decade by Billboard .

During this decade, the world population grew from 6.1 to 6.9 billion people. Approximately 1.35 billion people were born, and 550 million people died. [8]

Name for the decade

Orthographically, the decade can be written as the "2000s" or the "'00s". In the English-speaking world, a name for the decade wasn't immediately accepted as it had been for other decades such as the 1980s and 1990s ('80s, '90s), [9] [10] [11] but usage eventually settled on "aughts" (US) or "noughties" (UK). Other spoken-word possibilities included "two-thousands", "twenty hundreds", "ohs", "oh ohs", "double ohs", "zeros", and "double zeros". [10] [12] [13] The years of the decade can be referred to as '01, '02, etc., pronounced oh-one, oh-two, etc.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

Year United States Census Bureau

(2017) [14]

Population Reference Bureau

(1973–2016) [15]

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

(2015) [16]

Maddison

(2008) [17]

HYDE

(2007) [18]

20006,088,571,3836,067,000,0006,127,700,4286,076,558,0006,145,000,000
20016,165,219,2476,137,000,0006,204,147,0266,154,791,000
20026,242,016,3486,215,000,0006,280,853,8176,231,704,000
20036,318,590,9566,314,000,0006,357,991,7496,308,364,000
20046,395,699,5096,396,000,0006,435,705,5956,374,056,000
20056,473,044,7326,477,000,0006,514,094,6056,462,987,000
20066,551,263,5346,555,000,0006,593,227,9776,540,214,000
20076,629,913,7596,625,000,0006,673,105,9376,616,689,000
20086,709,049,7806,705,000,0006,753,649,2286,694,832,000
20096,788,214,3946,809,972,0006,834,721,9336,764,086,000

(projected)

Politics and wars

The war on terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001. [19] [20] The International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. In 2003 a United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Hussein's rule as Iraqi President and the Ba'ath Party in Iraq. Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, and the Mumbai attacks related to al-Qaeda in 2008. The European Union expanded its sanctions amid Iran's failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions.

The war on terror generated extreme controversy around the world, with questions regarding the justification for certain U.S. actions leading to a loss of support for the American government, both in and outside the United States. [21] The additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and Hamas. The most significant loss of life due to natural disasters came from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which caused a tsunami that killed around one quarter-million people and displaced well over a million others.

Terrorist attacks

The World Trade Center in New York City, as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower. North face south tower after plane strike 9-11.jpg
The World Trade Center in New York City, as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.

The most prominent terrorist attacks committed against the civilian population during the decade include:

Wars

The most prominent armed conflicts of the decade include:

International wars

The war on terror War on Terror montage1.png
The war on terror
The Iraq War Iraq header 2.jpg
The Iraq War
2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict Gazamontage.png
2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict

Civil wars and guerrilla wars

Irregular combatants in North Darfur. The Arabic text on the bumper reads "The Sudan Liberation Army" (SLA). Darfur Jeep.jpg
Irregular combatants in North Darfur. The Arabic text on the bumper reads "The Sudan Liberation Army" (SLA).
Darfur refugee camp in Chad Darfur refugee camp in Chad.jpg
Darfur refugee camp in Chad
  • War in Darfur (2003–2009) – an armed conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The conflict began when the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Darfur took up arms, accusing the government of oppressing black Africans in favor of Arabs. One side was composed mainly of the Sudanese military and the Sudanese militia group Janjaweed, recruited mostly from the Afro-Arab Abbala tribes of the northern Rizeigat region in Sudan. The other side was made up of rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement, recruited primarily from the non-Arab Muslim Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups. Millions of people were displaced from their homes during the conflict. [31] There are various estimates on the number of human casualties – Sudanese authorities claim a death toll of roughly 19,500 civilians [32] while certain non-governmental organizations, such as the Coalition for International Justice, claim that over 400,000 people have been killed during the conflict. [33] Former U.S. President George W. Bush called the events in Darfur a genocide during his presidency. [34] [35] [36] The United States Congress unanimously passed House Concurrent Resolution 467, which declared the situation in Darfur a state-sponsored genocide by the Janjaweed. [37] In 2008, the International Criminal Court charged Omar al-Bashir with genocide for his role in the War in Darfur. [38] [39] [40] [41]
  • Mexican Drug War (2006–present) – an armed conflict fought between rival drug cartels and government forces in Mexico. Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for quite some time, they have become more powerful since the demise of Colombia's Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market in the United States. [42] Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, have led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States. [43] [44] [45] Roughly more than 16,851 people in total were killed between December 2006 until November 2009. [46]
  • Map showing the districts where the Naxalite movement is active (2007) The Red Corridor ver 1.PNG
    Map showing the districts where the Naxalite movement is active (2007)
    In India, Naxalite–Maoist insurgency (1967–present) has grown alarmingly with attacks such as April 2010 Maoist attack in Dantewada, Jnaneswari Express train derailment, and Rafiganj train disaster. Naxalites are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. It is presently the longest continuously active conflict worldwide. In 2006 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh called the Naxalites "The single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country." [47] In 2009, he said the country was "losing the battle against Maoist rebels". [48] According to standard definitions the NaxaliteMaoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict [49] between Maoist groups, known as Naxalites or Naxals, and the Indian government. [47] On April 6, 2010, Maoist rebels killed 75 security forces in a jungle ambush in central India in the worst-ever massacre of security forces by the insurgents. On the same day, Gopal, a top Maoist leader, said the attack was a "direct consequence" of the government's Operation Green Hunt offensive. This raised some voices of use of Indian Air Force against Naxalites, which were, however, declined, citing "We can't use oppressive force against our own people". [50]
  • The Colombian Armed Conflict continues causing deaths and terror in Colombia. Beginning in 1964, the FARC and ELN narcoterrorist groups were taking control of rural areas of the country by the beginning of the decade, while terrorist paramilitaries grew in other places as businesspeople and politicians thought the State would lose the war against guerrillas. However, after the failure of the peace process and the activation of Plan Colombia, Álvaro Uribe Vélez was elected president in 2002, starting a massive attack on terrorist groups, with cooperation from civil population, foreign aid and legal armed forces. The AUC paramilitary organization disbanded in 2006, while ELN guerrillas have been weakened. The Popular Liberation Army demobilized while the country's biggest terrorist group, FARC has been weakened and most of their top commanders have been killed or died during the decade. During the second half of the decade, a new criminal band has been formed by former members of AUC who did not demobilize, calling themselves Aguilas Negras. Although the Colombian State has taken back control over most of the country, narcoterrorism still causes pain in the country. Since 2008, the Internet has become a new field of battle. Facebook has gained nationwide popularity and has become the birthplace of many civil movements against narcoterrorism such as "Colombia Soy Yo" (I am Colombia) or "Fundación Un Millón de Voces" (One Million Voices Foundation), responsible for the international protests against illegal groups during the last years.
  • The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002) came to an end when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) finally laid down their arms. More than two million people were displaced from their homes because of the conflict (well over one-third of the population) many of whom became refugees in neighboring countries. Tens of thousands were killed during the conflict. [51]
  • The Sri Lankan Civil War (1983–2009) came to an end after the government defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Over 80,000 people were killed during the course of the conflict. [52]
  • War in North-West Pakistan (2004–present) – an armed conflict between the Pakistani Armed Forces and Islamic militants made up of local tribesmen, the Taliban, and foreign Mujahideen (Holy Warriors). It began in 2004 when tensions rooted in the Pakistani Army's search for al-Qaeda members in Pakistan's mountainous Waziristan area (in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) escalated into armed resistance by local tribesmen. The violence has displaced 3.44 million civilians [53] and led to more than 7,000 civilians being killed. [54]
  • The Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), once a major proxy conflict of the Cold War, the conflict ended after the anti-Communist organization UNITA disbanded to become a political party. By the time the 27-year conflict was formally brought to an end, an estimated 500,000 people had been killed. [55]
  • Shia insurgency in Yemen (2004–present) – a civil war in the Sada'a Governorate of Yemen. It began after the Shia Zaidiyyah sect launched an uprising against the Yemeni government. The Yemeni government has accused Iran of directing and financing the insurgency. [56] Thousands of rebels and civilians have been killed during the conflict. [57] [58]
  • Somali Civil War (1991–present)
  • Conflict in the Niger Delta (2004–present) – an ongoing conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The conflict was caused due to the tensions between the foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta's minority ethnic groups who felt they were being exploited, particularly the Ogoni and the Ijaw. The competition for oil wealth has led to an endless violence cycle between innumerable ethnic groups, causing the militarization of nearly the entire region that was occupied by militia groups as well as Nigerian military and the forces of the Nigerian Police.
  • Algerian Civil War (1991–2002) – the conflict effectively ended with a government victory, following the surrender of the Islamic Salvation Army and the 2002 defeat of the Armed Islamic Group. It is estimated that more than 100,000 people were killed during the course of the conflict.
  • Civil war in Chad (1998–present)
  • Nepalese Civil War (1996–2006) – the conflict ended with a peace agreement was reached between the government and the Maoist party in which it was set that the Maoists would take part in the new government in return for surrendering their weapons to the UN. It is estimated that more than 12,700 people were killed during the course of the conflict. [63]
  • Second Liberian Civil War (1999–2003) – The conflict began in 1999 when a rebel group Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), with support from the Government of Guinea, took over northern Liberia through a coup. In early 2003, a different rebel group, the Movement for Democracy in Liberia, emerged in the south. As a result, by June–July 2003, president Charles Taylor's government controlled only a third of the country. The capital Monrovia was besieged by LURD, and that group's shelling of the city resulted in the deaths of many civilians. Thousands of people were displaced from their homes as a result of the conflict.
  • Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present)Algeria has been the subject of an Islamic insurgency since 2002 waged by the Sunni Islamic Jihadist militant group Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC). GSPC allied itself with the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb against the Algerian government. The conflict has since spread to other neighboring countries.
  • Ituri conflict (1999–2007) – a conflict fought between the Lendu and Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). While there have been many phases to the conflict, the most recent armed clashes ran from 1999 to 2003, with a low-level conflict continuing until 2007. More than 50,000 people have been killed in the conflict and hundreds of thousands forced from their homes. [64]
  • Central African Republic Bush War (2004–2007) – began with the rebellion by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR) rebels, after the current president of the Central African Republic, François Bozizé, seized power in a 2003 coup. The violence has displaced around 10,000 civilians and has led to hundreds of civilians being killed.
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) – an armed conflict that continued after the capture of Kabul by the Taliban, in which the formation of the Afghan Northern Alliance attempted to oust the Taliban. It proved largely unsuccessful, as the Taliban continued to make gains and eliminated much of the Alliance's leadership.

Coups

2006 Thai coup d'etat Coup-d'etat-2-web-cnni.jpg
2006 Thai coup d'état

The most prominent coups d'état of the decade include:

Nuclear threats

Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility in Iran Natanz nuclear.jpg
Anti-aircraft guns guarding Natanz Nuclear Facility in Iran

Decolonization and independence

American party system

During the 2000s, the expectations and unspoken rules for acceptable conduct among American politicians affiliated with the Republican or Democratic Parties changed due to the decline of political bosses in the previous 4 decades and the momentous events in America that happened during the decade. [69]

Generally, American presidential candidates abided by and respected the established procedures of both major parties' presidential nomination process. [69]

Peaceful transfers of power

During this decade, the peaceful transfer of power through elections first occurred in Mexico, Indonesia, Taiwan, Colombia, and several other countries. (See below.)

Prominent political events

George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States, 2001-2009 President George W. Bush Delivers Inaugural Address.jpg
George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States, 2001–2009
Barack Obama, the first African American president of the United States, was inaugurated in 2009 US President Barack Obama taking his Oath of Office - 2009Jan20.jpg
Barack Obama, the first African American president of the United States, was inaugurated in 2009

The prominent political events of the decade include:

North America

Canada
Greenland
Mexico
United States
  • George W. Bush was sworn in succeeding Bill Clinton as the 43rd President of the United States on January 20, 2001, following a sharply contested election.
  • On October 26, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush signed the USA PATRIOT Act into law.
  • On February 15, 2003, anti-war protests broke out around the world in opposition to the U.S. Invasion of Iraq, in what the Guinness Book of World Records called the largest anti-war rally in human history. [72] In reaction, The New York Times writer Patrick Tyler wrote in a February 17 article that: ...the huge anti-war demonstrations around the world this weekend are reminders that there may still be two superpowers on the planet: the United States and world public opinion. [73]
  • On June 5, 2004, Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, died after having suffered from Alzheimer's disease for nearly a decade. His seven-day state funeral followed, spanning June 5–11. The general public stood in long lines waiting for a turn to view the casket. People passed by the casket at a rate of about 5,000 per hour (83.3 per minute, or 1.4 per second) and the wait time was about three hours. In all, 104,684 passed through when Reagan lay in state. [74] [75]
  • Barack Obama was sworn in as the 44th President of the United States in 2009, becoming the nation's first African American president.

South America

Asia

Protesters in Tehran during the 2009 Iranian election protests Tehran protests (26).jpg
Protesters in Tehran during the 2009 Iranian election protests

Europe

Treaty of Lisbon Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg
Treaty of Lisbon
Tarja Halonen served as Finland's 11th President and the first female head of state from 2000 to 2012. Tarja Halonen in 2000.png
Tarja Halonen served as Finland's 11th President and the first female head of state from 2000 to 2012.

World leaders

Assassinations and attempts

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

Birendra of Nepal Birendra Bir Bikram Shah c. 1967 (restoration).jpg
Birendra of Nepal
Rafic Hariri Rafiq Hariri 2001.jpeg
Rafic Hariri
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto.jpg
Benazir Bhutto
DateDescription
January 16, 2001 Laurent-Désiré Kabila, the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was assassinated by a bodyguard. The motive remains unexplained. [89]
June 1, 2001 King Birendra of Nepal, along with eight other royals, are killed by Nepal's crown prince Diprendra who then shoots himself. Nepal's laws regarding succession allows the comatose Dipendra to rule for three days before he succumbs to his injuries. [90]
September 9, 2001 Ahmad Shah Massoud, guerilla commander of the Northern Alliance against the Soviet invasion and against the Taliban regime, was killed in Khwaja Bahauddin, Takhar Province, Afghanistan by Al-Qaeda operatives, days before the September 11 attacks.
October 17, 2001 Israeli Minister of Tourism Rehavam Ze'evi was assassinated by three Palestinian assailants, members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. [91]
May 6, 2002 Pim Fortuyn, Dutch politician, was assassinated by environmentalist activist Volkert van der Graaf. [92]
March 12, 2003 Zoran Đinđić, Serbian and Montenegrin Prime Minister, is assassinated by Zvezdan Jovanović, a soldier of Milorad Ulemek, the former commander of the Special Operations Unit of Yugoslavia's secret police. [93]
September 10, 2003 Anna Lindh, Swedish foreign minister, was assassinated after being stabbed in the chest, stomach, and arms by Serbian and Montenegrin national Mijailo Mijailović while shopping in a Stockholm department store. [94]
March 22, 2004 Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the militant Islamist group Hamas, was assassinated in the Gaza Strip by the Israeli Air Force. [95]
November 2, 2004 Theo van Gogh, Dutch filmmaker and critic of Islamic culture, was assassinated in Amsterdam by Mohammed Bouyeri. [96]
February 14, 2005 Rafic Hariri, former Prime Minister of Lebanon, was assassinated when explosives equivalent to around 1,000 kg of TNT were detonated as his motorcade drove past the St. George Hotel in Beirut. The assassination attempt also killed at least 16 other people and injured 120 others. [97]
December 27, 2007 Benazir Bhutto, former Pakistani prime minister, was assassinated at an election rally in Rawalpindi by a bomb blast. The assassination attempt also killed at least 80 other people. [98]
March 2, 2009 João Bernardo Vieira, President of Guinea-Bissau, was assassinated during an armed attack on his residence in Bissau. [99]
April 30, 2009Seven people are killed when a vehicle rams through a crowd watching the Koninginnedag parade in Apeldoorn in an attempt to target Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Crown Prince Willem-Alexander and other members of the Dutch royal family. The assailant dies a day later due to injuries sustained in the attack. [100]

Disasters

Natural disasters

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand. 2004-tsunami.jpg
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.

The 2000s experienced some of the worst and most destructive natural disasters in history.

Earthquakes (including tsunamis)

Tropical cyclones, other weather, and bushfires

2005 flooding in New Orleans, caused by Hurricane Katrina. KatrinaNewOrleansFlooded edit2.jpg
2005 flooding in New Orleans, caused by Hurricane Katrina.
  • July 7–11, 2005 – Hurricane Dennis caused damage in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. Dennis killed a total of 88 people and caused $3.71 billion in damages.
  • August 28–29, 2005 – Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Mississippi, devastating the city of New Orleans and nearby coastal areas. Katrina was recognized as the costliest natural disaster in the United States at the time, after causing a record $108 billion in damages (a record later surpassed by Hurricane Harvey in 2017). Katrina caused over 1,200 deaths.
  • November 30, 2006 – Typhoon Durian (known in the Philippines as Typhoon Reming) affected the Philippines' Bicol Region, and together with a concurrent eruption of Mayon Volcano, caused mudflows and killed more than 1,200 people.
  • August 30, 2007 – Group of Croatian firefighters who were flown in on the island Kornat as part of the 2007 coast fires firefighting efforts perished. Twelve out of thirteen men who found themselves surrounded by fire were killed in the event which was the biggest loss of lives in the history of Croatian firefighting.[ citation needed ]
  • May 3, 2008 – Cyclone Nargis had an extreme impact in Myanmar, causing nearly 140,000 deaths and $10 billion in damages.
  • June 21, 2008 – Typhoon Fengshen passed over Visayas, Philippines, sinking the ship MV Princess of the Stars, and killing more than 800 passengers.
  • February 7 – March 14, 2009 – The Black Saturday bushfires, the deadliest bushfires in Australian history, took place across the Australian state of Victoria during extreme bushfire-weather conditions, killing 173 people, injuring more than 500, and leaving around 7,500 homeless. The fires came after Melbourne recorded the highest-ever temperature (46.4 °C or 115.5 °F) of any capital city in Australia. The majority of the fires were caused by either fallen or clashing power lines, or arson.
  • Winter of 2009–2010 – The winter of 2009–2010 saw abnormally cold temperatures in Europe, Asia, and America. A total of 21 people were reported to have died as a result of the cold in the British Isles. On December 26, 2009, Saint Petersburg, Russia, was covered by 35 cm of snow, the largest December snowfall recorded in the city since 1881.
  • September 25–26, 2009 – Typhoon Ketsana (known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Ondoy) caused flooding in the Philippines, mostly in the Manila Metropolitan area, killing nearly 700 people in total. Flooding levels reached a record of 20 ft (6.1 m) in rural areas.

Epidemics

Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the eminent public health concerns of the 21st century, particularly as it pertains to pathogenic organisms (the term is not especially relevant to organisms which don't cause disease in humans).

The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001 caused a crisis in British agriculture and tourism. This epizootic saw 2,000 cases of the disease in farms across most of the British countryside. Over 6 million sheep and cattle were killed. [101]

Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Hong Kong, with 8,273 cases and 775 deaths worldwide (9.6% fatality) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Within weeks, SARS spread from Hong Kong to infect individuals in 37 countries in early 2003.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the Office for National Statistics reported 1,629 MRSA-related deaths in England and Wales during 2005, indicating a MRSA-related mortality rate half the rate of that in the United States for 2005, even though the figures from the British source were explained to be high because of "improved levels of reporting, possibly brought about by the continued high public profile of the disease" during the time of the 2005 United Kingdom General Election. MRSA is thought to have caused 1,652 deaths in 2006 in UK up from 51 in 1993.

People in Mexico City wear masks on a train due to the swine flu outbreak, April 2009 Swine Flu Masked Train Passengers in Mexico City.jpg
People in Mexico City wear masks on a train due to the swine flu outbreak, April 2009

The 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) flu pandemic was also considered a natural disaster. On October 25, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama officially declared H1N1 a national emergency. [102] Despite President Obama's concern, a Fairleigh Dickinson University PublicMind poll found in October 2009 that an overwhelming majority of New Jerseyans (74%) were not very worried or not at all worried about contracting the H1N1 flu virus. [103]

A study conducted in coordination with the University of Michigan Health Service is scheduled for publication in the December 2009 American Journal of Roentgenology warning that H1N1 flu can cause pulmonary embolism, surmised as a leading cause of death in this current pandemic. The study authors suggest physician evaluation via contrast enhanced CT scans for the presence of pulmonary emboli when caring for patients diagnosed with respiratory complications from a "severe" case of the H1N1 flu. [104]

As of May 30, 2010, as stated by the World Health Organization, more than 214 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 18,138 deaths. [105]

Footnote

The Walkerton Tragedy is a series of events that accompanied the contamination of the water supply of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, by Escherichia coli bacteria in May 2000. Starting May 11, 2000, many residents of the community of about 5,000 people began to simultaneously experience bloody diarrhea, gastrointestinal infections and other symptoms of E. coli infection. Seven people died directly from drinking the E. coli contaminated water, who might have been saved if the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission had admitted to contaminated water sooner, and about 2,500 became ill.

In 2001 a similar outbreak in North Battleford, Saskatchewan caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium affected at least 5,800 people.

Non-natural disasters

Vehicular wrecks

Stampedes

The 2005 Baghdad bridge stampede occurred on August 31, 2005, when 953 people died following a stampede on Al-Aaimmah bridge, which crosses the Tigris river in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad.

Economics

The most significant evolution of the 2000s in the economic landscape was the long-time predicted breakthrough of economic giant China, whose GDP grew from 1.21 trillion to 5.1 trillion (in 2022 USD). [106] To a lesser extent, India also benefited from an economic boom (growing from 438.39 billion to 1.34 trillion) [107] which saw the two most populous countries becoming an increasingly dominant economic force. [108] The rapid catching-up of emerging economies with developed countries sparked some protectionist tensions during the period and was partly responsible for an increase in energy and food prices at the end of the decade. The economic developments in the latter third of the decade were dominated by a worldwide economic downturn, which started with the crisis in housing and credit in the United States in late 2007, and led to the bankruptcy of major banks and other financial institutions. [109] The outbreak of this global financial crisis sparked a global recession, beginning in the United States and affecting most of the industrialized world.

The combined wealth of the "10 million dollar millionaires" grew to nearly $41 trillion in 2008. [110]

The period takes its name from Gordon Brown, the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer (who later became Prime Minister), who decided to sell approximately half of the UK's gold reserves in a series of auctions. At the time, the UK's gold reserves were worth about US$6.5 billion, accounting for about half of the UK's US$13 billion foreign currency net reserves. [117]

Economic growth in the world

Shanghai becomes a symbol of the recent economic boom of China. Lujiazui Skyline from Bund.jpg
Shanghai becomes a symbol of the recent economic boom of China.

Between 1999 and 2009, according to the World Bank statistics for GDP: [122] [123]

Globalization and its discontents

Offshore outsourcing of jobs, such as this call centre in India, significantly increased during the decade as many multinational corporations moved their manufacturing and services from western countries to developing countries. An Indian call center.jpg
Offshore outsourcing of jobs, such as this call centre in India, significantly increased during the decade as many multinational corporations moved their manufacturing and services from western countries to developing countries.

The removal of trade and investment barriers, the growth of domestic markets, artificially low currencies, the proliferation of education, the rapid development of high tech and information systems industries and the growth of the world economy lead to a significant growth of offshore outsourcing during the decade as many multinational corporations significantly increased subcontracting of manufacturing (and increasingly, services) across national boundaries in developing countries and particularly in China and India, due to many benefits and mainly because the two countries which are the two most populous countries in the world provide huge pools from which to find talent and as because both countries are low cost sourcing countries. As a result of this growth, many of these developing countries accumulated capital and started investing abroad. Other countries, including the United Arab Emirates, Australia, Brazil and Russia, benefited from increased demand for their mineral and energy resources that global growth generated. The hollowing out of manufacturing was felt in Japan and parts of the United States and Europe which had not been able to develop successful innovative industries. Opponents point out that the practice of offshore outsourcing by countries with higher wages leads to the reduction of their own domestic employment and domestic investment. As a result, many customer service jobs as well as jobs in the information technology sectors (data processing, computer programming, and technical support) in countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have been or are potentially affected.

While global trade rose in the decade (partially driven by China's entry into the WTO in 2001), there was little progress in the multilateral trading system. International trade continued to expand during the decade as emerging economies and developing countries, in particular China and South-Asian countries, benefited low wages costs and most often undervalued currencies. However, global negotiations to reduce tariffs did not make much progress, as member countries of the World Trade Organization did not succeed in finding agreements to stretch the extent of free trade. [128] The Doha Round of negotiations, launched in 2001 by the WTO to promote development, failed to be completed because of growing tensions between regional areas. Nor did the Cancún Conference in 2003 find a consensus on services trade [129] and agricultural subsidies. [130]

The comparative rise of China, India, and other developing countries also contributed to their growing clout in international forums. In 2009, it was determined that the G20, originally a forum of finance ministers and central bank governors, would replace the G8 as the main economic council.

2007 Chinese export recalls – in 2007, a series of product recalls and import bans were imposed by the product safety institutions of the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia and New Zealand against products manufactured in and exported from the mainland of the People's Republic of China (PRC) because of numerous alleged consumer safety issues.

Events in the confidence crisis included recalls on consumer goods such as pet food, toys, toothpaste, lipstick, and a ban on certain types of seafood. Also included are reports on the poor crash safety of Chinese automobiles, slated to enter the American and European markets in 2008. This created adverse consequences for the confidence in the safety and quality of mainland Chinese manufactured goods in the global economy.

The age of turbulence

People queuing outside a Northern Rock bank branch in Birmingham, United Kingdom on September 15, 2007, to withdraw their savings because of the Subprime mortgage crisis. Birmingham Northern Rock bank run 2007.jpg
People queuing outside a Northern Rock bank branch in Birmingham, United Kingdom on September 15, 2007, to withdraw their savings because of the Subprime mortgage crisis.

The decade was marked by two financial and economic crises. In 2001, the Dot-com bubble burst, causing turmoil in financial markets and a decline in economic activity in the developed economies, in particular in the United States. [131] However, the impact of the crisis on the activity was limited thanks to the intervention of the central banks, notably the U.S. Federal Reserve System. Indeed, Alan Greenspan, leader of the Federal Reserve until 2006, cut the interest rates several times to avoid a severe recession, [132] allowing an economic revival in the U.S. [133]

As the Federal Reserve maintained low interest rates to favor economic growth, a housing bubble began to appear in the United States. In 2007, the rise in interest rates and the collapse of the housing market caused a wave of loan payment failures in the U.S. The subsequent mortgage crisis caused a global financial crisis, because the subprime mortgages had been securitized and sold to international banks and investment funds. Despite the extensive intervention of central banks, including partial and total nationalization of major European banks, [134] [135] the crisis of sovereign debt became particularly acute, first in Iceland, though as events of the early 2010s would show, it was not an isolated European example. Economic activity was severely affected around the world in 2008 and 2009, [136] with disastrous consequences for carmakers. [137]

In 2007, the UK's Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown, delivered his final Mansion House speech as Chancellor before he moved into Number 10. Addressing financiers: "A new world order has been created", Everyone needed to follow the city's "great example", "an era that history will record as the beginning of a new Golden Age". [138]

Reactions of governments in all developed and developing countries against the economic slowdown were largely inspired by keynesian economics. The end of the decade was characterized by a Keynesian resurgence, [139] while the influence and media popularity of left-wing economists [140] Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman (Nobel Prize recipients in 2001 and 2008, respectively) did not stop growing during the decade. [141] Several international summits were organized to find solutions against the economic crisis and to impose greater control on the financial markets. The G20 became in 2008 and 2009 a major organization, as leaders of the member countries held two major summits in Washington in November 2008 and in London in April 2009 to regulate the banking and financial sectors, [142] and also succeeding in coordinating their economic action and in avoiding protectionist reactions.

Energy crisis

Increase in oil prices US oil price in dollars from 1999 to 2008-10-17.svg
Increase in oil prices
Gas prices in late May 2008 May2008gasolineCA.jpg
Gas prices in late May 2008

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel. During 2003, the price rose above $30, reached $60 by August 11, 2005, and peaked at $147.30 in July 2008. [143] Commentators attributed these price increases to many factors, including reports from the United States Department of Energy and others showing a decline in petroleum reserves, worries over peak oil, Middle East tension, and oil price speculation. [144]

For a time, geopolitical events and natural disasters indirectly related to the global oil market had strong short-term effects on oil prices. These events and disasters included North Korean missile tests, the 2006 conflict between Israel and Lebanon, worries over Iranian nuclear plants in 2006 and Hurricane Katrina. By 2008, such pressures appeared to have an insignificant impact on oil prices given the onset of the global recession. The recession caused demand for energy to shrink in late 2008 and early 2009 and the price plunged as well. However, it surged back in May 2009, bringing it back to November 2008 levels. [145]

Many fast-growing economies throughout the world, especially in Asia, also were a major factor in the rapidly increasing demand for fossil fuels, which—along with fewer new petroleum finds, greater extraction costs, and political turmoil—forced two other trends: a soar in the price of petroleum products and a push by governments and businesses to promote the development of environmentally friendly technology (known informally as "green" technology). However, a side-effect of the push by some industrial nations to "go green" and utilize biofuels was a decrease in the supply of food and a subsequent increase in the price of the same. It partially caused the 2007 food price crisis, which seriously affected the world's poorer nations with an even more severe shortage of food. [146]

The rise of the euro

The euro became the currency of members of the Eurozone. Euro banknotes 2002.png
The euro became the currency of members of the Eurozone.

A common currency for most EU member states, the euro, was established electronically in 1999, officially tying all the currencies of each participating nation to each other. The new currency was put into circulation in 2002 and the old currencies were phased out. Only three countries of the then 15 member states decided not to join the euro (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden). In 2004 the EU undertook a major eastward enlargement, admitting 10 new member states (eight of which were former communist states). Two more, Bulgaria and Romania, joined in 2007, establishing a union of 27 nations.

The euro has since become the second largest reserve currency and the second most traded currency in the world after the US$. [147] As of October 2009, with more than €790 billion in circulation, the euro was the currency with the highest combined value of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the US$. [note 1]

Science and technology

Science

Scientific Marks by Field

Archaeology
Biology
Mathematics
Physics
Space
Artist Concept of a NASA Mars Exploration Rover on Mars Opportunity in Endurance Crater (cropped).jpg
Artist Concept of a NASA Mars Exploration Rover on Mars
These images show water in a very young lunar crater on the side of the Moon that faces away from Earth. Water Around Fresh Moon Crater.jpg
These images show water in a very young lunar crater on the side of the Moon that faces away from Earth.

Technology

Automobiles

Communications

The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world. Texting.jpg
The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world.
  • The popularity of mobile phones and text messaging surged in the 2000s in the Western world. The advent of text messaging made possible new forms of interaction that were not possible before, leading to positive implications such as having the ability to receive information on the move. Nevertheless, it also led to negative social implications such as "cyberbullying" and the rise of traffic collisions caused by drivers who were distracted as they were texting while driving.
  • Mobile internet, first launched in Japan with the i-mode in 1999, became increasingly popular with people in developed countries throughout the decade, thanks to improving cell phone capabilities and advances in mobile telecommunications technology, such as 3G.
  • E-mail continued to be popular throughout the decade. It began to replace "snail mail" (also known, more neutrally, as paper mail, postal mail, land mail, or simply mail or post) as the primary way of sending letters and other messages to people in faraway locations, though it has been available since 1971.
  • Social networking sites arose as a new way for people to stay in touch no matter where they are, as long as they have an internet connection. The earliest social networking sites were Friendster, Myspace, Facebook, and Twitter in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006, respectively. Myspace was the most popular social networking website until June 2009 when Facebook overtook Myspace in the number of American users. [159]
  • Smartphones, which combine mobile phones with the features of personal digital assistants and portable media players, first emerged in the 1990s but did not become popular until the late 2000s. Smartphones are rich in features and often have high resolution touchscreens and web browsers. The first modern smartphone was the iPhone 2G. It was released in June 2007 in the United States, and in November 2007, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Portugal, Ireland and Austria. It was the first smartphone to not include a physical keyboard, solely utilizing a touch screen and a home button.
  • Due to the major success of broadband Internet connections, VoIP starts to gain popularity as a replacement for traditional telephone lines.

Computing and Internet

In the 2000s, the Internet became a mainstay, strengthening its grip on Western society while becoming increasingly available in the developing world. The share of the world population using the internet grew from 6.7% to 25.7%. [160]

Google becomes the Internet's most visited website. Google 2011 logo.png
Google becomes the Internet's most visited website.
  • A huge jump in broadband internet usage globally – for example, from 6% of U.S. internet users in June 2000 [161] to what one mid-decade study predicted would be 62% by 2010. [162] By February 2007, over 80% of U.S. Internet users were connected via broadband and broadband internet has been almost a required standard for quality internet browsing. [163]
  • Wireless internet became prominent by the end of the decade, as well as internet access in devices besides computers, such as mobile phones and gaming consoles.
  • Email became a standard form of interpersonal written communication, with popular addresses available to the public on Hotmail (now Outlook.com), Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.
  • Normalisation became increasingly important as massive standardized corpora and lexicons of spoken and written language became widely available to laypeople, just as documents from the paperless office were archived and retrieved with increasing efficiency using XML-based markup.
  • Peer-to-peer technology gained massive popularity with file sharing systems enabling users to share any audio, video and data files or anything in digital format, as well as with applications which share real-time data, such as telephony traffic.
  • VPNs (virtual private networks) became likewise accessible to the general public, and data encryption remained a major issue for the stability of web commerce.
  • Boom in music downloading and the use of data compression to quickly transfer music over the Internet, with a corresponding rise of portable digital audio players. As a result, the entertainment industry struggled through the decade to find digital delivery systems for music, movies, and other media that reduce copyright infringement and preserve profit.
  • The USB flash drive replaces the floppy disk as the preferred form of low-capacity mobile data storage.
  • In February 2003, Dell announced floppy drives would no longer be pre-installed on Dell Dimension home computers, although they were still available as a selectable option and purchasable as an aftermarket OEM add-on. [164] On January 29, 2007, PC World stated that only 2% of the computers they sold contained built-in floppy disk drives; once present stocks were exhausted, no more standard floppies would be sold. [165]
  • During the decade, Windows 2000, XP, Microsoft Office 2003, Vista [ dubious ] and Office 2007 (and later Windows 7 [ dubious ]) become the ubiquitous industry standards[ dubious ] in personal computer software until the end of the decade, when Apple began to slowly gain market share. Windows ME and Microsoft Office XP were also released during the decade.
  • With the advent of the Web 2.0, dynamic technology became widely accessible, and by the mid-2000s, PHP and MySQL became (with Apache and nginx) the backbone of many sites, making programming knowledge unnecessary to publish to the web. Blogs, portals, and wikis become common electronic dissemination methods for professionals, amateurs, and businesses to conduct knowledge management typified by success of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia which launched on January 15, 2001, grew rapidly and became the largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet [166] [167] as well as the best known wiki in the world and the largest encyclopedia in the world.
  • Open-source software, such as the Linux operating system, the Mozilla Firefox web browser and VLC media player, gain ground.
  • Internet commerce became standard for reservations; stock trading; promotion of music, arts, literature, and film; shopping; and other activities.
  • During this decade certain websites and search engines became prominent worldwide as transmitters of goods, services and information. Some of the most popular and successful online sites or search engines of the 2000s included Google, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, eBay, MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.
  • More and more businesses began providing paperless services, clients accessing bills and bank statements directly through a web interface.
  • In 2007, the fast food chain McDonald's announced the introduction of free high speed wireless internet access at most of its 1,200 restaurants by the end of the year in a move which will make it the UK's biggest provider of such a service. [168]

Google, YouTube, Ask.com and Wikipedia emerged as popular websites, becoming the 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 9th most popular websites by the end of the decade respectively. Amazon overtook eBay as the most-visited e-commerce site in 2008. AOL significantly declined in popularity throughout the decade, falling from being the most popular website to no longer being within the top 10. Excite and Lycos fell outside the top 10, and MSN fell from the second to sixth most popular site, though it quadrupled its monthly visits (going from 325 to 1.2 billion monthly visits). Yahoo! maintained relatively stable popularity, remaining the most popular website for most of the decade. [169]

The rise of MP3 players, downloadable music, and cellular ringtones in the mid-2000s ended the decade-long dominance that the CD held up to that point. Walkman NWZ-810 & iPod Nano 5G.jpg
The rise of MP3 players, downloadable music, and cellular ringtones in the mid-2000s ended the decade-long dominance that the CD held up to that point.

Electronics

  • GPS (Global Positioning System) became very popular especially in the tracking of items or people, and the use in cars (see Automotive navigation systems). Games that utilized the system, such as geocaching, emerged and became popular.
  • Green laser pointers [171] appeared on the market circa 2000, and are the most common type of DPSS lasers (also called DPSSFD for "diode pumped solid state frequency-doubled").

In late 2004 and early 2005, came a significant increase in reported incidents linked to laser pointers – see Lasers and aviation safety. The wave of incidents may have been triggered in part by "copycats" who read press accounts of laser pointer incidents. In one case, David Banach of New Jersey was charged under federal Patriot Act anti-terrorism laws, after he allegedly shone a laser pointer at aircraft. [172]

  • Chip and PIN is the brand name adopted by the banking industries in the United Kingdom and Ireland for the rollout of the EMV smart card payment system for credit, debit and ATM cards.

Chip and PIN was trialled in Northampton, England from May 2003, and as a result was rolled out nationwide in the United Kingdom in 2004 with advertisements in the press and national television touting the "Safety in Numbers" slogan.

  • In 2009, Tesco (a British multinational grocery and general merchandise retailer) opened its first UK branch at which service robots were the only option at the checkout, in Kingsley, Northampton – its US chain, Fresh & Easy, already operates several branches like this. [173]
  • September 7, 2009, an EU watchdog warns of an "alarming increase" in cash machine fraud by organised criminal gangs across Europe using sophisticated skimming technology, together with an explosion in ram-raiding attacks on ATMs.

ATM crime in Europe jumped to €485m (£423m) in 2008 following a 149% rise in attacks on cash machines. Gangs are turning to Bluetooth wireless technology to transmit card and personal identification number (PIN) details to nearby laptops and using increasingly sophisticated techniques to skim cards.

Portable laptops became popular during the late 2000s.

More conventional smash-and-grab attacks are also on the rise, says Enisa, the European Network and Information Security Agency. It reports a 32% rise in physical robberies on ATMs, ranging from ram raids to the use of rotary saws, blowtorches and diamond drills. It blames the increase on criminal gangs from eastern Europe. [174]

Robotics

The Da Vinci surgical robot which enables doing accurate robotic surgeries was introduced in the 2000s Laproscopic Surgery Robot.jpg
The Da Vinci surgical robot which enables doing accurate robotic surgeries was introduced in the 2000s

Transportation

The Segway was unveiled in December 2001 Segway PT (2006)-02.jpg
The Segway was unveiled in December 2001

Video

  • Digital cameras become widely popular due to rapid decreases in size and cost while photo resolution steadily increases. As a result, the digital cameras largely supplanted the analog cameras and the integration into mobile phones increase greatly. Digital camera outsold film camera in 2003. Since 2007, digital cameras started being manufactured with the face recognition feature built in. [184]
  • Flat panel displays started becoming widely popular in the second half of the decade displacing cathode ray tubes. [185] [186]
  • Handheld projectors enter the market and are then integrated into cellphones. [187]
  • DVR devices such as TiVo became popular, making it possible to record television broadcasts to a hard drive-based digital storage medium and allowing many additional features including the option to fast-forward through commercials or to use an automatic Commercial skipping feature. This feature created controversy, with major television networks and movie studios claiming it violates copyright and should be banned. With the commercial skipping feature, many television channels place advertisements on the bottom on the TV screen. [188]
  • VOD technology became widely available among cable users worldwide, enabling the users to select and watch video content from a large variety of available content stored on a central server, as well as gaining the possibility to freeze the image, as well as fast-forward and rewind the VOD content.
  • DVDs, and subsequently Blu-ray Discs, replace VCR technology as the common standard in homes and at video stores. [189]
  • Free Internet video portals like YouTube, Hulu, and Internet TV software solutions like Joost became new popular alternatives to TV broadcasts. [190]
  • TV becomes available on the networks run by some mobile phone providers, such as Verizon Wireless's Vcast. [ citation needed ]
  • "High-definition television" becomes very popular towards the second half of the decade, with the increase of HD television channels and the conversion from analog to digital signals. [191]

Miscellaneous

In 2003, the vape was invented by Chinese pharmacist, Hon Lik Electronic Cigarette (cropped).jpg
In 2003, the vape was invented by Chinese pharmacist, Hon Lik
  • The vape was invented in 2003 by Chinese pharmacist, Hon Lik. [192]

Religion and irreligion

Prominent events and trends during the 2000s:

Population and social issues

Environment and climate change

Climate change and global warming became household words in the 2000s. Predictions tools made significant progress during the decade, UN-sponsored organisations such as the IPCC gained influence, and studies such as the Stern report influenced public support for paying the political and economic costs of countering climate change.

The global temperature kept climbing during the decade. In December 2009, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that the 2000s might have been the warmest decade since records began in 1850, with four of the five warmest years since 1850 having occurred in this decade. [228] [229] The NASA and the NOAA later echoed the WMO's findings. [230]

Scientific studies on climate helped establish a consensus. Global Warming Predictions Map.jpg
Scientific studies on climate helped establish a consensus.

Major natural disasters became more frequent and helped change public opinion. One of the deadliest heat waves in human history happened during the 2000s, mostly in Europe, with the 2003 European heat wave killing 37,451 people over the summer months. [231] In February 2009, a series of highly destructive bushfires started in Victoria, Australia, lasting into the next month. While the fires are believed to have been caused by arson, they were widely reported as having been fueled by an excessive heatwave that was due in part to climate change. It has also been alleged that climate change was a cause of increased storms intensity, notably in the case of Hurricane Katrina.

International actions

Climate change became a major issue for governments, populations and scientists. Debates on global warming and its causes made significant progress, as climate change denials were refuted by most scientific studies. Decisive reports such as the Stern Review and the 2007 IPCC Report almost established a climate change consensus. [232] NGOs' actions and the commitment of political personalities (such as former U.S. Vice President Al Gore) also urged to international reactions against climate change. Documentary films An Inconvenient Truth and Home may have had a decisive impact. [233]

Under the auspices of The UN Convention on Climate Change the Kyoto Protocol (aimed at combating global warming) entered into force on February 16, 2005. As of November 2009, 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol. [234] In addition The UN Convention on Climate Change helped coordinate the efforts of the international community to fight potentially disastrous effects of human activity on the planet and launched negotiations to set an ambitious program of carbon emission reduction that began in 2007 with the Bali Road Map. However, the representatives of the then 192 member countries of the United Nations gathered in December 2009 for the Copenhagen Conference failed to reach a binding agreement to reduce carbon emissions because of divisions between regional areas.

However, as environmental technologies were to make up a potential market, some countries made large investments in renewable energies, energy conservation and sustainable transport. Many governments launched national plans to promote sustainable energy. In 2003, the European Union members created an emission trading scheme, and in 2007 they assembled a climate and energy package to reduce further their carbon emission and improve their energy-efficiency. In 2009, the United States Obama administration set up the Green New Deal, a plan to create millions of jobs in sectors related to environmentalism.

The Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 requires local authorities in England to provide every household with a separate collection of at least two types of recyclable materials by 2010. [235]

Culture

Architecture

Commercialization and globalization resulted in mass migration of people from rural areas to urban areas resulting in high-profile skyscrapers in Asia and Europe. In Asia skyscrapers were constructed in India, China, Thailand, South Korea, and Japan.

Fine arts

Literature

Film

Live-action films

The highest-grossing film of the decade was Avatar (2009) Avatar Flight of Passage (33825582954).jpg
The highest-grossing film of the decade was Avatar (2009)

The usage of computer-generated imagery became more widespread in films during the 2000s. Documentary and mockumentary films, such as March of the Penguins , Borat , and Super Size Me , were popular in the 2000s. 2004's Fahrenheit 9/11 by Michael Moore is the highest-grossing documentary of all time. Online films became popular, and conversion to digital cinema started. Critically acclaimed movies released in the decade including highlights such as Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind and Lost in Translation .

December 2009's Avatar , an American science fiction film written and directed by James Cameron, made extensive use of cutting edge motion capture filming techniques, and was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing (using the RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D, and IMAX 3D formats). It was also released in "4D" in select South Korean theaters. [252]

3D films became more and more successful throughout the 2000s, culminating in the unprecedented success of 3D presentations of Avatar.

In July 2005, it was reported that the Scottish actor and producer Sir Sean Connery had decided to retire, due to disillusionment with the "idiots now in Hollywood"' Telling The New Zealand Herald : "I'm fed up with the idiots... the ever-widening gap between people who know how to make movies and the people who greenlight the movies." [256]

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King , a 2003 epic fantasy-drama film directed by Peter Jackson based on the second and third volumes of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , was nominated for eleven Academy Awards and won all the categories for which it was nominated. [257] The film is tied for largest number of awards won with Ben-Hur (1959) and Titanic (1997).

The Passion of the Christ , a 2004 American film directed by Mel Gibson and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ, was highly controversial [258] and received mixed reviews; however, it was a major commercial hit, grossing in excess of $600 million worldwide during its theatrical release. [259]

The superhero film genre experienced renewed and intense interest throughout the 2000s. With high ticket and DVD sales, several new superhero films were released every year. DC Comics and Marvel Comics superhero film series including Superman , Batman , Spider-Man and X-Men , were particularly prominent, and other films in the genre included Daredevil (2003), The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003), Hulk (2003), Hellboy (2004), The Incredibles (2004), Fantastic Four (2005), the first two Marvel Cinematic Universe films ( Iron Man and The Incredible Hulk , both in 2008), and Watchmen (2009). Some media commentators attributed the increased popularity of such franchises to the social and political climate in Western society since the September 11th attacks, [260] although others argued advances in special effects technology played a more significant role. [261]

Cult films this decade like Shaun of the Dead , Underworld , Saw , V for Vendetta , Donnie Darko , 300 , Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy , Napoleon Dynamite , The Room and Moulin Rouge! became popular.

Animated films

The animated feature film market changed radically. Computer animated films became hugely popular following the release of Toy Story in the mid-1990s. After failures such as The Road to El Dorado , Rugrats Go Wild , Osmosis Jones , Treasure Planet and Looney Tunes: Back in Action , studios have stopped their production of traditional 2D animated films, and gradually changed their focus into CGI animation in the late 2000s. Traditional 2D animated films that did well in the first half of the decade include Rugrats in Paris , Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron , Recess: School's Out , The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie , and Lilo & Stitch as well as anime films such as Studio Ghibli's Spirited Away , The Cat Returns , Howl's Moving Castle , and Ponyo .

Disney would begin making 3D animated films such as Dinosaur , Chicken Little , Meet the Robinsons , and Bolt as well as continuing to make traditional animated films from the past decades such as The Emperor's New Groove, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Treasure Planet, Brother Bear, Home on the Range , and The Princess and the Frog. All of these films would underperform at the box office and receive adequate reviews although they would become cult classics.

Meanwhile, computer-animated films saw the rise of Pixar throughout the 2000s with their critically and commercially films like Monsters, Inc. , Finding Nemo , Cars , Ratatouille , WALL-E , and Up .

DreamWorks also began to take its rise albeit to a lesser extent as the 2003 movie Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas became the last traditional animated DreamWorks film. These films include Shrek , Shrek 2 , Madagascar , Over the Hedge , Flushed Away , Shrek the Third , Bee Movie , Kung Fu Panda , Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , and Monsters vs. Aliens .

20th Century Fox Animation's works in that decade include the Ice Age series, Robots and Horton Hears a Who! which were all made by its Blue Sky Studios subsidiary, and Titan A.E. , Waking Life , The Simpsons Movie and Fantastic Mr. Fox.

Stop motion animated films in that decade which mostly use live-action or computer animation methods included Chicken Run , Team America: World Police , Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit , Corpse Bride , Flushed Away , Coraline and Mary and Max . Independent animated works in that decade included The Triplets of Belleville , Terkel in Trouble , Laura's Star , A Scanner Darkly , Renaissance , Persepolis , Sita Sings the Blues , The Secret of Kells and A Town Called Panic .

Award winners

Award2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Academy Award for Best Picture winners Gladiator [262] A Beautiful Mind [263] Chicago [264] The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King [265] Million Dollar Baby [266] Crash [267] The Departed [268] No Country for Old Men [269] Slumdog Millionaire [270] The Hurt Locker [271]
Palme d'Or winners at the Cannes Film Festival Dancer in the Dark [272] The Son's Room [273] The Pianist [274] Elephant [275] Fahrenheit 9/11 [276] L'Enfant [277] The Wind That Shakes the Barley [278] 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days [279] The Class [280] The White Ribbon [281]
César Award for Best Film winners The Taste of Others [282] Amélie [283] The Pianist [284] The Barbarian Invasions [285] Games of Love and Chance [286] The Beat That My Heart Skipped [287] Lady Chatterley [288] The Secret of the Grain [289] Séraphine [290] A Prophet [291]
Golden Lion winners at the Venice Film Festival The Circle Monsoon Wedding The Magdalene Sisters The Return Vera Drake Brokeback Mountain Still Life Lust, Caution The Wrestler Lebanon
Empire Award for Best Film Gladiator The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring [292] The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers [293] The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King [294] The Bourne Supremacy [295] King Kong [296] Casino Royale [297] The Bourne Ultimatum [298] The Dark Knight [299] Avatar [300]
Best films of the Sight & Sound annual pollN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A Brokeback Mountain [301] Caché [302] 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days [303] Hunger [304] A Prophet [305]

The 20 highest-grossing films of the decade are (in order from highest to lowest grossing)

Avatar , The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King , Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest , The Dark Knight , Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone , Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End , Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix , Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince , The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers , Shrek 2 , Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire , Spider-Man 3 , Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs , Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets , The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring , Finding Nemo , Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith , Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen , Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Shrek the Third . [306]

The top 15 highest-grossing film series of the decade are (in order from highest to lowest grossing) Harry Potter film series, The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, Pirates of the Caribbean film series, Spider-Man film series, Shrek film series, Ice Age film series, Transformers film series, X-Men film series, Batman film series' Batman Begins and The Dark Knight , Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith , The Da Vinci Code and Angels & Demons , The Matrix film series' The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions , The Chronicles of Narnia film series, Mission: Impossible film series' and The Mummy film series. [306]

Music

Dave Grohl of Foo Fighters performing in 2005. Foo Fighters are widely regarded as one of the most culturally significant rock bands of the 2000s. The decade saw Foo Fighters win the Grammy Award for Best Rock Album a record-breaking three times; in 2001, 2004, and 2008. Dave Grohl (132997591).jpeg
Dave Grohl of Foo Fighters performing in 2005. Foo Fighters are widely regarded as one of the most culturally significant rock bands of the 2000s. The decade saw Foo Fighters win the Grammy Award for Best Rock Album a record-breaking three times; in 2001, 2004, and 2008.

In the 2000s, the Internet allowed consumers unprecedented access to music. The Internet also allowed more artists to distribute music relatively inexpensively and independently without the previously necessary financial support of a record label. Music sales began to decline following the year 2000, a state of affairs generally attributed to unlicensed uploading and downloading of sound files to the Internet, a practice which became more widely prevalent during this time. Business relationships called 360 deals—an arrangement in which a company provides support for an artist, and, in exchange, the artist pays the company a percentage of revenue earned not only from sales of recorded music, but also live performances and publishing—became a popular response by record labels to the loss of music sales attributed to online copyright infringement. [308] [309]

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Eminem (left) and Beyoncé were two of the best-selling musical artists and most-culturally significant figures of the decade, pictured here in 2003 and 2007 respectively.

In the 2000s, hip hop reached a commercial peak and heavily influenced various aspects of popular culture, dominating the musical landscape of the decade. [310] [311] The best-selling musical artist of the decade was American rapper Eminem, who sold 32 million albums. Other popular hip hop artists included Jay-Z, Nas, Busta Rhymes, Kanye West, Ludacris, Common, Ja Rule, Mos Def, DMX, Missy Elliot, OutKast, Lil Jon, Fat Joe, Cam'ron, Pharrell, Gorillaz, Snoop Dogg, Twista, 50 Cent, Nelly, Lil Wayne, T.I., Young Jeezy and The Game. The genre was extremely diverse stylistically, including subgenres such as gangsta rap and crunk. Many hip hop albums were released to widespread critical acclaim.

R&B also gained prominence throughout the decade, and included artists such as D'Angelo, Aaliyah, Usher, Akon, Black Eyed Peas, R. Kelly, Amy Winehouse, Mary J. Blige, Jamie Foxx, Chris Brown, John Legend and Alicia Keys.

In alternative rock, the garage rock revival and post-punk revival entered the mainstream, with bands such as The Strokes, Interpol, The Killers, Arctic Monkeys, Bloc Party, Yeah Yeah Yeahs and The White Stripes seeing commercial success. Indie rock also saw a proliferation in the 2000s with numerous bands experiencing commercial success, including Modest Mouse, TV on the Radio, Franz Ferdinand, Death Cab for Cutie, Arcade Fire, Vampire Weekend, LCD Soundsystem, The Shins, Wilco, Bright Eyes, Spoon, The Decemberists, Broken Social Scene, Grizzly Bear, Fleet Foxes and many more.

Other genres such as post-grunge, post-Britpop, nu metal and metalcore also achieved notability during the decade. Popular metal or hard rock bands consisted of Avenged Sevenfold, Bullet for My Valentine, Disturbed, [312] Breaking Benjamin, [313] Linkin Park, Slipknot, Mudvayne, Tenacious D, Incubus, System of a Down, Mastodon, The Mars Volta, Foo Fighters, Queens of the Stone Age, Three Days Grace, Godsmack, Shinedown, Limp Bizkit, Killswitch Engage, Evanescence, Tool, Deftones, Opeth, and Seether.

Pop-punk and emo-pop became popular in the decade, with bands like Blink-182, The Offspring, Green Day, Good Charlotte, My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy and Panic! at the Disco. [314] [315] [316] [317]

In the early and mid 2000s, disco-inspired dance genres became popular; many french house and funky house songs broke into the charts. [318] Popular tracks such as Daft Punk's "One More Time" Fonzerelli's "Moonlight Party", Kylie Minogue's "Spinning Around", Jamiroquai's "Little L", Michael Gray's "The Weekend" and Freemasons "Love on My Mind".

For Latin music Shakira dominated the charts with Fijación Oral, Vol. 1 being the 2nd best-selling Spanish album of all-time and the best-selling Spanish album of the 2000s being 11× platinum to date.

Billboard magazine named Eminem as the "artist of the decade" with the best performance on the Billboard charts [319] [note 2] and Beyoncé as the "female artist of the decade", with Nickelback as the "band of the decade". [321] [322] In the UK, the biggest selling artist of the decade was Robbie Williams and the biggest selling band of the decade was Westlife.

On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah Haughton – a recording artist, dancer, actress and model – as well as eight others onboard were killed in an airplane crash in The Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat". On November 29, 2001, George Harrison – best known as a member of the Beatles, one of the most popular bands in history – died of lung cancer at the age of 58. On April 25, 2002, Lisa Lopes (aka Left Eye) – a rapper, dancer and singer-songwriter best known as a member of the R&B/hip hop girl group TLC – was killed in a car crash in La Ceiba, Honduras. On October 30, 2002, Jason William Mizell (aka Jam Master Jay) – a member of the pioneering hip hop group Run-D.M.C – was shot and killed in a Merrick Boulevard recording studio in Jamaica, Queens. On December 25, 2006, James Brown – a recording artist known as the "Godfather of Soul" – died of pneumonia at the age of 73. On September 12, 2003, Johnny Cash – a country musician known as the "Man in Black" – died of diabetes at the age of 71. On June 10, 2004, Ray Charles – one of the pioneers of soul music – died of liver failure at the age of 73. On June 25, 2009, recording artist and dancer Michael Jackson – one of the highest-selling musicians of all time – died of a drug overdose, creating the largest global public mourning since the death of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997. [323] [324] [325] Other notable deaths of musical artists in the 2000s were Joey Ramone and Chet Atkins in 2001, Waylon Jennings in 2002, Maurice Gibb and Elliott Smith in 2003, Rick James and Ol' Dirty Bastard in 2004, J Dilla in 2006, Ike Turner and Dan Fogelberg in 2007, and Les Paul in 2009.

In 2002, Robbie Williams signed a record-breaking £80 million contract with EMI. [326] So far it is the biggest music deal in British history.

The 2000s gave rise to a new trend in music production with the growing use of auto-tune. The effect was first popularized in the early 2000s by Eiffel 65 with their 1998 hit song "Blue (Da Ba Dee)", which came to global prominence in 2000. It was also used in certain tracks off critically acclaimed 2001 albums from Daft Punk (with Discovery ) and Radiohead (with Amnesiac ). [309] By 2008, auto-tune was part of the music mainstream with artists such as Lil Wayne, T-Pain and Kanye West utilizing it in their hit albums Tha Carter III , Three Ringz and 808s & Heartbreak respectively. Towards the end of the decade, electronic dance music began to dominate western charts (as it would proceed to in the following decade), and in turn helped contribute to a diminishing amount of rock music in the mainstream. [327] [328] Hip hop music also saw a decline in the mainstream in the late 2000s because of electronic music's rising popularity. [329]

According to The Guardian , music styles during the 2000s changed very little from how they were in the latter half of the 1990s. [330] The 2000s had a profound impact on the condition of music distribution. Recent advents in digital technology have fundamentally altered industry and marketing practices as well as players in unusual rapidity. [331] [332] [333] According to Nielsen Soundscan, by 2009 CDs accounted for 79 percent of album sales, with 20 percent coming from digital, representing both a 10 percent drop and gain for both formats in 2 years. [334]

Grime is a style of music that emerged from Bow, East London, England in the early 2000s, primarily as a development of UK garage, drum & bass, hip hop and dancehall. Pioneers of the style include English rappers Dizzee Rascal, Wiley, Roll Deep and Skepta.

Michael Jackson's final album, Invincible , released on October 30, 2001, and costing $30m to record, was the most expensive record ever made. [335]

The end of the 2000s decade also saw the dramatic rise of new pop stars such as Rihanna, Taylor Swift, Justin Bieber, Katy Perry, Nicki Minaj and Lady Gaga, all of whom would go on to become some of the best-selling musicians in history. [336]

The general socio-political fallout of Iraq War also extended to popular music. In July 2002, the release of English musician George Michael's song "Shoot the Dog" proved to be controversial. It was critical of George W. Bush and Tony Blair in the lead up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The video showed a cartoon version of Michael astride a nuclear missile in the Middle East and Tony and Cherie Blair in bed with President Bush. The Dixie Chicks are an American country music band. During a London concert ten days before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, lead vocalist Maines said, "we don't want this war, this violence, and we're ashamed that the President of the United States [ George W. Bush ] is from Texas". [337] The positive reaction to this statement from the British audience contrasted with the boycotts that ensued in the U.S., where "the band was assaulted by talk-show conservatives", [338] while their albums were discarded in public protest. [338] The original music video for the title song from American pop singer Madonna's American Life album was banned as music television stations thought that the video, featuring violence and war imagery, would be deemed unpatriotic since America was then at war with Iraq. She also made her widely considered "comeback" album with her tenth studio album Confessions on a Dance Floor which topped the charts worldwide in a record 40 countries. As of 2016 the album has sold more than 11 million copies worldwide. Madonna also made history by completing her Sticky & Sweet Tour which became the highest-grossing tour by a female artist and the tenth highest-grossing tour by an artist during 2008–2009. [339]

Live 8 concert in Rome, Italy, 2005 Live8 rome1.jpg
Live 8 concert in Rome, Italy, 2005

Live 8 was a string of benefit concerts that took place on July 2, 2005, in the G8 states and in South Africa. They were timed to precede the G8 conference and summit held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Auchterarder, Scotland from July 6 to 8, 2005; they also coincided with the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. Run in support of the aims of the UK's Make Poverty History campaign and the Global Call for Action Against Poverty, ten simultaneous concerts were held on July 2 and one on July 6. On July 7, the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to poor nations from US$25 billion to US$50 billion by the year 2010. Half of the money was to go to Africa. More than 1,000 musicians performed at the concerts, which were broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks. [340]

In November 2006, the Rolling Stones' 'A Bigger Bang' tour was declared the highest-grossing tour of all time, earning $437 million.

In December 2009, a campaign was launched on Facebook by Jon and Tracy Morter, from South Woodham Ferrers, which generated publicity in the UK and took the 1992 Rage Against the Machine track "Killing in the Name" to the Christmas Number One slot in the UK Singles Chart, which had been occupied the four consecutive years from 2005 by winners from the TV show The X Factor. Rage's Zack de la Rocha spoke to BBC One upon hearing the news, stating that:

"...We want to thank everyone that participated in this incredible, organic, grass-roots campaign. It says more about the spontaneous action taken by young people throughout the UK to topple this very sterile pop monopoly."

During the late 2000s, a new wave of chiptune culture took place. This new culture has much more emphasis on live performances and record releases than the demoscene and tracker culture, of which the new artists are often only distantly aware. [341] Much of 2000s hip hop was characterized as the "bling era", following the success of B.G.'s 1999 single Bling Bling, referring to forms of opulence and the material commodities that were popular from the early-to-mid part of the decade in hip-hop culture. [342] [343] [344] However, by the end of the decade, an antecedent emotional rap subgenre gained prominence, with musical projects like Kanye West's fourth studio album 808s & Heartbreak (2008), Kid Cudi's debut album Man on the Moon: The End of Day (2009), and Drake's career catalyzing mixtape So Far Gone (2009) garnering significant popularity and ushering in a new era of hip hop. [345]

Reunions

The original five members of the English new wave band Duran Duran reunited in the early 2000s.

On February 23, 2003, Simon and Garfunkel reunited to perform in public for the first time in a decade, singing "The Sound of Silence" as the opening act of the Grammy Awards. [346]

On May 9, 2006, British five-piece vocal pop Take That returned to the recorded music scene after more than ten years of absence, signing with Polydor Records. The band's comeback album, Beautiful World , entered the UK album chart at no. 1. [347]

On December 10, 2007, English rock band Led Zeppelin reunited for the one-off Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert at The O2 Arena in London. According to Guinness World Records 2009, Led Zeppelin set the world record for the "Highest Demand for Tickets for One Music Concert" as 20 million requests for the reunion show were rendered online. [348]

Internet

In early 2001, Wikipedia was launched, which quickly became the largest and most popular online encyclopedia, and one of the most viewed sites on the web. In 2003, the first beta version of the Skype telephony software was launched. By the end of the decade, Skype will have over 600 million users. In 2004, the social network Facebook was launched. By the end of the decade, the site will be ranked 7th in its popularity on the web, and will have over 350 million active users worldwide. Co-founder Mark Zuckerberg pictured above in the site's infancy. YouTube was launched in 2005 and it quickly became the main site for video sharing, MySpace was one of the most popular social media sites in the 2000s but declined after the popularity of Facebook in 2008. Facebook launched in 2004. In 2008, Facebook surpassed MySpace as the most used social network. Facebook was mostly used by college students. Twitter was founded in 2006, and by 2009, moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site. WhatsApp, founded in 2009, rose to success and was eventually purchased by Facebook in the next decade.

Fashion

Paris Hilton was a fashion icon of the 2000s. Paris Hilton at Sundance Film Festival 2008.jpg
Paris Hilton was a fashion icon of the 2000s.
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Mountain Dew bottles and cans from the 2000s decade, c. 2007

Fashion trends of the decade drew much inspiration from 1960s, 1970s and 1980s styles. Hair styles included the bleached and spiked hair for boys and men and long and straight hair for girls and women continued, as well as many other hairstyles from the mid-late 1990s. Kelly Clarkson made chunky highlights fashionable in 2002 on American Idol and lasted until about 2007. [350] Both women and men highlighted their hair until the late 2000s. [351]

The decade started with the futuristic Y2K fashion which was built on hype surrounding the new millennium. This dark, slinky style remained popular until 9/11 occurred and casual fashions had made a comeback once again. [352] Low rise pants were the go-to for women in the early to mid 2000s. Baggy cargo pants were extremely popular among both sexes [353] throughout the early and mid 2000s until about late 2007. Bell-bottoms were the dominant pant style for women until about 2006 when fitted pants began rising in popularity. [354] The late 1990s-style baggy pants remained popular throughout the early 2000s, but by 2003 boot-cut pants and jeans became the standard among men [355] until about 2008.

The 2000s saw a revival of 1980s fashion trends such as velour tracksuits in the early 2000s (an early 1980s fashion), and tapered pants in the later years (a late 1980s fashion). Skinny jeans became a staple clothing for young women and men. By 2009 with the Jerkin' movement playing a large part in the popularization of skinny jeans. Mass brands Gap and Levi launched their own lines for skinny jeans. [356] [357]

Throughout the early and mid 2000s, adults and children wore Skechers shoes. [358] The company used many celebrities to their advantage, including Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Carrie Underwood, and Ashlee Simpson. [358] By the late 2000s, flatter and more compact shoes came into style as chunky sneakers were no longer the mode.

"Geek chic" refers to a minor fashion trend that arose in the mid-2000s in which young individuals adopted stereotypically "geeky" fashions, such as oversized black Horn-rimmed glasses, suspenders/braces, and highwater trousers. The glasses—worn with non-prescription lenses or without lenses—quickly became the defining aspect of the trend, with the media identifying various celebrities as "trying geek" or "going geek" for their wearing such glasses, such as David Beckham, [359] Justin Timberlake [360] and Myleene Klass. [361] Meanwhile, in the sports world, many NBA players wore "geek glasses" during post-game interviews, drawing comparisons to Steve Urkel. [362] [363]

Emo fashion became popular amongst teenagers for most of the 2000s, associated with the success of bands tied to the subculture (many of whom started at the beginning of the 2000s and rose to fame during the middle part of the decade, such as Brand New, The Used, Hawthorne Heights, My Chemical Romance, Fall Out Boy, Paramore, Panic! at the Disco and more). The style is commonly identified with wearing black/dark coloured skinny jeans, T-shirts bearing the name of emo music groups and long side-swept bangs, often covering one or both eyes. [364] The Scene subculture that emerged in the mid-late 2000s drew much inspiration from Emo style. [365]

Hip hop fashion was popular throughout the 2000s with clothing and shoe brands such as Rocawear, Phat Farm, G-Unit clothing, Billionaire Boys Club, Dipset clothing, Pelle Pelle, BAPE, Nike, Fubu, and Air Jordan. Followers of Hip Hop wore oversized shorts, jewelry, NFL and NBA jerseys, pants, and T-shirts. By the late 2000s this gave way more to fitted and vibrantly colored clothing, with men wearing skinny jeans as influenced by the Hyphy and Jerkin' movements. [366] [ better source needed ]

In cosmetic applications, a Botox injection, consisting of a small dose of Botulinum toxin, can be used to prevent development of wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles. [367] As of 2007, it is the most common cosmetic operation, with 4.6 million procedures in the United States, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Journalism

Radio

The 2000s saw a decrease in the popularity of radio as more listeners starting using MP3 players in their cars to customize driving music. Satellite radio receivers started selling at a much higher rate, which allowed listeners to pay a subscription fee for thousands of ad-free stations. Clear Channel Communications was the largest provider of radio entertainment in the United States with over 900 stations nationwide. Many radio stations began streaming their content over the Internet, allowing a market expansion far beyond the reaches of a radio transmitter.

During the 2000s, FM radio faced its toughest competition ever for in-car entertainment. iPod, satellite radio, and HD radio were all new options for commuters. CD players had a steady decline in popularity throughout the 2000s but stayed prevalent in most vehicles, while cassette tapes became virtually obsolete.

Television

Live-action television

The television genre Reality TV gained massive popularity in America over the decade with reality TV programs such as Survivor,The Simple Life, Jersey Shore, American Idol (pictured) and Big Brother, for which local adaptations were produced in many countries American Idol Experience - Disney's Hollywood Studios (3375313843).jpg
The television genre Reality TV gained massive popularity in America over the decade with reality TV programs such as Survivor , The Simple Life , Jersey Shore , American Idol (pictured) and Big Brother , for which local adaptations were produced in many countries

American television in the 2000s saw the sharp increase in popularity of reality television, with numerous competition shows such as American Idol , Dancing with the Stars , Survivor and The Apprentice attracting large audiences, as well as documentary or narrative style shows such as Big Brother , The Hills , The Real Housewives , Cheaters , among many others. Keeping Up with the Kardashians also aired during the decade, in 2007, and would run for 14 years and 20 seasons, thrusting the Kardashian family into the global pop-culture spotlight. Chappelle's Show was one of the most popular comedy shows of the decade. Upon its release in 2004, the first-season DVD set became the best-selling TV series set of all time. [392]

Australian television in the 2000s also saw a sharp increase in popularity of reality television, with their own version of shows such as Big Brother and Dancing With The Stars , other shows in the country also saw an increase with comedy such as Spicks and Specks and game show Bert's Family Feud.

The decade has since seen a steady decline in the number of sitcoms and an increase in reality shows, crime and medical dramas, such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation , House M.D. , and Grey's Anatomy , paranormal/crime shows like Medium (2005–2011) and Ghost Whisperer (2005–2010), and action/drama shows, including 24 and Lost . Comedy-dramas became more serious, dealing with such hot button issues, such as drugs, teenage pregnancy, and gay rights. Popular comedy-drama programs include Desperate Housewives , Ugly Betty , and Glee .

Disney Channel had seen a rise in views and popularity from kids as young as 6 years old. In 2001, Disney Channel premiered one of their original television series Lizzie McGuire . That's So Raven premiered in 2003, which was Disney Channel's first TV series starring a black female character. Shows that were also popularly known including Hannah Montana, Even Stevens, The Suite Life of Zack & Cody, and Wizards of Waverly Place.

Nickelodeon premiered Drake & Josh and Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide in 2004. iCarly was Nickelodeon's most watched TV series from its premiere in 2007–2012, then was rebooted in 2021 and cancelled in 2023. [393] Other shows that were also popular hits on the network were Victorious, Zoey 101, and Big Time Rush.

Although there were less in this decade than there were in the 1990s, the 2000s still saw many popular and notable sitcoms, including 3rd Rock from the Sun , Two Guys and a Girl , Just Shoot Me! , The Drew Carey Show , Frasier , Friends , That '70s Show , Becker , Spin City , Dharma & Greg , Will & Grace , Yes, Dear , According to Jim , 8 Simple Rules , Less than Perfect , Still Standing , George Lopez , Grounded for Life , Hope & Faith , My Wife and Kids , Sex and the City , Everybody Loves Raymond , Malcolm in the Middle , Girlfriends , The King of Queens , Arrested Development , How I Met Your Mother , Scrubs , Curb Your Enthusiasm , What I Like About You , Reba , The Office , Entourage , My Name Is Earl , Everybody Hates Chris , The New Adventures of Old Christine , Rules of Engagement , Two and a Half Men , 'Til Death , The Big Bang Theory , Samantha Who? , It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia , and 30 Rock , among many others. A trend seen in several sitcoms of the late 2000s was the absence of a laugh track. [394]

The decade also saw the rise of premium cable dramas such as The Sopranos , The Wire , Battlestar Galactica , Deadwood , Mad Men , and Breaking Bad . The critic Daniel Mendelsohn wrote a critique of Mad Men [395] in which he also claimed this last decade was a golden age for episodic television, citing Battlestar Galactica, The Wire, and the network series Friday Night Lights as especially deserving of critical and popular attention.

The decade also saw the return of prime time soap operas, a genre that had been popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, including Dawson's Creek (1998–2003), The O.C. (2003–2007) and One Tree Hill (2003–2012). Desperate Housewives (2004–2012) was perhaps the most popular television series of this genre since Dallas and Dynasty in the 1980s, ER started in 1994 and ended its run in 2009, after 15 years.

Animated shows

Adult-oriented animated programming also continued a sharp upturn in popularity with controversial cartoons like * South Park (1997–present), Family Guy (1999–2002, 2005–present) and Futurama (1999–2003, 2008–2013, 2023–present) along with the longtime running cartoon The Simpsons (1989–present), while new animated adult series were also produced in that decade such as American Dad! , Aqua Teen Hunger Force , Robot Chicken , Archer , Drawn Together , The Cleveland Show , Sealab 2021 and Total Drama .

Other animated programs debuting and achieving popularity in that decade included Avatar: The Last Airbender , SpongeBob SquarePants (1999–present), Teen Titans , Phineas and Ferb , Kim Possible , The Fairly OddParents , Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends , Ben 10 , Samurai Jack , Invader Zim , Courage the Cowardly Dog , Chowder , Codename: Kids Next Door , Eon Kid and Star Wars: The Clone Wars .

Sports channels

The WWE made a split in 2002 for the brands Raw and Smackdown!, also known as the WWE Brand Extension. This resulted in the WWE's purchase of their two biggest competitors, WCW and ECW. The brand extension would last until 2011. It also saw the rise of popular wrestlers like John Cena, Randy Orton, Dave Bautista, Jeff Hardy, CM Punk, Chris Jericho, Edge and Brock Lesnar. The match between veteran wrestlers Ric Flair and Shawn Michaels at WrestleMania 24 in 2008 was named as the "match of the decade" by popular professional wrestling magazine Pro Wrestling Illustrated. [396] Pro Wrestling Illustrated would also name veteran wrestler Triple H as the wrestler of the decade. [397]

The 2001 World Series between the New York Yankees and Arizona Diamondbacks became the first World Series to be played in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Super Bowl XXXVI between the New England Patriots and the St. Louis Rams became the first Super Bowl to be played in the wake of the September 11 attacks.

Criticism and controversy

Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy: Super Bowl XXXVIII, which was broadcast live on February 1, 2004, from Houston, Texas, on the CBS television network in the United States, was noted for a controversial halftime show in which singer Janet Jackson's breast, adorned with a nipple shield, was exposed by singer Justin Timberlake for about half a second, in what was later referred to as a "wardrobe malfunction". The incident, sometimes referred to as Nipplegate, was widely discussed. Along with the rest of the halftime show, it led to an immediate crackdown and widespread debate on perceived indecency in broadcasting. [398]

The X Factor in the UK has been subject to much controversy and criticism since its launch in September 2004. [399]

January 2005 – Jerry Springer: The Opera was the subject of controversy, when its UK television broadcast on BBC Two elicited 55,000 complaints. The most complained about television event ever. [400]

In May 2005, UK viewers inundated the Advertising Standards Authority with complaints regarding the continuous airing of the latest Crazy Frog advertisements. The intensity of the advertising was unprecedented in British television history. According to The Guardian , Jamster bought 73,716 spots across all TV channels in May alone — an average of nearly 2,378 slots daily — at a cost of about £8 million, just under half of which was spent on ITV. 87% of the population saw the Crazy Frog adverts an average of 26 times, 15% of the adverts appeared twice during the same advertising break and 66% were in consecutive ad breaks. An estimated 10% of the population saw the advert more than 60 times. This led to many members of the population finding the crazy frog, as its original name suggests, immensely irritating. [401]

Blue Peter (the world's longest-running children's television programme) rigged a phone-in competition supporting the UNICEF "Shoe Biz Appeal" on November 27, 2006. The person who appeared to be calling in the competition was actually a Blue Peter Team Player who was visiting that day. The visitor pretended to be a caller from an outside line who had won the phone-in and the chance to select a prize. The competition was rigged due to a technical error with receiving the calls. [402] In July 2007, Blue Peter was given a £50,000 fine, by the Office of Communications (OFCOM) as a result of rigging the competition. [403]

I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! is a reality television game show series, originally created in the United Kingdom, and licensed globally to other countries. In its 2009 series, celebrity chef Gino D'Acampo killed, cooked and ate a rat. The Australian RSPCA investigated the incident and sought to prosecute D'Acampo and actor Stuart Manning for animal cruelty after this episode of the show was aired. ITV was fined £1,600 and the two celebrities involved were not prosecuted for animal cruelty despite being charged with the offense by the New South Wales Police.

Ended series

The PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood aired its final episode on August 31, 2001. Two years later, its host and creator, Fred Rogers, died from stomach cancer.

Law & Order was a police procedural drama that premiered on NBC on September 13, 1990, and ran for 20 seasons. The show aired its series finale ("Rubber Room") on May 24, 2010.

Tomorrow's World was a long-running BBC television series, showcasing new developments in the world of science and technology. First aired on July 7, 1965, on BBC1, it ran for 38 years until it was cancelled in early 2003.

That '70s Show was an American television period sitcom based on the 1970s decade. The 1970s retro style permeated the 2000s decade. The show ended on May 18, 2006.

Brookside is a British soap opera set in Liverpool, England. The series began on the launch night of Channel 4 on November 2, 1982, and ran for 21 years until November 4, 2003.

In January 2004, the BBC cancelled the Kilroy show (which had run for 18 years), after an article entitled 'We owe Arabs nothing' written by its host Robert Kilroy-Silk was published in the Sunday Express tabloid newspaper.

Friends is an American sitcom which aired on NBC from September 22, 1994, to May 6, 2004. Friends received positive reviews throughout its run, and its series finale ("The Last One") ranked as the fifth most watched overall television series finale as well as the most watched single television episode of the 2000s on U.S. television.

The X-Files was a science fiction television series which aired for nine seasons on Fox that premiered on September 10, 1993. The show aired its series finale ("The Truth") on May 19, 2002.

Frasier , a spin-off TV series of Cheers (that ended in 1993), is an American sitcom that was broadcast on NBC for eleven seasons from September 16, 1993, to May 13, 2004, (only a week after the broadcast of the final episode of Friends). It was one of the most successful spin-off and popular series in television history, as well as one of the most critically acclaimed comedy series.

On June 20, 2006, after 42 years, British music chart show Top of the Pops was formally cancelled and it was announced that the last edition would be broadcast on July 30, 2006.

Grandstand is a British television sport program. Broadcast between 1958 and 2007, it was one of the BBC's longest running sports shows.

After 30 years, British television drama series Grange Hill (originally made by the BBC) was cancelled and the last episode was shown on September 15, 2008.

ER is a medical drama that premiered on NBC on September 19, 1994, and ran for 15 seasons. The show aired its series finale ("And in the End...") on April 2, 2009.

Series returns

The Flower Pot Men is a British children's programme, produced by BBC television, first transmitted in 1952, and repeated regularly for more than twenty years, which was produced in a new version in 2000.

Absolutely Fabulous , also known as Ab Fab, is a British sitcom. The show has had an extended and sporadic run. The first three series were broadcast on the BBC from 1992 to 1995, followed by a series finale in the form of a two-part television film entitled The Last Shout in 1996. Its creator Jennifer Saunders revived the show for a fourth series in 2001.

Gadget and the Gadgetinis is a spinoff of the classic series Inspector Gadget (1983–1986), developed by DiC in cooperation with Haim Saban's SIP Animation and produced from 2001 to 2003. There are 52 episodes.

Basil Brush from 1962 to 1984, The Basil Brush Show from 2002 to 2007. Basil Brush is a fictional anthropomorphic red fox, best known for his appearances on daytime British children's television. He is primarily portrayed by a glove puppet.

Shooting Stars is a British television comedy panel game broadcast on BBC Two as a pilot in 1993, then as 3 full series from 1995 to 1997, then on BBC Choice from January to December 2002 with 2 series before returning to BBC Two for another 3 series from 2008 until its cancellation in 2011.

Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The show is a significant part of British popular culture. The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. After an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot in the form of a television film, the programme was relaunched in 2005.

Family Fortunes is a British game show, based on the American game show Family Feud . The programme ran on ITV from January 6, 1980, to December 6, 2002, before being revived by the same channel in 2006 under the title of All Star Family Fortunes. Revived episodes are currently being shown on ITV on Sunday evenings and have been presented by Vernon Kay since 2006.

Gladiators is a British television entertainment series, produced by LWT for ITV, and broadcast between October 10, 1992, and January 1, 2000. It is an adaptation of the American format American Gladiators . The success of the British series spawned further adaptations in Australia and Sweden. The series was revived in 2008, before again being cancelled in 2009.

Rab C. Nesbitt is a British sitcom which began in 1988. The first series began on September 27, 1990, and continued for seven more, ending on June 18, 1999, and returning with a one-off special on December 23, 2008. [404]

Red Dwarf is a British comedy franchise which primarily comprises ten series (including a ninth mini-series named Back To Earth) of a television science fiction sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1993 and from 1997 to 1999 and on Dave in 2009.

Primetime Emmy Award for Best Drama

Video games

Video-game hardware and software

PlayStation 2 was released in 2000 and became the best-selling gaming console of the decade and of all time. PS2-Versions.jpg
PlayStation 2 was released in 2000 and became the best-selling gaming console of the decade and of all time.
First Xbox released in 2001 Xbox-console.jpg
First Xbox released in 2001
GameCube released in 2001 and is the successor to the Nintendo 64 GameCube-Console-Set.png
GameCube released in 2001 and is the successor to the Nintendo 64

The world of video games reached the 6th generation of video game consoles including the PlayStation 2, the Xbox, and the GameCube, which started technically in 1998 with the release of Sega's Dreamcast, although some consider the true start in 2000 with the release of Sony's PlayStation 2. The 6th gen remained popular throughout the decade, but decreased somewhat in popularity after its 7th gen successors released technically starting in November 2005 with the release of Microsoft's Xbox 360, however, most people agree that 2006 is a 6th gen year since most games being released still released on 6th gen including the Xbox even though the 360 was already released, and the PlayStation 3 and the Wii didn't release until late 2006 which most people consider to be the true start of the 7th gen. It reached 7th Generation in the form of consoles like the Wii, the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 by the mid-2000s. The number-one-selling game console of the decade, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000 and remained popular up to the end of the decade, even after the PlayStation 3 was released. The PlayStation 2 was discontinued in January 2013. The Nintendo DS launched in Japan in 2004 and by 2005 was available globally. All Nintendo DS models combined have sold over 154.02 million units, thus making it the best selling handheld of all time and the second best selling video game console of all time behind the PlayStation 2. [405] [406]

Neo Geo is a family of video game hardware developed by SNK. The brand originated in 1990 with the release of an arcade system, the Neo Geo MVS and its home console counterpart, the Neo Geo AES. The Neo Geo brand was officially discontinued in 2004.

MMORPGs, originating in the mid-to-late 1990s, become a popular PC trend and virtual online worlds become a reality as games such as RuneScape (2001), Final Fantasy XI (2002), Eve Online (2003), Tony Hawk's Underground (2003), World of Warcraft (2004), and EverQuest II (2004), The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar (2007) and Warhammer Online: Age of Reckoning (2008) are released. These worlds come complete with their own economies and social organization as directed by the players as a whole. The persistent online worlds allow the games to remain popular for many years. World of Warcraft , premiered in 2004, remains one of the most popular games in PC gaming and is still being developed into the 2010s.

Arcade video games had declined in popularity so much by the late 1990s, that revenues in the United States dropped to $1.33 billion in 1999, [407] and reached a low of $866 million in 2004. [408] Furthermore, by the early 2000s, networked gaming via computers and then consoles across the Internet had also appeared, [409] replacing the venue of head-to-head competition and social atmosphere once provided solely by arcades. [410]

Cross-platform Game engines originating in the very late-1990s, became extremely popular in the 2000s, as they allowed development for indie games for digital distribution. Noteworthy software include GameMaker and Unity. Well-known indie games made in that decade include I Wanna Be the Guy , Spelunky , Braid , Clean Asia! , Castle Crashers , World of Goo , Dino Run , The Impossible Game and Alien Hominid .

In the late 2000s, motion controlled video games grew in popularity, from the PlayStation 2's EyeToy to Nintendo's successful Wii console. During the decade 3D video games become the staple of the video-game industry, with 2D games nearly fading from the market. Partially 3D and fully 2D games were still common in the industry early in the decade, but these have now become rare as developers look almost exclusively for fully 3D games to satisfy the increasing demand for them in the market. An exception to this trend is the indie gaming community, which often produces games featuring 'old-school' or retro gaming elements, such as Minecraft and Shadow Complex. These games, which are not developed by the industry giants, are often available in the form of downloadable content from services such as Microsoft's Xbox Live or Apple's App Store and usually cost much less than more major releases.

Prominent video-games

Game Boy Advance SP is upgraded version of the original Game Boy Advance system and it is the second last Game Boy handheld Gbasp nes collection.jpg
Game Boy Advance SP is upgraded version of the original Game Boy Advance system and it is the second last Game Boy handheld

The Grand Theft Auto series sparked a fad of Mature-rated video games based on including gang warfare, drug use, and perceived "senseless violence" into gameplay. Though violent video games date back to the early 1990s, they became much more common after 2000. Despite the controversy, the 2004 game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas became the best selling PlayStation 2 game of all time, with 17.33 million copies sold for that console alone, from a total of 21.5 million in all formats by 2009; [411] as of 2011, 27.5 million copies of San Andreas were sold worldwide. [412]

The Nintendo DS awakened an interest in casual play that had never really existed before. Nintendo-DS-Fat-Blue.jpg
The Nintendo DS awakened an interest in casual play that had never really existed before.

The Call of Duty series was extremely popular during the 2000s, the diverse shooter franchise released multiple games throughout the 2000s that were positively critically reviewed and commercially successful.

The Sims series developed by Maxis became one of the most popular life simulation games series with over 200 million copies sold worldwide since the series' first game was released in 2000. [414]

Gears of War was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful third-person shooter franchise that released two games during the mid-late 2000s. Gears of War 1 was released in 2006 and was the first installment to the franchise, it was universally critically acclaimed and went on to sell over 5 million copies. The second installment to the franchise Gears of War 2 was released in 2008 and received widespread critical acclaim and also went on to sell over 5 million copies.

Manhunt 2 , a controversial stealth-based psychological horror video game published by Rockstar Games, was suspended by Take-Two Interactive (Rockstar's parent company) when it was refused classification in the United Kingdom, Italy and Ireland, and given an Adults Only (AO) rating in the United States. As neither Sony, Microsoft or Nintendo allow AO titles on their systems, it made Rockstar bring the game down to a Mature (M) game and release in October 2007.

The sixth generation sparked a rise in first person shooter games led by Halo: Combat Evolved , which changed the formula of the first person shooter. Halo 2 started online console gaming and was on top of the Xbox Live charts until its successor, Halo 3 (for Xbox 360), took over. Some other popular first-person shooters during the 2000s include the Medal of Honor series, with Medal of Honor: Frontline 's release in 2002 bringing the first game in the series to 6th generation consoles.

Dance Dance Revolution was released in Japan and later the United States, where it became immensely popular among teenagers. Other dance games like Just Dance was released in 2009 and went on to be the most popular game from Nintendo all over the world. Another music game, Guitar Hero , was released in North America in late 2005 and had a huge cultural impact on both the music and video games industries. It became a worldwide billion-dollar franchise within three years, spawning several sequels and leading to the creation of a competing franchise, Rock Band.

Gaming industry

Worldwide, arcade game revenues gradually increased from $1.8 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2002, rivalling PC game sales of $3.2 billion that same year. [415] In particular, arcade video games are a thriving industry in China, where arcades are widespread across the country. [416] The US market has also experienced a slight resurgence, with the number of video game arcades across the nation increasing from 2,500 in 2003 to 3,500 in 2008, though this is significantly less than the 10,000 arcades in the early 1980s. As of 2009, a successful arcade game usually sells around 4000 to 6000 units worldwide. [417]

Japanese media giant Nintendo released 9 out of the 10 top selling games of the 2000s, further establishing the company's dominance over the market. [418]

Sega Corporation, usually styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game software developer and an arcade software and hardware development company headquartered in Japan, with various offices around the world. Sega previously developed and manufactured its own brand of home video game consoles from 1983 to 2001, but a restructure was announced on January 31, 2001, that ceased continued production of its existing home console (Dreamcast), effectively exiting the company from the home console business. [419] In spite of that, SEGA would go on to produce several videogames such as Super Monkey Ball franchise, the Sega Ages 2500 PlayStation 2 games, [420] Hatsune Miku: Project DIVA , Sonic Adventure 2 , Sonic Heroes , Rez , Shadow the Hedgehog , Virtua Fighter 4 , After Burner Climax , Valkyria Chronicles , Sonic Pinball Party , Bayonetta , Jet Set Radio , Puyo Pop Fever , Thunder Force VI , Shenmue II , Phantasy Star Online , Yakuza 2 , Gunstar Super Heroes , Astro Boy: Omega Factor , OutRun 2006: Coast 2 Coast and Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games . [421]

Game of the Year

from the Game Developers Choice Awards starting in 2001 (awards are given to games of the previous calendar year).

Best selling games of every year

In some years, sources disagree on the best-selling game.

Writing

Sports

Major sporting events

Michael Phelps holds his gold medal on the podium during the 2008 Olympics. Pictured with Ryan Lochte (left) and Laszlo Cseh (right) Michael Phelps Ryan Lochte Laszlo Cseh medals 2008 Olympics.jpg
Michael Phelps holds his gold medal on the podium during the 2008 Olympics. Pictured with Ryan Lochte (left) and László Cseh (right)

The Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics, followed the centennial anniversary of the modern era Olympic Games, held in Atlanta in 1996. The Athens 2004 Summer Olympics, were a strong symbol, for modern Olympic Games were inspired by the competitions organized in Ancient Greece. Finally, the Beijing Games saw the emergence of China as a major sports power, with the highest number of titles for the first time. The 2002 Salt Lake City and the 2006 Turin Winter Olympic Games were also major events, though slightly less popular.

Association football's important events included two World Cups, one organized in South Korea and Japan, which saw Brazil win a record fifth title, and the other in Germany, which saw Italy win its fourth title. The regional competitions, the Copa América and UEFA European Championship, saw five nations rising the cup: Colombia (2001) and Brazil (2004, 2007) won the Copa América, while France (2000), Greece (2004) and Spain (2008) won the European Championship.

In 2001, after the 9/11 attacks, both the National Football League and Major League Baseball canceled their upcoming games for a week. As a result, the World Series would be played in November for the first time and the Super Bowl would be played in February for the first time.

The expansion and rise of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) occurred after the airing of The Ultimate Fighter in 2005.

Rugby increased in size and audience, as the Rugby World Cup became the third most watched sporting event in the world with the 2007 Rugby World Cup organized in France.

Bloodgate is the nickname for a rugby union scandal involving the English team Harlequins in their Heineken Cup match against the Irish side Leinster on April 12, 2009. It was so called because of the use of fake blood capsules, and has been seen by some as one of the biggest scandals in rugby since professionalization in the mid-1990s, indeed even as an argument against the professional ethos. The name is a pun on Watergate.

The New York Yankees won the first Major League Baseball World Series of the decade in 2000, as well as the last World Series of the decade in 2009. The Boston Red Sox won their first World Series since 1918 in 2004 and then again in 2007.

The Pittsburgh Steelers won a record sixth Super Bowl on February 1, 2009, against the Arizona Cardinals. Pittsburgh's Super Bowl win would remain the championship record for an NFL franchise until a decade later when the New England Patriots defeated the Los Angeles Rams to tie the Super Bowl championship record.

Athletes

One of the most prominent events of the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing was the achievement of Michael Phelps the American swimmer, frequently cited as the greatest swimmer and one of the greatest Olympians of all time. [427] [428] [429] He has won 14 career Olympic gold medals, the most by any Olympian. As of August 2, 2009, Phelps has broken thirty-seven world records in swimming. Phelps holds the record for the most gold medals won in a single Olympics, his eight at the 2008 Beijing Games surpassed American swimmer Mark Spitz's seven-gold performance at Munich in 1972.

Lipofsky Kobe.jpg
Lipofsky Shaquille O'Neal.jpg
Kobe Bryant (left) and Shaquille O'Neal both helped the Lakers 3 peat during the early 2000s.

Usain Bolt of Jamaica dominated the male sprinting events at the Beijing Olympics, in which he broke three world records, allowing him to be the first man to ever accomplish this at a single Olympic game. He holds the world record for the 100 metres (despite slowing down before the finish line to celebrate), the 200 metres and, along with his teammates, the 4 × 100 metres relay.

The Los Angeles Lakers won 3 NBA championships in a row from 2000 to 2002, also known as a Three-peat, led by Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O'Neal.

In 2003, Michael Jordan retired from the NBA after 2 season with the Washington Wizards, the official NBA website reading in 2006: "By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time." [430]

Popular extreme sports athletes of the decade included Tony Hawk, Shaun White, Kelly Slater, Travis Pastrana, Matt Hoffman, Shaun Murray, Sarah Burke, and more.

Michelle Kwan performing in the 2002 U.S. Figure Skating Championships Michelle Kwan Spiral.jpg
Michelle Kwan performing in the 2002 U.S. Figure Skating Championships

Towards the middle of the decade, Michelle Kwan became the most decorated figure skater in U.S. history. [431]

Michael Schumacher, the most titled F1 driver, won five F1 World Championships during the decade and finally retired in 2006, yet eventually confirming his come-back to F1 for 2010. Lance Armstrong won all the Tour de France between 1999 and 2005, also an all-time record, but was later stripped of all his titles when evidence emerged of his use of performance-enhancing drugs. Swiss tennis player Roger Federer won 16 Grand Slam titles to become the most titled player.

The decade saw the continued rise of several of the most notable and popular quarterbacks in NFL history, including Peyton Manning, Tom Brady, Brett Favre, Drew Brees, Ben Roethlisberger, Donovan McNabb, Kurt Warner, Eli Manning, Steve McNair, Tony Romo and others.

Timeline of sporting events

In May 2004, Arsenal became the only top-tier team to go through an entire league season (2003/4) unbeaten when they won the English Premier League and became 'The Invincibles'. This feat had also been achieved in the 19th century, when the league was in its infancy and there were far fewer matches in a season, but not in the modern era. Arsenal's unbeaten run extended to 49 matches in total, and into the subsequent season.

In September 2004, Chelsea footballer Adrian Mutu failed a drugs test for cocaine and was released on October 29, 2004. He also received a seven-month ban and a £20,000 fine from The Football Association.

The 2006 Italian football scandal, also known as "Calciopoli", involved Italy's top professional football leagues, Serie A and Serie B. The scandal was uncovered in May 2006 by Italian police, implicating league champions Juventus, and other major teams including A.C. Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio and Reggina when a number of telephone interceptions showed a thick network of relations between team managers and referee organisations. Juventus were the champions of Serie A at the time. The teams have been accused of rigging games by selecting favourable referees.

The 2006 FIFA World Cup Final in Berlin, Zinedine Zidane widely considered by experts and fans as one of the greatest football players of all time, was sent off in the 110th minute of the game, which was to be the last match of his career. After headbutting Marco Materazzi in the chest, Zidane did not participate in the penalty shootout, which Italy won 5–3. It was later discovered through interviews that Materazzi had insulted Zidane's mother and sister that last moment which is what led to Zidane's heightened anger and reaction.

January 11, 2007 – When English footballer David Beckham joined the Major League Soccer's Los Angeles Galaxy, he was given the highest player salary in the league's history; with his playing contract with the Galaxy over the next three years being worth US$6.5 million per year. [432] [433] [434] [435]

October 2007 – US world champion track and field athlete Marion Jones admitted that she took performance-enhancing drugs as far back as the 2000 Summer Olympics, and that she had lied about it to a grand jury investigating performance-enhancer creations.

November 29, 2007 – Portsmouth football manager Harry Redknapp angrily denied any wrongdoing after being arrested by police investigating alleged corruption in football: "If you are telling me this is how you treat anyone, it is not the society I grew up in." [436]

The 2008 Wimbledon final between Roger Federer of Switzerland and Rafael Nadal of Spain, has been lauded as the greatest match ever by many long-time tennis analysts. [437] [438] [439] [440]

British Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton, was disqualified from the 2009 Australian Grand Prix for providing "misleading evidence" during the stewards' hearing. He later privately apologised to FIA race director Charlie Whiting for having lied to the stewards.

In 2009, the World football transfer record was set by Spanish football club Real Madrid when it purchased Manchester United's Cristiano Ronaldo for £80 million (€93 million). Manchester United veteran Sir Bobby Charlton said the world-record offer shocked him:

"It's a lot of money, it's crazy really. If you want to be in the race, you have to pay the price, it seems sometimes a little bit vulgar." [441]

Controversies in sports

A number of concerns and controversies over the 2008 Summer Olympics surfaced before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympics, and which received major media coverage. Leading up to the Olympics, there were concerns about human rights in China, such that many high-profile individuals, such as politicians and celebrities, announced intentions to boycott the games to protest China's role in the Darfur conflict, and Myanmar, its stance towards Tibet, or other aspects of its human rights record. In a 2008 Time article entitled "Why Nobody's Boycotting Beijing", Vivienne Walt wrote: 'Leaders in power are more mindful of China's colossal clout in an increasingly shaky world economy, and therefore of the importance of keeping good relations with its government.' [442]

Ron Atkinson, is an English former football player and manager. In recent years he has become one of Britain's best-known football pundits. Ron Atkinson's media work came to an abrupt halt on April 21, 2004, when he was urged to resign from ITV by Brian Barwick after he broadcast a racial remark live on air about the black Chelsea player Marcel Desailly; believing the microphone to be switched off, he said, "...he [Desailly] is what is known in some schools as a lazy nigger". [443]

Steroids also spread the sports world throughout the decade, mainly used in Major League Baseball. Players involved included Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa and Alex Rodriguez. [444]

The sport of fox hunting is controversial, particularly in the UK, where it was banned in Scotland in 2002, and in England and Wales in November 2004 (law enforced from February 2005), though shooting foxes as vermin remained legal around the world.

See also

Timeline

The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:

2000s

Footnotes

  1. Pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are typically classified in their own category whilst natural disasters include earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, floods, etc.
  1. As of October 30,2009:
    Total EUR currency (coins and banknotes) in circulation 771.5 (banknotes) + 21.032 (coins) =792.53 billion EUR *1.48 (exchange rate) = 1,080 billion USD
    Total USD currency (coins and banknotes) in circulation 859 billion USD
    • "Table 2: Euro banknotes, values (EUR billions, unless otherwise indicated, not seasonally adjusted)" (PDF). ECB. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2009. 2009, October: Total banknotes: 771.5 (billion EUR)
    • "Table 4: Euro coins, values (EUR millions, unless otherwise indicated, not seasonally adjusted)" (PDF). ECB. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2009. 2009, October: Total coins: 21,032 (million EUR)
    • "Money Stock Measures". Federal Reserve Statistical Release. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Archived from the original on December 9, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009. Table 5: Not Seasonally Adjusted Components of M1 (Billions of dollars), not seasonally adjusted, October 2009: Currency: 859.3 (billion USD)
    • "Euro foreign exchange reference rates". ECB. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved December 13, 2009. Exchange rate October 30, 2009: 1 EUR = 1.48 USD
  2. Billboard awards are based on album and digital songs sales, radio airplay, streaming, touring and social engagement. [320]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arab–Israeli conflict</span> Geopolitical conflict in the Middle East and North Africa

The Arab–Israeli conflict is the phenomenon involving political tension, military conflicts, and other disputes between various Arab countries and Israel, which escalated during the 20th century. The roots of the Arab–Israeli conflict have been attributed to the support by Arab League member countries for the Palestinians, a fellow League member, in the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict; this in turn has been attributed to the simultaneous rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century, though the two national movements had not clashed until the 1920s.

The 2000s was the fourth decade of the video game industry. It was a decade that was primarily dominated by Sony, Nintendo, newcomer Microsoft, and their respective systems. Sega, being Nintendo's main rival in the 1980s and 1990s, left the console market in 2002 in favor of returning to third-party development, as they once were. Overall the decade saw the last of the low resolution three-dimensional polygons of the 1990s with the emergence of high definition games, and often focused on developing immersive and interactive environments, implementing realistic physics, and improving artificial intelligence. The sixth and seventh generation of video game consoles went on sale, including the Dreamcast, PlayStation 2, Xbox, GameCube, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Wii, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable. Notable games released in the 2000s included Half-Life 2, Wii Sports, Grand Theft Auto III, BioShock, The Sims, Metroid Prime, Burnout 3: Takedown,Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2, Resident Evil 4, The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker, Shadow of the Colossus,Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, LittleBigPlanet, The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind,World of Warcraft, Final Fantasy X, Perfect Dark, God of War, Left 4 Dead, Batman: Arkham Asylum, Counter-Strike, Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time,Diablo II, Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire, The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion,Super Smash Bros. Melee, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Gears of War, Max Payne, Pokémon Diamond and Pearl,Super Mario Galaxy, Halo: Combat Evolved, Tony Hawk´s Pro Skater 3, Guitar Hero, Devil May Cry, Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy, Ratchet & Clank, Sly Cooper and the Thievius Raccoonus,Hitman: Blood Money, Grand Theft Auto IV, Halo 2, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Fallout 3, Super Mario Sunshine, Rock Band, Beyond Good & Evil,Portal, Ico, Jet Set Radio, Silent Hill 2, Psychonauts, Uncharted 2: Among Thieves,Halo 3, and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare.

al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Coalition of Palestinian militant groups

The al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades is a coalition of Palestinian armed groups in the West Bank. The organization has been designated as a terrorist organization by Israel, the European Union, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States.

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