Fruit

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Various fruits arranged at a stall in the Municipal Market of Sao Paulo Municipal Market of Sao Paulo city.jpg
Various fruits arranged at a stall in the Municipal Market of São Paulo
Fresh fruit mix of blackberries, strawberries, and raspberries Blackberryraspberrystrawberry.jpg
Fresh fruit mix of blackberries, strawberries, and raspberries

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering.

Contents

Fruits are the means by which flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) disseminate their seeds. Edible fruits in particular have long propagated using the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship that is the means for seed dispersal for the one group and nutrition for the other; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. [1] Consequently, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.

In common language usage, fruit normally means the seed-associated fleshy structures (or produce) of plants that typically are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries. In botanical usage, the term fruit also includes many structures that are not commonly called 'fruits' in everyday language, such as nuts, bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, and wheat grains. [2] [3]

Botanical vs. culinary

An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as culinary vegetables, including corn (maize), tomatoes, and various squash FruitArrangement.jpg
An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as culinary vegetables, including corn (maize), tomatoes, and various squash

Many common language terms used for fruit and seeds differ from botanical classifications. For example, in botany, a fruit is a ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, e.g., an apple, pomegranate, tomato or a pumpkin. A nut is a type of fruit (and not a seed), and a seed is a ripened ovule. [4]

In culinary language, a fruit is the sweet- or not sweet- (even sour-) tasting produce of a specific plant (e.g., a peach, pear or lemon); nuts are hard, oily, non-sweet plant produce in shells (hazelnut, acorn). Vegetables , so called, typically are savory or non-sweet produce (zucchini, lettuce, broccoli, and tomato); but some may be sweet-tasting (sweet potato). [5]

Examples of botanically classified fruit that typically are called vegetables include: cucumber, pumpkin, and squash (all are cucurbits); beans, peanuts, and peas (all legumes); corn, eggplant, bell pepper (or sweet pepper), and tomato. The spices chili pepper and allspice are fruits, botanically speaking. [4] In contrast, rhubarb is often called a fruit when used in making pies, but the edible produce of rhubarb is actually the leaf stalk or petiole of the plant. [6] Edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., ginkgo nuts and pine nuts.

Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat is a kind of fruit (termed a caryopsis). However, the fruit wall is thin and fused to the seed coat, so almost all the edible grain-fruit is actually a seed. [7]

Structure

Pomegranate fruit - whole and piece with arils Pomegranate fruit - whole and piece with arils.jpg
Pomegranate fruit – whole and piece with arils

The outer layer, often edible, of most fruits is called the pericarp. Typically formed from the ovary, it surrounds the seeds; in some species, however, other structural tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, i.e., the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.

Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. [8]

Development

A fruit results from the fertilizing and maturing of one or more flowers. The gynoecium, which contains the stigma-style-ovary system, is centered in the flower-head, and it forms all or part of the fruit. [9] Inside the ovary(ies) are one or more ovules. Here begins a complex sequence called double fertilization : a female gametophyte produces an egg cell for the purpose of fertilization. [10] (A female gametophyte is called a megagametophyte , and also called the embryo sac .) After double fertilization, the ovules will become seeds.

Ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma-style-ovary system within the flower-head. After pollination, a pollen tube grows from the (deposited) pollen through the stigma down the style into the ovary to the ovule. Two sperm are transferred from the pollen to a megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, while the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process. [11] [12] Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or it may form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which a fleshy structure develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. [13] The pericarp typically is differentiated into two or three distinct layers; these are called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer).

In some fruits the sepals, petals, stamens and/or the style of the flower fall away as the fleshy fruit ripens. However, for simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary – i.e., one that lies below the attachment of other floral parts – there are parts (including petals, sepals, and stamens) that fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. For such a case, when floral parts other than the ovary form a significant part of the fruit that develops, it is called an accessory fruit. Examples of accessory fruits include apple, rose hip, strawberry and pineapple.

Because several parts of the flower besides the ovary may contribute to the structure of a fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. [3] There are three general modes of fruit development:

Classification of fruits

Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit. DewberriesWeb.jpg
Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit.
Dewberry fruit Rubus caesius fruit - Keila.jpg
Dewberry fruit

Consistent with the three modes of fruit development plant scientists have classified fruits into three main groups: simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and multiple (or composite) fruits. [14] The groupings reflect how the ovary and other flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop, but they are not evolutionarily relevant as diverse plant taxa may be in the same group.

While the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body, [15] fungi are members of the fungi kingdom and not of the plant kingdom.

Simple fruits

A dry simple fruit: milkweed (Asclepias syriaca); dehiscence of the follicular fruit reveals seeds within. Milkweed-in-seed.jpg
A dry simple fruit: milkweed ( Asclepias syriaca ); dehiscence of the follicular fruit reveals seeds within.

Simple fruits are the result of the ripening-to-fruit of a simple or compound ovary in a single flower with a single pistil . In contrast, a single flower with numerous pistils typically produces an aggregate fruit; and the merging of several flowers, or a 'multiple' of flowers, results in a 'multiple' fruit. [16] A simple fruit is further classified as to whether it is dry or fleshy.

To distribute their seeds, dry fruits may split open and discharge their seeds to the winds, which is called dehiscence. [17] Or the distribution process may rely upon the decay and degradation of the fruit to expose the seeds; or it may rely upon the eating of fruit and excreting of seeds by frugivores – both are called indehiscence. Fleshy fruits do not split open, but they also are indehiscent and they may also rely on frugivores for distribution of their seeds. Typically, the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible pericarp.

Types of dry simple fruits, (with examples) include:

Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are termed fleshy simple fruits.

Types of fleshy simple fruits, (with examples) include:

Berries

Fruits of four different banana cultivars (Bananas are berries.) Bananavarieties.jpg
Fruits of four different banana cultivars (Bananas are berries.)
Strawberry, showing achenes attached to surface. Botanically, strawberries are not berries; they are classified as an aggregate accessory fruit. Strawberry surface close up macro.jpg
Strawberry, showing achenes attached to surface. Botanically, strawberries are not berries; they are classified as an aggregate accessory fruit.
Flower of Magnolia x wieseneri showing the many pistils making up the gynoecium in the middle of the flower. The fruit of this flower is an aggregation of follicles. Magnolia wieseneri - labelled gynoecium.jpg
Flower of Magnolia × wieseneri showing the many pistils making up the gynoecium in the middle of the flower. The fruit of this flower is an aggregation of follicles.

Berries are a type of simple fleshy fruit that issue from a single ovary. [19] (The ovary itself may be compound, with several carpels.) The botanical term true berry includes grapes, currants, cucumbers, eggplants (aubergines), tomatoes, chili peppers, and bananas, but excludes certain fruits that are called "-berry" by culinary custom or by common usage of the term – such as strawberries and raspberries. Berries may be formed from one or more carpels (i.e., from the simple or compound ovary) from the same, single flower. Seeds typically are embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary.

Examples include:

  • Tomato – in culinary terms, the tomato is regarded as a vegetable, but it is botanically classified as a fruit and a berry. [20]
  • Banana – the fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". [21] In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence.
  • Pepo – berries with skin that is hardened: cucurbits, including gourds, squash, melons.
  • Hesperidium – berries with a rind and a juicy interior: most citrus fruit.
  • Cranberry, gooseberry, redcurrant, grape.

The strawberry, regardless of its appearance, is classified as a dry, not a fleshy fruit. Botanically, it is not a berry; it is an aggregate-accessory fruit, the latter term meaning the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries. [22] Numerous dry achenes are attached to the outside of the fruit-flesh; they appear to be seeds but each is actually an ovary of a flower, with a seed inside. [22]

Schizocarps are dry fruits, though some appear to be fleshy. They originate from syncarpous ovaries but do not actually dehisce; rather, they split into segments with one or more seeds. They include a number of different forms from a wide range of families, including carrot, parsnip, parsley, cumin. [14]

Aggregate fruits

Detail of the raspberry flower: there is a clustering of pistils at the center of the flower. (A pistil consists of stigma, style, and ovary.) The stigma is the apical (at the apex) nodule that receives pollen; the style is the stem-like column that extends down to the ovary, which is the basal part that contains the seed-forming ovule. Longitudinal section of raspberry flower.gif
Detail of the raspberry flower: there is a clustering of pistils at the center of the flower. (A pistil consists of stigma, style, and ovary.) The stigma is the apical (at the apex) nodule that receives pollen; the style is the stem-like column that extends down to the ovary, which is the basal part that contains the seed-forming ovule.
Lilium unripe capsule fruit; an aggregate fruit. Lilyfruit.jpg
Lilium unripe capsule fruit; an aggregate fruit.

An aggregate fruit is also called an aggregation, or etaerio ; it develops from a single flower that presents numerous simple pistils. [16] Each pistil contains one carpel; together they form a fruitlet. The ultimate (fruiting) development of the aggregation of pistils is called an aggregate fruit, etaerio fruit, or simply an etaerio.

Different types of aggregate fruits can produce different etaerios, such as achenes, drupelets, follicles, and berries.

Some other broadly recognized species and their etaerios (or aggregations) are:

The pistils of the raspberry are called drupelets because each pistil is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits such as blackberry the receptacle, an accessory part, elongates and then develops as part of the fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit. [25] The strawberry is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, of which the seeds are contained in the achenes. [26] Notably in all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower, with numerous pistils.

Multiple fruits

A multiple fruit is formed from a cluster of flowers, (a 'multiple' of flowers) – also called an inflorescence . Each ('smallish') flower produces a single fruitlet, which, as all develop, all merge into one mass of fruit. [27] Examples include pineapple, fig, mulberry, Osage orange, breadfruit. An inflorescence (a cluster) of white flowers, called a head, is produced first. After fertilization, each flower in the cluster develops into a drupe; as the drupes expand, they develop as a connate organ, merging into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarp.

Progressive stages of multiple flowering and fruit development can be observed on a single branch of the Indian mulberry, or noni . During the sequence of development, a progression of second, third, and more inflorescences are initiated in turn at the head of the branch or stem.

Accessory fruit forms

Fruits may incorporate tissues derived from other floral parts besides the ovary, including the receptacle, hypanthium, petals, or sepals. Accessory fruits occur in all three classes of fruit development – simple, aggregate, and multiple. Accessory fruits are frequently designated by the hyphenated term showing both characters. For example, a pineapple is a multiple-accessory fruit. a blackberry is an aggregate-accessory fruit, and an apple is a simple-accessory fruit.

Table of fleshy fruit examples

Types of fleshy fruits
TypeExamples
Simple fleshy fruit True berry, stone fruit, pome
Aggregate fruit Boysenberry, lilium, magnolia, raspberry, pawpaw, blackberry, strawberry
Multiple fruit Fig, osage orange, mulberry, pineapple
True berry Banana, blackcurrant, blueberry, chili pepper, cranberry, eggplant, gooseberry, grape, guava, kiwifruit, lucuma, pomegranate, redcurrant, tomato, watermelon
True berry: Pepo Cucumber, gourd, melon, pumpkin
True berry: Hesperidium Grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange
Accessory fruit Apple, rose hip, stone fruit, pineapple, blackberry, strawberry

Seedless fruits

The fruit of a pineapple includes tissue from the sepals as well as the pistils of many flowers. It is a multiple-accessory fruit. Pineapple and cross section.jpg
The fruit of a pineapple includes tissue from the sepals as well as the pistils of many flowers. It is a multiple-accessory fruit.

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially grapefruit, mandarin oranges, navel oranges), satsumas, table grapes, and of watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy , where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit-set may (or may not) require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit. [28] Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy , which requires normal pollination and fertilization. [29]

Seed dissemination

Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the modes of dispersal applied to their seeds. Dispersal is achieved by wind or water, by explosive dehiscence, and by interactions with animals. [30]

Some fruits present their outer skins or shells coated with spikes or hooked burrs; these evolved either to deter would-be foragers from feeding on them, or to serve to attach themselves to the hair, feathers, legs, or clothing of animals, thereby using them as dispersal agents. These plants are termed zoochorous; common examples include cocklebur, unicorn plant, and beggarticks (or Spanish needle). [31] [32]

By developments of mutual evolution the fleshy produce of fruits typically appeals to hungry animals, such that the seeds contained within are taken in, carried away and later deposited (i.e., defecated) at a distance from the parent plant. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts typically motivate birds and squirrels to hoard them, burying them in soil to retrieve later during the winter of scarcity; thereby, uneaten seeds are sown effectively under natural conditions to germinate and grow a new plant some distance away from the parent. [4]

Other fruits have evolved flattened and elongated wings or helicopter-like blades, e.g., elm, maple, and tuliptree. This mechanism increases dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny "parachutes", e.g., dandelion, milkweed, salsify. [30]

Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean, thereby spreading their seeds. Other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine. [30]

Some fruits have evolved propulsive mechanisms that fling seeds substantial distances –(perhaps up to 100 m (330 ft) in the case of the sandbox tree) – via explosive dehiscence or other such mechanisms (see impatiens and squirting cucumber). [33]

Food uses

Picking blackberries in Oklahoma Picking blackberries in Oklahoma.jpg
Picking blackberries in Oklahoma

A cornucopia of fruits – fleshy (simple) fruits from apples to berries to watermelon; dry (simple) fruits including beans and rice and coconuts; aggregate fruits including strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, pawpaw; multiple fruits such as pineapple, fig, mulberries – are commercially valuable as human food. They are eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other fruit preserves. They are used extensively in manufactured and processed foods (cakes, cookies, baked goods, flavorings, ice cream, yogurt, canned vegetables, frozen vegetables and meals) and beverages such as fruit juices and alcoholic beverages (brandy, fruit beer, wine). [34] Spices like vanilla, black pepper, paprika, and allspice are derived from berries. Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil and similar processing is applied to other oil bearing fruits/vegetables. [35]

Fruits are also used for socializing and gift-giving in the form of fruit baskets and fruit bouquets. [36] [37]

Typically, many botanical fruits – "vegetables" in culinary parlance – (including tomato, green beans, leaf greens, bell pepper, cucumber, eggplant, okra, pumpkin, squash, zucchini) are bought and sold daily in fresh produce markets and greengroceries and carried back to kitchens, at home or restaurant, for preparation of meals. [38]

Storage

All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care, and in many fruits, the plant hormone ethylene causes ripening. Therefore, maintaining most fruits in an efficient cold chain is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life. [39]

Nutritional value

Comparing fresh fruits for fiber, potassium (K), and vitamin C.
Each disk-point refers to a 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of the fresh fruit named. The size of the disk represents the amount of fiber (as percentage of the recommended daily allowance, RDA) in a serving of fruit (see key at upper right). The amount of vitamin C (as percent RDA) is plotted on the x-axis and the amount of potassium (K), in mg on the y-axis. Bananas are high in value for fiber and potassium, and oranges for fiber and vitamin C. (Apricots are highest in potassium; strawberries are rich in vitamin C.) Watermelon, providing low levels of both K and vitamin C and almost no fiber, is of least value for the three nutrients together. Fruit Nutrition.png
Comparing fresh fruits for fiber, potassium (K), and vitamin C. Each disk-point refers to a 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of the fresh fruit named. The size of the disk represents the amount of fiber (as percentage of the recommended daily allowance, RDA) in a serving of fruit (see key at upper right). The amount of vitamin C (as percent RDA) is plotted on the x–axis and the amount of potassium (K), in mg on the y–axis. Bananas are high in value for fiber and potassium, and oranges for fiber and vitamin C. (Apricots are highest in potassium; strawberries are rich in vitamin C.) Watermelon, providing low levels of both K and vitamin C and almost no fiber, is of least value for the three nutrients together.

Various culinary fruits provide significant amounts of fiber and water, and many are generally high in vitamin C. [40] An overview of numerous studies showed that fruits (e.g., whole apples or whole oranges) are satisfying (filling) by simply eating and chewing them. [41]

The dietary fiber consumed in eating fruit promotes satiety, and may help to control body weight and aid reduction of blood cholesterol, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. [42] Fruit consumption is under preliminary research for the potential to improve nutrition and affect chronic diseases. [43] [44] Regular consumption of fruit is generally associated with reduced risks of several diseases and functional declines associated with aging. [45] [46] [47]

Food safety

For food safety, the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected; at the store, they should not be damaged or bruised; and precut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice.

All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage.

Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as from utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. Fruits and vegetables that are not going to be cooked should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.

All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness. [48]

Allergies

Fruit allergies make up about 10 percent of all food related allergies. [49] [50]

Nonfood uses

Porcelain vine is usually planted for its showy, colourful berries. PorcelainBerry.JPG
Porcelain vine is usually planted for its showy, colourful berries.

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, various cultures have developed many different uses for fruits they do not depend on for food. For example:

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berry</span> In the culinary sense, small edible fruit

A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit. Typically, berries are juicy, rounded, brightly colored, sweet, sour or tart, and do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present. Common examples are strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currants, white currants and blackcurrants. In Britain, soft fruit is a horticultural term for such fruits.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Drupe</span> Fleshy fruit with hard inner layer (endocarp or stone) surrounding the seed

In botany, a drupe is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a single shell of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside. These fruits usually develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Accessory fruit</span> Botanical category of fruit

An accessory fruit is a fruit in which some of the flesh is derived not from the floral ovary but from some adjacent tissue exterior to the carpel. Accessory fruits are usually indehiscent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nut (fruit)</span> In botany, type of dry indehiscent fruit

A nut is a fruit consisting of a hard or tough nutshell protecting a kernel which is usually edible. In general usage and in a culinary sense, a wide variety of dry seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Achene</span> Class of simple non-opening dry fruits

An achene, also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp, is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarpellate and indehiscent. Achenes contain a single seed that nearly fills the pericarp, but does not adhere to it. In many species, what is called the "seed" is an achene, a fruit containing the seed. The seed-like appearance is owed to the hardening of the fruit wall (pericarp), which encloses the solitary seed so closely as to seem like a seed coat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pome</span> Fruit with apple-like features

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aril</span> Membranous or fleshy appendage that partly or wholly covers a seed

An aril, also called an arillus, is a specialized outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed. An arillode or false aril is sometimes distinguished: whereas an aril grows from the attachment point of the seed to the ovary, an arillode forms from a different point on the seed coat. The term "aril" is sometimes applied to any fleshy appendage of the seed in flowering plants, such as the mace of the nutmeg seed. Arils and arillodes are often edible enticements that encourage animals to transport the seed, thereby assisting in seed dispersal. Pseudarils are aril-like structures commonly found on the pyrenes of Burseraceae species that develop from the mesocarp of the ovary. The fleshy, edible pericarp splits neatly in two halves, then falling away or being eaten to reveal a brightly coloured pseudaril around the black seed.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aggregate fruit</span>

An aggregate fruit or etaerio is a fruit that develops from the merger of several ovaries that were separated in a single flower. In contrast, a simple fruit develops from one ovary, and a multiple fruit develops from multiple flowers. In languages other than English, the meanings of "aggregate" and "multiple" fruit are reversed, so that "aggregate" fruits merge several flowers. The differences in meaning are due to a reversal in the terminology by John Lindley, which has been followed by most English-language authors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Multiple fruit</span> Fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers (infloresence)

Multi-fruits, also called collective fruits, are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of flowers, the inflorescence. Each flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass. After flowering the mass is called an infructescence. Examples are the fig, pineapple, mulberry, osage-orange, and jackfruit.

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Potentilla indica known commonly as mock strawberry, Indian-strawberry, or false strawberry, often referred to as a backyard strawberry, mainly in North America, is a flowering plant in the family Rosaceae. It has foliage and an aggregate accessory fruit similar to that of a true strawberry. It has yellow flowers, unlike the white or slightly pink flowers of true strawberries. It is native to eastern and southern Asia, but has been introduced to many other areas as a medicinal and an ornamental plant, subsequently naturalizing in many regions worldwide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ovary (botany)</span> Flowering plant reproductive part

In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. The pistil may be made up of one carpel or of several fused carpels, and therefore the ovary can contain part of one carpel or parts of several fused carpels. Above the ovary is the style and the stigma, which is where the pollen lands and germinates to grow down through the style to the ovary, and, for each individual pollen grain, to fertilize one individual ovule. Some wind pollinated flowers have much reduced and modified ovaries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berry (botany)</span> Botanical fruit with fleshy pericarp, containing one or many seeds

In botany, a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone (pit) produced from a single flower containing one ovary. Berries so defined include grapes, currants, and tomatoes, as well as cucumbers, eggplants (aubergines) and bananas, but exclude certain fruits that meet the culinary definition of berries, such as strawberries and raspberries. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible "pericarp". Berries may be formed from one or more carpels from the same flower. The seeds are usually embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy exceptions, such as peppers, with air rather than pulp around their seeds.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fruit anatomy</span> Internal makeup of fruits

Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit. Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers. They are found in three main anatomical categories: aggregate fruits, multiple fruits, and simple fruits. Aggregate fruits are formed from a single compound flower and contain many ovaries or fruitlets. Examples include raspberries and blackberries. Multiple fruits are formed from the fused ovaries of multiple flowers or inflorescence. Examples include fig, mulberry, and pineapple.

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Watermelon is a flowering plant species of the Cucurbitaceae family and the name of its edible fruit. A scrambling and trailing vine-like plant, it is a highly cultivated fruit worldwide, with more than 1,000 varieties.

<i>Theligonum cynocrambe</i> Species of plant

Theligonum cynocrambe is a low to short prostrate or occasionally erect, usually hairless annual herb, leaves entire, ovate, untoothed. somewhat succulent, the lower are opposite and the upper alternate by the suppression of one leaf of each pair, there are peculiar united membranous stipules. Large club-shaped glands are present at the apex of the leaves, flowers insignificant with membranous perianth, 2–3 mm, green, unisexual with both sexes on the same plant, in one to three-flowered clusters. The male flowers have a valvate to globose perianth, splitting into two to five lobes when the flower opens. There are 7 up to 12 but sometimes as few as 2 and as many as 30 stamens with filiform filaments and anthers that are erect in the bud, but pendulous later, the female flowers have a tubular shortly toothed perianth and ovary of a single carpel containing a single basal ovule. The style is simple and arises from the base of the ovary. The ovary enlarges irregularly on one side and the style becomes lateral at fruiting time. The fruit is a subglobose nut-like drupe 2mm, containing one seed with a fleshy endosperm. It exhibits myrmecochory which is dispersal of seeds by the agency of ants. Ants feed on the oil body or elaiosome of various seeds and frequently carry the seed some distance from the parent plant. The oil body of the seed is formed of a portion of the pericarp which remains attached to the base of the seed. The ants eat the oil body and then leave the seed undamaged. Young shoots of T. Cynocrambe are sometimes eaten as a vegetable. Grows in rocky habitats, sandy ground, old walls, often in damp and shaded places. Flowers Feb-June.

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Further reading