Legume

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A selection of legumes Various legumes.jpg
A selection of legumes

A legume ( /ˈlɛɡjm, ləˈɡjm/ ) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the seed of such a plant (also called pulse). Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, chickpeas, lentils, lupin bean, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts and tamarind.

Plant multicellular eukaryote of the kingdom Plantae

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.

Fabaceae family of plants

The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family, are a large and economically important family of flowering plants. It includes trees, shrubs, and perennial or annual herbaceous plants, which are easily recognized by their fruit (legume) and their compound, stipulated leaves. Many legumes have characteristic flowers and fruits. The family is widely distributed, and is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and about 19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are Astragalus, Acacia, Indigofera, Crotalaria and Mimosa, which constitute about a quarter of all legume species. The ca. 19,000 known legume species amount to about 7% of flowering plant species. Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa.

Seed embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering

A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering . The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.

Contents

A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla (a capsule) and of the radish (a silique).

Dehiscence (botany) splitting at maturity along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia

Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia. Sometimes this involves the complete detachment of a part. Structures that open in this way are said to be dehiscent. Structures that do not open in this way are called indehiscent, and rely on other mechanisms such as decay or predation to release the contents.

Vanilla A flavoring extracted from orchids of the genus Vanilla

Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.

Radish An edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family

The radish is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.

Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia (NH3) or related nitrogenous compounds. Atmospheric nitrogen, is molecular dinitrogen (N2), a relatively nonreactive molecule that is metabolically useless to all but a few microorganisms. Biological nitrogen fixation converts N2 into ammonia, which is metabolized by most organisms.

Root nodule root nodule

Root nodules are found on the roots of plants, primarily legumes, that form a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, capable plants form a symbiotic relationship with a host-specific strain of bacteria known as rhizobia. This process has evolved multiple times within the legumes, as well as in other species found within the Rosid clade. Legume crops include beans, peas, and soybeans.

Crop rotation practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield.

Terminology

The term "pulse", as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry seed. [1] This excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Also excluded are seeds that are mainly grown for oil extraction (oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts), and seeds which are used exclusively for sowing forage (clovers, alfalfa). However, in common usage, these distinctions are not always clearly made, and many of the varieties used for dried pulses are also used for green vegetables, with their beans in pods while young.

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

Food and Agriculture Organization International organisation with the objective of ending hunger

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy.

Green bean vegetable

Green beans are the unripe, young fruit and protective pods of various cultivars of the common bean. Immature or young pods of the runner bean, yardlong bean, and hyacinth bean are used in a similar way. Green beans are known by many common names, including French beans, string beans, snap beans, snaps, and the French name French: haricots vert.

Some Fabaceae, such as Scotch broom and other Genisteae, are leguminous but are usually not called legumes by farmers, who tend to restrict that term to food crops.

<i>Cytisus scoparius</i> species of plant

Cytisus scoparius, the common broom or Scotch broom, syn. Sarothamnus scoparius, is a perennial leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. In Britain and Ireland, the standard name is broom, but this name is also used for other members of the Genisteae tribe, such as French broom or Spanish broom, and the term common broom is sometimes used for clarification. In other English-speaking countries, the most prevalent common name is Scotch broom ; It is known as English broom in Australia.

Genisteae tribe of plants, the brooms

Genisteae is a tribe of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in the subfamily Faboideae of the legume family Fabaceae. It includes a number of well-known plants including broom, lupine (lupin), gorse and laburnum.

Uses

Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, grain, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, and timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles simultaneously, depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested.

Forage is a plant material eaten by grazing livestock. Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage. The term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.

Cereal grass of which the fruits are used as grain, or the fruits themselves

A cereal is any of the edible components of the grain of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat (Polygonaceae), quinoa (Amaranthaceae) and chia (Lamiaceae), are referred to as pseudocereals.

Human consumption

Freshly dug peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), indehiscent legume fruits Peanut 9417.jpg
Freshly dug peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), indehiscent legume fruits

Grain legumes are cultivated for their seeds. The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lentils, lupins, peas, and peanuts. [2]

Nutritional value

Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber, carbohydrates and dietary minerals; for example, a 100 gram serving of cooked chickpeas contains 18 percent of the Daily Value (DV) for protein, 30 percent DV for dietary fiber, 43 percent DV for folate and 52 percent DV for manganese. [3] Like other plant-based foods, pulses contain no cholesterol and little fat or sodium. [3]

Legumes are also an excellent source of resistant starch which is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids (such as butyrate) used by intestinal cells for food energy. [4]

Preliminary studies in humans include the potential for regular consumption of legumes in a plant-based diet to reduce the prevalence or risk of developing metabolic syndrome. [5] There is evidence that a portion of pulses (roughly one cup daily) in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the supporting data. [6] [7]

Commodity classification

Depending on the variety, Phaseolus vulgaris (a pulse) may be called "common bean", "kidney bean", "haricot bean", "pinto bean", "navy bean", among other names. Phaseolus vulgaris seed.jpg
Depending on the variety, Phaseolus vulgaris (a pulse) may be called "common bean", "kidney bean", "haricot bean", "pinto bean", "navy bean", among other names.

FAO recognizes 11 primary pulses. [8]

  1. Dry beans (FAOSTAT code 0176, Phaseolus spp. including several species now in Vigna)
  2. Dry broad beans (code 0181, Vicia faba)
    • Horse bean (Vicia faba equina)
    • Broad bean (Vicia faba)
    • Field bean (Vicia faba)
  3. Dry peas (code 0187, Pisum spp.)
    • Garden pea (Pisum sativum var. sativum)
    • Protein pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense)
  4. Chickpea, garbanzo, Bengal gram (code 0191, Cicer arietinum)
  5. Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean (code 0195, Vigna unguiculata )
  6. Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules (code 0197Cajanus cajan)
  7. Lentil (code 0201, Lens culinaris)
  8. Bambara groundnut, earth pea (code 0203, Vigna subterranea)
  9. Vetch, common vetch (code 0205, Vicia sativa)
  10. Lupins (code 0210, Lupinus spp.)
  11. Pulses NES (code 0211), Minor pulses, including:

Forage

White clover, a forage crop TrifoliumRepensFlowers.jpg
White clover, a forage crop

Forage legumes are of two broad types. Some, like alfalfa, clover, vetch ( Vicia ), stylo ( Stylosanthes ), or Arachis , are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or regularly cut by humans to provide livestock feed.

Other uses

Lupin flower garden Flower garden in Ushuaia (5542996965).jpg
Lupin flower garden

Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena, Cyamopsis , and Sesbania species. Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe .

Legume trees like the locust trees ( Gleditsia , Robinia ) or the Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume trees like laburnum and the woody climbing vine wisteria are poisonous.

Nitrogen fixation

Root nodules on a Wisteria plant (a hazelnut pictured for comparison) Soil fertility - nitrogen fixation by root nodules on Wistaria roots, with hazelnut to show size.JPG
Root nodules on a Wisteria plant (a hazelnut pictured for comparison)

Many legumes contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their root systems. (Plants belonging to the genus Styphnolobium are one exception to this rule.) These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3). [9] The chemical reaction is:

N2 + 8H+ + 8e → 2NH3 + H2

Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium (NH+
4
), usable by (some) plants by the following reaction:

NH3 + H+ → NH+
4

This arrangement means that the root nodules are sources of nitrogen for legumes, making them relatively rich in plant proteins. All proteins contain nitrogenous amino acids. Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant protein.

When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO
3
), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops. [10] [11]

In many traditional and organic farming practices, crop rotation involving legumes is common. By alternating between legumes and nonlegumes, sometimes planting nonlegumes two times in a row and then a legume, the field usually receives a sufficient amount of nitrogenous compounds to produce a good result, even when the crop is nonleguminous. Legumes are sometimes referred to as "green manure".

History

Archaeologists have discovered traces of pulse production around Ravi River (Punjab), the seat of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to c. 3300 BCE. Meanwhile, evidence of lentil cultivation has also been found in Egyptian pyramids and cuneiform recipes. [12] Dry pea seeds have been discovered in a Swiss village that are believed to date back to the Stone Age. Archaeological evidence suggests that these peas must have been grown in the eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamian regions at least 5,000 years ago and in Britain as early as the 11th century. [13]

Distribution and economy

Top producers of Pulses NES (code 0211, Minor pulses [14] ) 2016
CountryProduction (thousands of tonnes)
Flag of India.svg  India
921.4
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
258.5
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique
211.5
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
208.5
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
139.4
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania
137.7
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
132.8
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
128.1
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
120.2
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia
115.8
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [15] [8]

Legumes are widely distributed as the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and some 19,000 known species, [16] [17] constituting about seven percent of flowering plant species. [18] [19]

India is the world's largest producer as well as consumer of pulses. In order to meet its large domestic demand for pulses, India has to import the produce from other countries despite its large production.

International Year of Pulses

The International Year of Pulses 2016 (IYP 2016) was declared by the Sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly. [20] The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations was nominated to facilitate the implementation of IYP 2016 in collaboration with governments, relevant organizations, non-governmental organizations and other relevant stakeholders. Its aim was to heighten public awareness of the nutritional benefits of pulses as part of sustainable food production aimed towards food security and nutrition. IYP 2016 created an opportunity to encourage connections throughout the food chain that would better use pulse-based proteins, further global production of pulses, better use crop rotations and address challenges in the global trade of pulses. [20] [21]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bean common name for plant seeds of the Fabaceae

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

Chickpea species of plant

The chickpea or chick pea is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. Its different types are variously known as gram or Bengal gram, garbanzo or garbanzo bean, and Egyptian pea. Chickpea seeds are high in protein. It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and 7500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East.

<i>Vicia sativa</i> species of plant

Vicia sativa, known as the common vetch, garden vetch, tare or simply vetch, is a nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant in the family Fabaceae. Although considered a weed when found growing in a cultivated grainfield, this hardy plant is often grown as green manure or livestock fodder.

<i>Vicia faba</i> Species of plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae

Vicia faba, also known in the culinary sense as the broad bean, fava bean, or faba bean is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae. It is of uncertain origin and widely cultivated as a crop for human consumption. It is also used as a cover crop, the bell bean, which has smaller beans. Varieties with smaller, harder seeds that are fed to horses or other animals are called field bean, tic bean or tick bean. Horse bean, Vicia faba var. equinaPers., is a variety recognized as an accepted name.

Black-eyed pea

The black-eyed pea, black-eyed bean or goat pea, a legume, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean.

<i>Vigna</i> genus of plants

Vigna is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, with a pantropical distribution. It includes some well-known cultivated species, including many types of beans. Some are former members of the genus Phaseolus. According to Hortus Third, Vigna differs from Phaseolus in biochemistry and pollen structure, and in details of the style and stipules.

<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> species of plant

Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean, green bean and French bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit. The main categories of common beans, on the basis of use, are dry beans, snap beans and shell (shelled) beans. Its leaf is also occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder. Its botanical classification, along with other Phaseolus species, is as a member of the legume family Fabaceae, most of whose members acquire the nitrogen they require through an association with rhizobia, a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

<i>Vicia</i> genus of plants

Vicia is a genus of about 140 species of flowering plants that are part of the legume family (Fabaceae), and which are commonly known as vetches. Member species are native to Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Africa. Some other genera of their subfamily Faboideae also have names containing "vetch", for example the vetchlings (Lathyrus) or the milk-vetches (Astragalus). The broad bean is sometimes separated in a monotypic genus Faba; although not often used today, it is of historical importance in plant taxonomy as the namesake of the order Fabales, the Fabaceae and the Faboideae. The tribe Vicieae in which the vetches are placed is named after the genus' current name. Among the closest living relatives of vetches are the lentils (Lens) and the true peas (Pisum).

<i>Vigna umbellata</i> species of plant

Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi, previously Phaseolus calcaratus, is a warm-season annual vine legume with yellow flowers and small edible beans. It is commonly called ricebean or rice bean. To date, it is little known, little researched and little exploited. It is regarded as a minor food and fodder crop and is often grown as intercrop or mixed crop with maize, sorghum or cowpea, as well as a sole crop in the uplands, on a very limited area. Like the other Asiatic Vigna species, ricebean is a fairly short-lived warm-season annual. Grown mainly as a dried pulse, it is also important as a fodder, a green manure and a vegetable. Ricebean is most widely grown as an intercrop, particularly of maize, throughout Indo-China and extending into southern China, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. In the past it was widely grown as lowland crop on residual soil water after the harvest of long-season rice, but it has been displaced to a great extent where shorter duration rice varieties are grown. Ricebean grows well on a range of soils. It establishes rapidly and has the potential to produce large amounts of nutritious animal fodder and high quality grain.

<i>Vigna aconitifolia</i> species of plant

Vigna aconitifolia is a drought-resistant legume, commonly grown in arid and semi-arid regions of India. It is commonly called mat bean, moth bean, matki, Turkish gram or dew bean. The pods, sprouts and protein rich seeds of this crop are commonly consumed in India. Moth bean can be grown on many soil types, and can also act as a pasture legume.

Bean yellow mosaic virus species of virus

Bean yellow mosaic virus is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other members of the Potyvirus genus, it is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made for a single viral encoded protein. The virus is a filamentous particle that measures about 750 nm in length. This virus is transmitted by species of aphids and by mechanical inoculation.

<i>Etiella zinckenella</i> species of insect

Etiella zinckenella, the pulse pod borer moth, is a moth of the family Pyralidae. It is found in southern and eastern Europe and in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Asia. They have also been introduced to North America and Australia. It is usually a minor pest for many legumes, but can be a serious pest.

Crop wild relative wild plant closely related to a domesticated plant, whose geographic origins can be traced to regions known as Vavilov Centers

A crop wild relative (CWR) is a wild plant closely related to a domesticated plant, whose geographic origins can be traced to regions known as Vavilov Centers. It may be a wild ancestor of the domesticated plant, or another closely related taxon.

Grain small, hard, dry seed used as food; may be ground into flour

A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes.

The Legume Information System (LIS), is legume sciences portal specifically for legume breeders and researchers, established and supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. The mission of the Legume Information System is "to facilitate discoveries and crop improvement in the legumes," in particular to improve crop yields, their nutritional value, and our understanding of basic legume science.

There are many systems of classification of crops for example commercial, taxonomical and agricultural among the agriculture classification of corrupt crops is most widely accepted because it is commonly it covers the taxonomical and commercial and other aspects.

<i>Callosobruchus</i> genus of insects

Callosobruchus is a genus of beetles in the family Chrysomelidae, the leaf beetles. It is in the subfamily Bruchinae, the bean weevils. Many beetles in the genus are well known as economically important pests that infest stored foodstuffs.

Dal Nepali and Indian food

Dal is a term used in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses (legumes). The term is also used for various soups prepared from these pulses. These pulses are among the most important staple foods in South Asian countries, and form an important part of the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent.

International Year of Pulses

2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the sixty eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 2013. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been nominated to declare a year for pulses.

An International Year designation provides an unprecedented opportunity to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of beans, chickpeas, lentils and other pulses in feeding the world. Even more importantly, it will be a galvanizing moment to draw together key actors to further the contributions pulses make to health, nutrition, and sustainability.

References

  1. "What is a Pulse?". Pulse Canada. Pulse Canada. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  2. The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya, and beah), B.S. Kurlovich and S.I. Repyev (eds.), St. Petersburg: N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry, 1995, 438p. – (Theoretical basis of plant breeding. V.111)
  3. 1 2 "Nutrition facts for Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt, 100 g, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21". Conde Nast. 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  4. Birt, D. F.; et al. (2013). "Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health". Advances in Nutrition. 4 (6): 587–601. doi:10.3945/an.113.004325. PMC   3823506 . PMID   24228189.
  5. Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle (2015). "A perspective on vegetarian dietary patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome". British Journal of Nutrition. 113 (Suppl 2): S136–43. doi:10.1017/S0007114514004139. PMID   26148917.
  6. Jayalath VH, de Souza RJ, Sievenpiper JL, et al. (January 2014). "Effect of dietary pulses on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials". American Journal of Hypertension. 27 (1): 56–64. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpt155. PMID   24014659.
  7. Ha, Vanessa (May 13, 2014). "Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 186 (8): 586. doi:10.1503/cmaj.131727. PMC   4016088 . PMID   24710915.
  8. 1 2 FAO Pulses and Derived Products
  9. Deacon, Jim. "The Nitrogen cycle and Nitrogen fixation". Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  10. Postgate, John (1998). Nitrogen Fixation (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-64853-0.
  11. Smil, Vaclav (2000). Cycles of Life. Scientific American Library.
  12. Albala, Ken (2007). "Lentils: Fertile Crescent". Beans: A History. New York: Berg Publishers. p. 18. ISBN   978-0-8578-5078-2. The earliest culinary texts to have survived are in the form of three cuneiform tablets dated to about 1600 BCE. [...] [T]ucked away among a series of porridges there is one recipe for husked lentils [...]. [I]n any case it is the very oldest explicit legume recipe on earth. [...] The Egyptians also used lentils as funerary offerings and in meals to feed the dead in the underworld. Large stores were found beneath Zoser's pyramid [...].
  13. Mat Chaudhry Green Gold: Value-added pulses Quantum Media ISBN   1-61364-696-8
  14. see legume#Commodity Classification
  15. "Countries by commodity - Pulses (2016)". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  16. Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  17. Stevens, P. F. "Fabaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7 May 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
  18. Judd, W. S., Campbell, C. S. Kellogg, E. A. Stevens, P.F. Donoghue, M. J. (2002), Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach, Sinauer Axxoc, 287-292. ISBN   0-87893-403-0.
  19. Magallón, S. A., and Sanderson, M. J.; Sanderson (2001). "Absolute diversification rates in angiosperm clades" (PDF). Evolution. 55 (9): 1762–1780. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2001.tb00826.x. PMID   11681732. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-19.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. 1 2 United Nations, David. "The International Year of Pulses". United Nations. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  21. "International Year of Pulses 2016 - IYP2016" . Retrieved 14 December 2015.

Further reading