Coconut milk

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Coconut milk
Cononut milk.JPG
Region or stateTraditional: Southeast Asia, Oceania, South Asia, East Africa
Introduced: Caribbean, tropical Latin America, West Africa
Main ingredients Coconut

Coconut milk is an opaque, milky-white liquid extracted from the grated pulp of mature coconuts. [1] The opacity and rich taste of coconut milk are due to its high oil content, most of which is saturated fat. Coconut milk is a traditional food ingredient used in Southeast Asia, Oceania, South Asia, and East Africa. It is also used for cooking in the Caribbean, tropical Latin America, and West Africa, where coconuts were introduced during the colonial era.

Contents

Coconut milk is differentiated into subtypes based on fat content. They can be generalized into coconut cream (or thick coconut milk) with the highest amount of fat; coconut milk (or thin coconut milk) with a maximum of around 20% fat; and coconut skim milk with negligible amounts of fat. [2] [3] This terminology is not always followed in commercial coconut milk sold in western countries. [4]

Coconut milk can also be used to produce milk substitutes (differentiated as "coconut milk beverages"). These products are not the same as regular coconut milk products which are meant for cooking, not drinking. [5] A sweetened, processed, coconut milk product from Puerto Rico is also known as cream of coconut. It is used in many desserts and beverages like the piña colada, though it should not be confused with coconut cream. [4] [6]

Nutrition

Coconut milk, raw (liquid expressed from grated pulp and water)
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 962 kJ (230 kcal)
5.5 g
Sugars 3.3 g
Dietary fibre 2.2 g
Fat
23.8 g
Saturated 21.1 g
Monounsaturated 1.0 g
Polyunsaturated 0.26 g
2.3 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.03 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0%
0 mg
Niacin (B3)
5%
0.76 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
4%
0.18 mg
Vitamin B6
2%
0.03 mg
Folate (B9)
4%
16 μg
Vitamin C
3%
2.8 mg
Vitamin E
1%
0.15 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0.1 μg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
2%
16 mg
Iron
12%
1.6 mg
Magnesium
10%
37 mg
Manganese
44%
0.92 mg
Phosphorus
14%
100 mg
Potassium
6%
263 mg
Sodium
1%
15 mg
Zinc
7%
0.67 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water67.6 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

In a 100 milliliter (ml) portion, coconut milk contains 230 kilocalories and is 68% water, 24% total fat, 6% carbohydrates, and 2% protein (see table). The fat composition includes 21 grams of saturated fat, half of which is lauric acid. [7]

Coconut milk is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of manganese (44% DV) and an adequate source (10–19% DV) of phosphorus, iron, and magnesium, with no other nutrients in significant content (see table).

Definition and terminology

Coconut milk is a relatively stable oil-in-water emulsion with proteins that act as emulsifiers and thickening agents. It is opaque and milky white in color and ranges in consistency from watery to creamy. [3] Based on fat content, coconut milk is divided into different subtypes generally simplified into "coconut cream", "coconut milk", and "coconut skim milk", from highest to lowest respectively. Coconut milk and coconut cream (also called "thin coconut milk" and "thick coconut milk", respectively) are traditionally differentiated in countries where coconuts are native based on the stages of extraction. They are also differentiated in modern standards set by the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). [2] [3] However, the terminologies are not always followed in commercial coconut milk (especially in western countries) because these standards are not mandatory. This can cause confusion among consumers. [4]

The Asian and Pacific Coconut Community standardizes coconut milk and coconut cream products as: [2]

Range of fat by weight in coconut cream and milk (APCC Standards)
ProductFat content
(%m/m)
Concentrated coconut cream40–50
High fat coconut cream30–39
Medium fat coconut cream25–29
Low fat coconut cream20–25
High fat coconut milk15–20
Medium fat coconut milk10–15
Low fat coconut milk5–10
Coconut skim milk0–1.5

The Codex Alimentarius of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standardizes coconut milk and coconut cream products as: [3]

Classification of coconut milk and cream
(CODEX STAN 240-2003, Codex Alimentarius, FAO)
ProductTotal solids
(%m/m)
Min.-Max.
Non-fat solids
(%m/m)
Min.
Fat
(%m/m)
Min.
Moisture
(%m/m)
Max.
pH
Light coconut milk6.6 - 12.61.6593.45.9
Coconut milk12.7 - 25.32.71087.35.9
Coconut cream25.4 - 37.35.42074.65.9
Coconut cream concentrate37.4 min.8.42962.65.9

Coconut milk can also sometimes be confused with coconut water. Coconut water is the clear fluid found within the coconut seed, while coconut milk is the extracted liquid derived from the manual or mechanical crushing of white inner flesh of mature coconuts. [8] [4] [9] Coconut cream should also not be confused with creamed coconut, which is a semi-solid paste made from finely ground coconut pulp; and cream of coconut, which is a processed product made from heavily sweetened coconut cream.

Traditional preparation

Coconut being grated Raper la pulpe du coco (Tieti, Nord, New Caledonia).jpg
Coconut being grated

Coconut milk is traditionally made by grating the white inner flesh of mature coconuts and mixing the shredded coconut pulp with a small amount of hot water in order to suspend the fat present in the grated pulp. [1] The grating process can be carried out manually or by machine. [1] [7] [10]

Grated coconut being pressed through cheesecloth The making of coconut milk 137 MKT - Instagram Images - 1080px x 1080px6.jpg
Grated coconut being pressed through cheesecloth
Thick coconut cream derived from the first pressings of the grated coconut Coco3wjf.JPG
Thick coconut cream derived from the first pressings of the grated coconut

Coconut milk is also traditionally divided into two grades: coconut cream (or thick coconut milk) and thin coconut milk. Coconut cream contains around 20% to 50% fat; while thin coconut milk contains 5% to 20% fat. [2] [10] Coconut cream is extracted from the first pressings of grated coconut pulp directly through cheesecloth. Sometimes a small amount of hot water may also be added, but generally coconut cream is extracted with no added water. [2] [10] Thin coconut milk, on the other hand, is produced by the subsequent pressings after soaking the squeezed coconut pulp with hot water. [2] [10]

Gravity separation can also be used to derive a top layer of coconut cream and a bottom layer of coconut skim milk. This is achieved by simply allowing the extracted liquid to stand for an hour. [10] [11] Conversely, coconut cream can be diluted into thinner coconut milk by simply adding water. [10] [11]

Traditionally prepared coconut milk is utilized immediately after being freshly extracted because it spoils easily when exposed to air. They become rancid after a few hours at room temperatures of 28 to 30 °C (82 to 86 °F) due to lipid oxidation and lipolysis. Rancid coconut milk gives off a strong unpleasant smell and has a distinctive soapy taste. [2] [3]

Coconut cream contains a higher amount of soluble, suspended solids, which makes it a good ingredient for desserts, and rich and dry sauces. Because thin milk contains a lesser amount of these soluble solids, it is mainly used in general cooking. The distinction between coconut cream and thin coconut milk is not usually made in western nations due to the fact that fresh coconut milk is uncommon in these countries and most consumers buy coconut milk in cartons or cans. [4]

Coconut milk is also an intermediate step in the traditional wet process methods of producing virgin coconut oil by gradual heating, churning, or fermentation. These methods, however, are less efficient than coconut oil production from copra. [12] [13]

Coconut graters

Traditional coconut grater Coconut scrapper in Laclo.jpg
Traditional coconut grater

Coconut graters (also called "coconut scrapers"), a necessary tool for traditionally extracting coconut milk, were part of the material culture of the Austronesian peoples. It was carried along with the sea voyages of the Austronesian expansion both for colonization and trade, reaching as far as Polynesia in the east, and Madagascar and the Comoros in the west in prehistoric times. The technology also spread to non-Austronesian cultures in coastal East Africa by proximity. [14] [15] [16] Manual coconut graters remain a standard kitchen equipment in households in the tropical Asia-Pacific and Eastern Africa, underscoring the importance of coconut milk and coconut oil extraction in the Indo-Pacific. [10] [17] [18]

The basic design of coconut graters consist of a low bench or stool with a horizontal serrated disk (made of metal in Asia and Africa, and stone or shell in Oceania) attached on one end. A person sits on the bench and repeatedly scrapes the inner surface of halved coconut shells with both hands over the metal disk. The scrapings are gathered by a container placed below. [17] [18] [19] [20]

More modern mechanical coconut graters dating back to the mid-1800s consist of serrated blades with a hand crank. This version is believed to be a British invention. [21]

Processed coconut milk products

Mechanical coconut grinder Coconut milk production.jpg
Mechanical coconut grinder

Commercially processed coconut milk products use largely the same processes to extract coconut milk from pulp, though they use more mechanical equipment like deshelling machines, grinders and pulverizers, motorized coconut shredders, and coconut milk extractors. [22]

They differ significantly in the bottling or canning process, however. Processed coconut milk are first filtered through a 100 mesh filters. They are pasteurized indirectly by double boiling at around 70 °C (158 °F), carefully not exceeding 80 °C (176 °F), the temperature at which coconut milk starts to coagulate. After pasteurization, they are immediately transferred to filling vessels and sealed before being cooled down. They are then packed into bottles, cans, or pouches and blast frozen for storage and transport. [22]

Manufacturers of canned coconut milk typically combine diluted and comminuted milk with the addition of water as a filler. Depending on the brand and age of the milk itself, a thicker, more paste-like consistency floats to the top of the can (a gravity separation, similar to traditional methods), and is sometimes separated and used in recipes that require coconut cream rather than coconut milk. Some brands sold in Western countries undergo homogenization and add additional thickening agents and emulsifiers to prevent the milk from separating inside the can. [1] [3]

Due to factors like pasteurization, minimal contact with oxygen, and additives like antioxidants, processed coconut milk generally has a longer shelf life than traditionally prepared coconut milk. It is also more efficient than traditional methods at extracting the maximum amount of coconut milk from grated coconut. [2] [3]

Coconut milk powder

Coconut cream can be dehydrated into coconut milk powder which has a far longer shelf life. They are processed by adding maltodextrin and casein to coconut cream to improve fluidity and then spray drying the mixture. The powder is packaged in moisture-proof containers. To use, water is simply added to the coconut milk powder. [22]

Coconut skim milk

Coconut skim milk is coconut milk with very low levels of fat (0% to 1.5%). It is a byproduct of coconut cream and coconut oil production and are usually discarded. However, they are increasingly being used as a food ingredient for products which require coconut flavoring without the fats (including coconut powder, coconut honey, and coconut jam). [23] [24] [25] They can also be used as a base in the production of coconut milk beverages used as dairy milk substitutes, as they do not contain the high levels of fat characteristic of regular coconut milk while still being a good source of soluble proteins. [26] [27] [28]

Milk substitutes

A carton of coconut milk beverage, a milk substitute Coconut Non-Dairy Milk (5082424201).jpg
A carton of coconut milk beverage, a milk substitute

Processed coconut milk can be used as substitutes for various dairy milk beverages, usually marketed as "coconut milk beverage". They are sometimes confusingly also simply labeled as "coconut milk", though they are not the same product as coconut milk used for cooking (which are not meant for drinking). Milk substitutes from coconut are basically coconut milk diluted with water or coconut skim milk with additives. They contain less fat and fewer calories than milk, but also has less proteins. They contain high amounts of potassium and are good sources of fiber and iron. They are also commonly fortified with vitamin D and calcium. [5] [27]

Filled milk

Coconut milk are also used widely for filled milk products. They are blended with dairy milk (usually skim milk or powdered milk) for their vegetable oils and proteins which act as substitutes for expensive butterfat in some processed milk products. They include low fat filled milk, evaporated reconstituted milk, and sweetened condensed milk. [22]

Cheese and custard production

Coconut milk can also be used in cheese and custard production, substituting at most 50% of dairy milk without lowering the overall quality of the products. By mixing skim milk with coconut milk, one procedure develops cheeses- including a garlic-spiced soft cheese called queso de ajo, a Gouda cheese substitute, and a Roquefort substitute called "Niyoblue" (a portmanteau of Tagalog niyog, "coconut", and "blue"). [29] [30] [31] [32]

Soy milk enrichment

Coconut milk can be used to enrich the fat content of soy milk, improving its texture and taste to be closer to that of real milk. [32] [33] Coconut cream can also be added to soy milk in the production of tofu to enrich its caloric density without affecting its palatability. [34]

Cream of coconut

Cream of coconut is a thick, heavily sweetened, processed coconut milk product resembling condensed milk. [35] It is originally produced by the Puerto Rican company Coco López and is used most notably in piña coladas in the United States. It can also be used for other cocktail drinks and various desserts. It should not be confused with or used as a substitute for coconut cream. [36] [37] [38]

Cuisine

Coconut milk derivatives

Coconut curd latik, a byproduct of traditional coconut oil production from simmered coconut milk Lunok or Latik (coconut curds) 2 - Philippines.jpg
Coconut curd latik , a byproduct of traditional coconut oil production from simmered coconut milk

In the Philippines, coconut milk can also be further processed into coconut caramel and coconut curds, both known as latik . [2] [39] [40] The coconut caramel version of latik made from a reduction of muscovado sugar and coconut milk has been developed into a commercial product marketed as coconut syrup (not to be confused with coconut sugar derived from coconut sap). [13] [41]

Kaya coconut jam, made with coconut milk, sugar, and eggs Yosrisekaya1.jpg
Kaya coconut jam, made with coconut milk, sugar, and eggs

A similar product found throughout Southeast Asia is coconut jam. It is known as matamís sa báo in the Philippines and uses only coconut milk and sugar. [42] However, the coconut jam versions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore (kaya); Thailand (sangkhaya); Cambodia (sankiah); and Vietnam (banh gan), add eggs in addition to sugar. The latter versions are sometimes anglicized as "coconut custard" to distinguish them from the version without eggs. Coconut jam and coconut custard have a thicker jam-like consistency and are used as ingredients or fillings in various traditional desserts. [42] [43] [44]

Food

Coconut milk can be used in both sweet and savory dishes. In many tropical and Asian cuisines, it is a traditional ingredient in curries and other dishes, including desserts.

Southeast Asia

In Indonesia, coconut milk is used in various recipes ranging from savoury dishes – such as rendang , soto , [45] gulai , mie celor , sayur lodeh , gudeg , and opor ayam  – to sweet desserts  – such as serabi , es cendol and es doger . Soto is ubiquitous in Indonesia and considered as one of Indonesia's national dishes. It is also used in coconut rice, a widespread Southeast Asian dish of rice cooked in coconut milk which include the nasi lemak of Malaysia and the nasi uduk of Indonesia.

In the Philippines, the very diverse class of dishes cooked in coconut milk are collectively known as ginataan . They can range from savory to dessert dishes. [46] [47] [48] Coconut milk is also widely used to make traditional Filipino kakanin (rice cakes), including bibingka and biko , among others. [49]

In Thailand, coconut milk is often incorporated into dishes such as Tom kha kai , Khao tom mat , Mango sticky rice , and Tom yum .

Latin America and the Caribbean

In Brazil, coconut milk is mostly used in northeastern cuisine, generally with seafood stews and desserts. In Venezuela, pulp dishes are prepared with coconut milk and shredded fish in a dish called mojito en coco. In Colombia and Panama, the grated flesh of coconut and coconut milk are used to make sweet titoté.

Coconut milk is used to make traditional Venezuelan dishes such as majarete (a typical Venezuelan dessert), and arroz con coco (the Venezuelan version of coconut rice).

Drink

Cendol, a green jelly drink in iced coconut milk and palm sugar Cendol in a Glass.JPG
Cendol , a green jelly drink in iced coconut milk and palm sugar

In Southeast Asia, coconut milk is used to make many traditional drinks. Cendol is a popular iced drink from this region containing chilled coconut milk and green jellies made of rice flour. Coconut milk is also used in hot drinks such as bandrek and bajigur, two popular drinks from Indonesia. Sweetened coconut milk, and coconut milk diluted with water are two popular coconut beverages in southern China and Taiwan.

The jelly-like pulp from the inside of the coconut is often added to coconut water to make a tropical drink. In Brazil, for example, coconut milk is mixed with sugar and cachaça to make a cocktail called batida de côco . [50] :183 Puerto Rico is also popular for tropical drinks containing coconut, such as piña colada and coquito , which typically contain coconut milk or coconut cream.

Saturated fat and health risk

One of the most prominent components of coconut milk is coconut oil, which many health organizations, such as the United States Food and Drug Administration, [51] World Health Organization, [52] International College of Nutrition, [53] the United States Department of Health and Human Services, [54] American Dietetic Association, [55] American Heart Association, [56] British National Health Service, [57] and Dietitians of Canada, [55] discourage people from consuming in significant amounts due to its high levels of saturated fat. Excessive coconut milk consumption can also raise blood levels of cholesterol due to the amount of lauric acid, a saturated fat that contributes to higher blood cholesterol by increasing the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. [58] [59]

Horticulture

In 1943, it was discovered that coconut milk could actively encourage plant growth. Although there are many factors that attribute coconut milk to plant growth, the main cause is the existence of a cytokinin known as zeatin found in coconut milk. While the zeatin in coconut milk speeds up plant growth in general, it does not speed up growth in certain plants such as radishes. [60] :8 However, when 10% coconut milk is added to the substrate in which wheat is grown, substantial improvements have been noted. [61]

Commerce

Coconuts are widely produced in tropical climates and exported globally as canned products, most frequently to North America and Europe. [62]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Dessert is a course that concludes a meal. The course consists of sweet foods, such as confections, and possibly a beverage such as dessert wine and liqueur. In some parts of the world, such as much of central and western Africa, and most parts of China, there is no tradition of a dessert course to conclude a meal.

Coconut Species of plant in the palm family

The coconut tree is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The name comes from the old Portuguese word coco, meaning "head" or "skull", after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. They are ubiquitous in coastal tropical regions and are a cultural icon of the tropics.

Tapioca

Tapioca is a starch extracted from the storage roots of the cassava plant, a species native to the north and central-west regions of Brazil, but whose use is now spread throughout South America. The plant was brought by the Portuguese to much of West Indies, Africa and Asia. It is a perennial shrub adapted to the hot conditions of tropical lowlands. Cassava copes better with poor soils than many other food plants.

Glutinous rice Type of rice

Glutinous rice is a type of rice grown mainly in Southeast and East Asia, Northeastern India and Bhutan which has opaque grains, very low amylose content, and is especially sticky when cooked. It is widely consumed across Asia.

Condensed milk cows milk from which water has been removed

Condensed milk is cow's milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found with sugar added, in the form of sweetened condensed milk (SCM), to the extent that the terms "condensed milk" and "sweetened condensed milk" are often used interchangeably today. Sweetened condensed milk is a very thick, sweet product, which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if not opened. The product is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.

<i>Nata de coco</i>

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Filipino cuisine Cuisine of the Phillipines

Filipino cuisine is composed of the cuisines of more than a hundred distinct ethno-linguistic groups found throughout the Philippine archipelago. However, a majority of mainstream Filipino dishes that compose Filipino cuisine are from the cuisines of the various ethnolinguistic groups and tribes of the archipelago, including the Ilocano, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicolano, Visayan, Chavacano and Maranao ethno-linguistic groups. The style of food making and the food associated with it have evolved over many centuries from their Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine of Indian, Chinese, Spanish and American influences, in line with the major waves of influence that had enriched the cultures of the archipelago, as well as others adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate.

Milk substitute

A milk substitute is any substance that resembles milk and can be used in the same ways as milk. Such substances may be variously known as non-dairy beverage, nut milk, grain milk, legume milk and alternative milk.

Puttu

Puttu is a breakfast dish eaten in the South Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and parts of Karnataka, as well as Sri Lanka. Puttu means "portioned" in Tamil and Malayalam. It is made of steamed cylinders of ground rice layered with coconut shavings, sometimes with a sweet or savory filling on the inside. Puttu is served hot with sweet side dishes such as palm sugar or banana, or with curries including dal, chickpea, mutton, fish, chicken, or beef curry.

Bibingka

Bibingka is a type of baked rice cake from the Philippines. It is usually eaten for breakfast, especially during the Christmas season. It is traditionally cooked in clay pots lined with leaves. It is a subtype of kakanin in Philippine cuisine. Bibingka is also found in East Timor and Christian communities in eastern Indonesia.

Khoa Indian dairy food

Khoa, khoya, or mawa is a dairy food, originating from the Indian subcontinent, widely used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, encompassing India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is made of either dried whole milk or milk thickened by heating in an open iron pan. It is lower in moisture than typical fresh cheeses such as ricotta.

Belizean cuisine is an amalgamation of all ethnicities in the nation of Belize and their respectively wide variety of foods. Breakfast often consists of sides of bread, flour tortillas, or fry jacks that are often homemade and eaten with various cheeses. All are often accompanied with refried beans, cheeses, and various forms of eggs, etc. Inclusive is also cereal along with milk, coffee, or tea.

Fijian cuisine Food culture of the Fijian Islands

Fijian cuisine has traditionally been very healthy and a mix of forage and farm based ingredients. Native Fijians prefer a tuber and coconut based diet, however due to colonization, staples such as rice, flour and tea have also become basic goods. Higher calorie ingredients such as cassava, taro and yams has been the staple ingredients grown by natives for thousands of years. Fiji is a multicultural country and is home to people from various races. In most Fijians' homes, food of other cultures is prepared on a regular basis such as Indian curries and Chinese dishes. Fiji is also famous for its seafood and varieties of leafy vegetables such as Bele, a spinach like weed and Otta, a forest fern.

Binignit

Binignit is a Visayan dessert soup from the central Philippines. The dish is traditionally made with glutinous rice cooked in coconut milk with various slices of sabá bananas, taro, and sweet potato, among other ingredients. It is comparable to various dessert guinataán dishes found in other regions such as bilo-bilo. Among the Visayan people, the dish is traditionally served during Good Friday of Holy Week.

A great variety of cassava-based dishes are consumed in the regions where cassava is cultivated, and they include many national or ethnic specialities.

Latik

Latík refers to two different coconut-based ingredients in Filipino cuisine. In the Visayan region it refers to a syrupy caramelized coconut cream used as a dessert sauce. In the northern Philippines, it refers to solid byproducts of coconut oil production, used as garnishing for a variety of desserts.

Creamed coconut

Creamed coconut, also known as coconut butter, is a coconut product made from the unsweetened dehydrated fresh pulp of a mature coconut, ground to a semi-solid white creamy paste. It is sold in the form of a hard white block which can be stored at room temperature. The block is generally packaged in a sealed plastic pouch and some separation of the fat and the coconut flesh can be seen. In cookery, it is chopped into pieces or grated before it is added to dishes. By adding warm water it can be made into coconut milk or coconut cream substitutes. Adding water to creamed coconut in the ratio 5:2 gives coconut cream substitute, 5:1 coconut milk substitute.

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