Vegan studies

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Vegan studies is the study, within the humanities and social sciences, of veganism as an identity and ideology, and the exploration of its depiction in literature, the arts, popular culture, and the media. [1] [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] In a narrower use of the term, it seeks to establish veganism as a "mode of thinking and writing", a "means of critique", [3] and "a new lens for ecocritical textual analysis". [4] Vegan studies is closely related to critical animal studies. [5]

Humanities widespread scientific categorization in modern English-speaking countries, subsuming all sciences related to human culture

Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social sciences, as well as professional training.

Social science The academic disciplines concerned with society and the relationships between individuals in society

Social science is a category of academic disciplines concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. The disciplines include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, folkloristics, history, musicology, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.

Veganism the practice of abstaining from animal products and a philosophy that rejects animal commodification

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans refrain from consuming meat, eggs, dairy products, and any other animal-derived substances. An ethical vegan is someone who not only follows a vegan diet but extends the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and opposes the use of animals for any purpose. Another term is "environmental veganism", which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.

Contents

Working within a variety of disciplines, [6] scholars in the field discuss issues such as the commodity status of animals; [7] carnism; [8] veganism and ecofeminism; [9] veganism and race; [10] varieties of veganism; [11] and the effect of animal farming on climate change. [12] Because the field is new, its parameters are unclear; vegan studies or vegan theory can be informed by animal studies, critical race theory, environmental studies and ecocriticism, feminist theory, postcolonialism, posthumanism, and queer theory, [13] incorporating a range of empirical and non-empirical research methodologies. [14]

Commodity status of animals

The commodity status of animals refers to the legal status as property of most non-human animals, particularly farmed animals, working animals and animals in sport, and their use as objects of trade. In the United States, Free-roaming animals are (broadly) held in trust by the state; only if captured can be claimed as personal property.

Carnism ideology that supports the use of animals for food, clothing, or other consumer products

Carnism is a concept used in discussions of humanity's relation to other animals, defined as a prevailing ideology in which people support the use and consumption of animal products, especially meat. Carnism is presented as a dominant belief system supported by a variety of defense mechanisms and mostly unchallenged assumptions. The term carnism was coined by social psychologist and author Melanie Joy in 2001 and popularized by her book Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows (2009).

Ecofeminism is a branch of feminism that sees environmentalism, and the relationship between women and the earth, as foundational to its analysis and practice. Ecofeminist thinkers draw on the concept of gender to analyse the relationships between humans and the natural world. The term was coined by the French writer Françoise d'Eaubonne in her book Le Féminisme ou la Mort (1974). Ecofeminist theory asserts that a feminist perspective of ecology does not place women in the dominant position of power, but rather calls for an egalitarian, collaborative society in which there is no one dominant group. Today, there are several branches of ecofeminism, with varying approaches and analyses, including liberal ecofeminism, spiritual/cultural ecofeminism, and social/socialist ecofeminism. Interpretations of ecofeminism and how it might be applied to social thought include ecofeminist art, social justice and political philosophy, religion, contemporary feminism, and poetry.

Development

Veganism

Donald Watson, secretary of the British Vegetarian Society's Leicester branch, coined the term vegan in 1944, when he created the Vegan News for strict vegetarians who would not eat any animal products. [15] Several works of philosophy and ecofeminism in the 1970s and 1980s—including Peter Singer's Animal Liberation (1975); Carolyn Merchant's The Death of Nature (1980); and Tom Regan's The Case for Animal Rights (1983)—helped to trigger what became known as the "animal turn" in the humanities and social sciences, [16] an increased interest in human–nonhuman relations and to some extent a paradigm shift in how that relationship was discussed. [lower-alpha 3]

Donald Watson English vegan activist

Donald Watson was an English animal rights advocate who founded the Vegan Society.

The Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom is a British registered charity which was established on 30 September 1847 to promote vegetarianism.

The Vegan Society is a registered charity and the oldest vegan society in the world, founded in the United Kingdom in November 1944 by Donald Watson, Elsie "Sally" Shrigley, and 23 others.

The period led to the development of human–animal studies (also known as animal studies), [21] [lower-alpha 4] the study of how humans and nonhumans interact, how humans have classified other animals, and what that social construction means. [24] It also led, in the early 2000s, to the development of critical animal studies (CAS), an academic field dedicated to studying and ending the exploitation of animals. [25] Named in 2007, CAS grew directly out of the animal liberation movement, linking "activism, academia and animal suffering". [26] Veganism is described as "a baseline for CAS praxis". [2] Criticizing human–animal studies as anthropocentric, and aiming for "total liberation" (including of humans), CAS scholars declared themselves committed to the "abolition of animal and ecological exploitation". [lower-alpha 5]

Animal studies is a recently recognised field in which animals are studied in a variety of cross-disciplinary ways. Scholars who engage in animal studies may be formally trained in a number of diverse fields, including geography, art history, anthropology, biology, film studies, geography, history, psychology, literary studies, museology, philosophy, communication, and sociology. They may engage with questions about literal animals, or about notions of "animality" or "brutality," employing various theoretical perspectives, including feminism, Marxist theory, and queer theory. Using these perspectives, those who engage in animal studies seek to understand both human-animal relations now and in the past, and to understand animals as beings-in-themselves, separate from our knowledge of them. Because the field is still developing, scholars and others have some freedom to define their own criteria about what issues may structure the field.

Critical animal studies (CAS) is an interdisciplinary scientific field and theory-to-activism global community, which originated at the beginning of the 21st century. The core interest of CAS is ethical reflection on relations between people and other animals, firmly grounded in intersectionality and anarchism. Its aim is to integrate academic research with political engagement and activism. As it overlaps with a number of other disciplines, CAS includes scholars from a diverse range of fields, as well as animal rights activists.

The animal rights movement, sometimes called the animal liberation movement, animal personhood, or animal advocacy movement, is a social movement which seeks an end to the rigid moral and legal distinction drawn between human and non-human animals, an end to the status of animals as property, and an end to their use in the research, food, clothing, and entertainment industries.

Entry into the academy

Carol J. Adams's The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990) became influential within vegan studies. Carol J. Adams at the Intersectional Justice Conference.jpg
Carol J. Adams's The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990) became influential within vegan studies.

In the 1990s and 2000s, several works informed the later development of vegan studies. [28] Described as one of the field's foundational texts, [29] Carol J. Adams's The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (1990) linked vegetarianism directly to feminism. She argued that "the killing of animals for food is a feminist issue that feminists have failed to claim". [30] Other works that influenced vegan studies [28] include Nick Fiddes's Meat: A Natural Symbol (1992); [31] Colin Spencer's The Heretic's Feast (1996); [32] Tristram Stuart's The Bloodless Revolution (2006); [33] and Rod Preece's Sins of the Flesh (2008). [34]

Carol J. Adams author, animal rights activist

Carol J. Adams is an American writer, feminist, and animal rights advocate. She is the author of several books, including The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (1990) and The Pornography of Meat (2004), focusing in particular on what she argues are the links between the oppression of women and that of non-human animals. She was inducted into the Animal Rights Hall of Fame in 2011.

The Sexual Politics of Meat is a 1990 book written by Carol J. Adams, in which she develops her Vegetarian-Feminist, Pacifist, intersectional critical theory. The book was first written as an essay for a college course taught by Mary Daly and includes material such as interviews from vegetarian feminists in the Boston-Cambridge area. The Sexual Politics of Meat has been translated into nine languages and re-published for its 25th anniversary edition as a part of the Bloomsbury Revelations series.

Vegetarianism Practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat, and may also include abstention from by-products of animals processed for food.

A. Breeze Harper, 2016 A. Breeze Harper at Intersectional Justice Conference - 2.jpg
A. Breeze Harper, 2016

In December 2013, in the journal PhaenEx, media scholar Eva Giraud discussed the relationship of veganism to animal studies, ecofeminism and posthumanism. [35] [lower-alpha 6] Academic work on veganism appeared in Nick Taylor and Richard Twine's 2014 collection, The Rise of Critical Animal Studies, [37] and in December that year, Emilia Quinn and Benjamin Westwood addressed a workshop at the University of York, organized by the art historian Jason Edwards, to discuss "the fast developing field of vegan theory". [38]

Posthumanism or post-humanism is a term with at least seven definitions according to philosopher Francesca Ferrando:

  1. Antihumanism: any theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about humanity and the human condition.
  2. Cultural posthumanism: a branch of cultural theory critical of the foundational assumptions of humanism and its legacy that examines and questions the historical notions of "human" and "human nature", often challenging typical notions of human subjectivity and embodiment and strives to move beyond archaic concepts of "human nature" to develop ones which constantly adapt to contemporary technoscientific knowledge.
  3. Philosophical posthumanism: a philosophical direction which draws on cultural posthumanism, the philosophical strand examines the ethical implications of expanding the circle of moral concern and extending subjectivities beyond the human species.
  4. Posthuman condition: the deconstruction of the human condition by critical theorists.
  5. Transhumanism: an ideology and movement which seeks to develop and make available technologies that eliminate aging and greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities, in order to achieve a "posthuman future".
  6. AI takeover: A variant of transhumanism in which humans will not be enhanced, but rather eventually replaced by artificial intelligences. Some philosophers, including Nick Land, promote the view that humans should embrace and accept their eventual demise. This is related to the view of "cosmism", which supports the building of strong artificial intelligence even if it may entail the end of humanity, as in their view it "would be a cosmic tragedy if humanity freezes evolution at the puny human level".
  7. Voluntary Human Extinction, which seeks a "posthuman future" that in this case is a future without humans.

An edited volume or edited collection is a collection of scholarly or scientific chapters written by different authors. The chapters in an edited volume are original works.

University of York research-intensive plate glass university in the city of York, United Kingdom

The University of York is a collegiate plate glass research university, located in the city of York, England. Established in 1963, the campus university has expanded to more than thirty departments and centres, covering a wide range of subjects.

Quinn and Westwood write that veganism's "entry into the academy" began around 2010. [39] Shortly after the publication that year of her collection Sistah Vegan, [40] A. Breeze Harper announced a new "critical race and veg*n studies intersect" research group on her website, The Sistah Vegan Project, [41] and was working on "applications of critical race and black feminist studies to vegan studies in the US". [42] Also in 2010, the Journal for Critical Animal Studies published an edition devoted to the perspectives of women of color, which had been "eerily absent from critical animal studies and vegan studies in general". [43] They included an essay by Harper, "Race as a 'Feeble Matter' in Veganism". [44]

Vegan studies

Laura Wright, 2018 Laura Wright, Western Carolina University (cropped).jpg
Laura Wright, 2018

Vegan studies was proposed as a new academic field by Laura Wright, professor of English at Western Carolina University, in October 2015 in her book The Vegan Studies Project: Food, Animals, and Gender in the Age of Terror, [45] described as the "first major academic monograph in the humanities focused on veganism". [46] Wright's work was prompted by research for her doctoral dissertation into J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace (1999) and The Lives of Animals (1999), [47] and was further influenced by Adams's The Sexual Politics of Meat. [48] Wright frames vegan studies as "inherently ecofeminist", according to Caitlin E. Stobie. [49] [lower-alpha 7]

In 2016 the French scholar Renan Larue  [ fr ], author of Le végétarisme et ses ennemis: Vingt-cinq siècles de débats (2015), began teaching a vegan studies course at the University of California, Santa Barbara. [51] Reportedly the first such course in the United States, [52] it has explored animal ethics, pathocentrism, Melanie Joy's concept of carnism, Peter Singer's utilitarianism, Tom Regan's and Gary Francione's rights-based approach, Marti Kheel's ecofeminism, and Carol J. Adams's ethics of care. [53]

In May 2016 Quinn and Westwood organized a conference at Wolfson College, Oxford, Towards a Vegan Theory, at which Wright gave the keynote address. [54] Other works in vegan studies followed, including a 2016 collection, Critical Perspectives on Veganism, published by Palgrave Macmillan and edited by Jodey Castricano and Rasmus R. Simonsen; [55] a special cluster in the journal ISLE in December 2017; [56] a 2018 collection edited by Quinn and Woodward, Thinking Veganism in Literature and Culture, based on the Oxford conference and also published by Palgrave Macmillan; [57] and a 2019 collection, Through a Vegan Studies Lens: Textual Ethics and Lived Activism, published by University of Nevada Press and edited by Wright. [58]

Characteristics

Views

In 2016 Melanie Joy called vegan studies a field "whose time has come". Melanie Joy, September 2015, cropped (2).jpg
In 2016 Melanie Joy called vegan studies a field "whose time has come".

In 2016 Melanie Joy and Jens Tuider called vegan studies a "field of research whose time has come". It establishes veganism as an academic topic; gathers research on veganism, the history of veganism, and carnism; examines veganism's ethical, political and cultural basis and repercussions; [60] and explores how vegan identity is presented in literature, the arts, film, popular culture, advertising and the media. [61] Adams wrote that vegan studies examines "the vegan phobic, the vegan deniers, the nonvegan 'vegan', the problematic 'hegan,' the feminist vegan, the animal activist vegan". [62] According to another description, it highlights the "oppositional role played by veganism towards ideologies that legitimate oppression". [63] Writing in 2018, the philosopher Josh Milburn remained unconvinced that there was a literature about veganism "sufficiently unified to be labeled a new discipline". [64]

According to Wright, vegan studies is a "lived and embodied ethic" [65] providing "a new lens for ecocritical textual analysis". Vegan studies scholars examine texts "via an intersectional lens of veganism" to explore the relationship of humans to their food sources and the environment. In Wright's view, the vegan body and vegan identity "constitute a performative project and an entity in a state of perpetual transformation". [4]

Wright offers as an example of a vegan studies analysis a 2018 article by Stobie in ISLE about The Vegetarian by Han Kang, winner of the 2016 Man Booker International Prize: "Rather than read protagonist Yeong-hye's plight as the result of illogical mental illness, Stobie reads her character's actions—to eschew eating meat to the point of starvation, even when members of her family try to force feed it to her—as a posthumanist performance of vegan praxis dependent upon inarticulable trauma and the desire for intersectional and interspecies connection." [66]

Another example is Sara Salih's account, in Quinn and Westwood's 2018 collection, of "three scenes of failed witness", including when she left a formal lunch in tears when the chicken dish arrived, and when she and others stood staring (pointlessly, she felt at the time) at slaughterhouse workers using electric prods to push pigs off a lorry. Salih argues that there is in fact an ethical purpose to witnessing such acts. The witnessing outside the slaughterhouse was a performative act, an "illegal act un-sanctioning", directed at the workers. [67] At the same time as asking these questions, Salih was feeding standard cat food to seven cats. [68] "Why", she asks Derrida, who wrote about his cat in The Animal That Therefore I Am (2008), "have you chosen to turn towards this animal rather than that one?" [69] She suggests that the scale of suffering makes "[o]ur imaginations baulk"; it seems absurd to understand that "we are in the presence of the dead ... when faced with a scoopful of kibble." [70] Nevertheless she advises: "Look as closely as you can at your bowl or the neighbour's bowl or the cat's bowl, bear witness, and then decide whether the current norms of logic or rationality possess any moral validity." [71]

Relationship with animal studies

Almiron, Cole and Freeman write that vegan studies and critical animal studies (CAS) share common roots as "related branches in the evolution of critical approaches to human domination". [2] [lower-alpha 8] Wright views vegan studies as "informed by and divergent from" animal studies, including critical animal studies. [72] According to Larue, vegan studies is "both narrower and broader than animal studies". It intersects with critical animal studies but encompasses fields such as environmental studies and nutrition, which play an important role in the way veganism has been perceived, promoted, or criticized in the last few decades and today." [lower-alpha 2]

According to Alex Lockwood of the University of Sunderland, vegan studies offers a "radical and more coherent way of ensuring the present experiences of all beings are taken into account when examining the ways in which discourse shapes power". [74] It "engages a lived politics" of empathy and care, as Wright describes it. [75]

Sources

Notes

  1. Núria Almiron, Matthew Cole, and Carrie P. Freeman ( European Journal of Communication , 1 August 2018): "The term 'vegan studies' highlights the oppositional role played by veganism towards ideologies that legitimate oppression and therefore also the ways in which veganism itself may be marginalized, misrepresented or distorted in and by the media." [2]
  2. 1 2 Renan Larue (2019): "Vegan studies is an emerging field of research, which is about understanding the vegan phenomenon, from its first manifestations until the present time, and explores what is at stake with it theologically, morally, anthropologically, socially, or psychologically.
    "Vegan studies constitutes a realm both narrower and broader than animal studies. Narrower, because it focuses on the way human beings behave towards animals, in particular those we fish, hunt, breed, use, slaughter, and eat (in that sense, vegan studies intersect partly with critical animal studies). Broader, because vegan studies encompasses other fields, namely environmental studies and nutrition, which play an important role in the way veganism has been perceived, promoted, or criticized in the last few decades and today." [73]
  3. Joshua Abram Kercsmar ( The Journal of American History , March 2017): "The environmental concerns that have rippled through academe since the 1970s prompted scholars to consider human-animal relationships from a variety of perspectives. Texts such as Peter Singer's Animal Liberation (1975), Carolyn Merchant's The Death of Nature (1980), and Tom Regan's The Case for Animal Rights (1983) marked the start of an 'animal turn' that infiltrated the humanities and social sciences and drew heavily on feminist and Marxist theories." [17]
    Margo DeMello (Animals and Society: An Introduction to Human-Animal Studies, 2012): "The publication of two major philosophical works on animals—Peter Singer's Animal Liberation (1975), followed by Tom Regan's The Case for Animal Rights (1983)—led to an explosion of interest in animals among academic, animal advocates, and the general public. We can see that the rise of HAS [human–animal studies] in academia, especially over the last decade, is related directly to the philosophical debate regarding animals as worthy of ethical inquiry." [18]
    Philip Armstrong and Laurence Simmons (Knowing Animals, 2007): "Every so often there emerges a new intellectual paradigm that provokes a flurry of new knowledge. Over the last two decades the humanities and social sciences have been experiencing such an event: the 'animal turn', comparable in significance to the 'linguistic turn' that revolutionized humanities and social science disciplines from the mid-twentieth century onwards. ... We owe the phrase 'animal turn' to Sarah Franklin, who used it in conversation during the annual conference of the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia, in December 2003 ..." [19]
    Harriet Ritvo ( Daedalus , Fall 2007): "[D]uring the last several decades, animals have emerged as a more frequent form of scholarship in the humanities and social sciences, as quantified in published books and articles, conference presentations, new societies, and new journals. With this change in degree has come a potential change in kind. As it has expanded the range of possible research topics in a number of disciplines, the animal turn has also suggested new relationships between scholars and their subjects, and new understandings of the role of animals in the past and at present." [20]
  4. Lori Gruen (Critical Terms for Animal Studies, 2018): "When scholars first began describing their work as Animal Studies, there was occasionally confusion—some people, including many scientists, thought that meant scholars were working directly with animals, for example, in laboratories or in the wild. This led some scholars to adopt the name Human–Animal Studies (HAS) and emphasize the relationships that the field was devoted to examining, understanding, and critically evaluating." [22]
    Margo DeMello (Animals and Society: An Introduction to Human–Animal Studies, 2012): "Human-animal studies (HAS), sometimes known as anthrozoology or animal studies, is an interdiscipinary field that explores the spaces that animals occupy in human social and cultural worlds, and the interactions humans have with them." [18]
    Cary Wolfe (What is Posthumanism?, 2010): "What began in the early to mid-1990s as a smattering of work in various fields on human–animal relations and their representation in various endeavors—literary, artistic, scientific—has, as we reach the end of the new millenium's first decade, galvanized into a vibrant emergent field of interdisplinary inquiry called animal studies or sometime human–animal studies." [23]
  5. The Institute for Critical Animal Studies defines critical animal studies (CAS) as "the academic field of study dedicated to the abolition of animal and ecological exploitation, oppression, and domination. CAS is grounded in a broad, global, emancipatory, inclusionary movement for total liberation and freedom." [27]
  6. "Veganism is becoming a prominent area of focus in contemporary cultural theory because debates about vegan praxis have emerged as a sub-field of animal studies that crystallises tensions between CAS and posthumanist-inflected 'mainstream' animal studies. By grounding itself in notions of the inviolable rights of animals ... veganism seems to be underpinned by the humanist ethical frameworks that mainstream animal studies is moving away from in its turn to posthumanism." [36]
  7. Peter Adkins, Humanities , 4 July 2017: "Not always harmonious with this 'animal turn' in philosophy and literature has been the emergence of what Laura Wright outlines as the 'activist, theoretical mode' of feminist vegan studies (Wright 2015, p. 16). A body of cultural criticism that attends to what Carol J. Adams identifies as the 'overt associations between meat eating and virile maleness,' vegan studies implores critics to not only attend to cultural representations of animal bodies but the 'patriarchal attitudes' encoded in such representations (Adams 2010, pp. 25–26). ... Vegan studies, in both Wright’s and Adams’s terms, would extend the consciousness-raising impetus of everyday animal ethics to a critical practice that focuses on animal suffering and commodification. While theorists associated with the 'animal turn', such as Donna J. Haraway, have warned that veganism runs the risk of insisting on absolutist moral code that would constitute a restrictive 'Feminist Doxa' (Haraway 2008, p. 80), Wright's work insists on a definition of veganism in which it is understood that there is no 'singular reason' for veganism and no 'singular representative vegan body' but rather a plurality of cultural and dietary motives and practices (Wright 2015, p. 8). Despite points of difference, both critical vegan studies and animal philosophy are predicated on reappraising how embodiment, materiality, and language, structure human and animal relations." [50]
  8. Núria Almiron, Matthew Cole, and Carrie P. Freeman ( European Journal of Communication , 1 August 2018): "The multidisciplinary tenor of vegan studies is shared with the prior emergence of one of the most important critical projects of recent years: CAS [ critical animal studies ]. Indeed, vegan studies and CAS share common roots in many respects (with veganism as a baseline for CAS praxis) and may best be understood as related branches in the evolution of critical approaches to human domination, with, we argue, CAMS [critical animal media studies] as another branch to be acknowledged alongside them." [63]

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Vegaphobia is an aversion to vegetarian and vegan people. It is in the 21st century that it began to frame the phenomenon in the sociological sphere and makes its appearance "vegaphobia". In 2007, a survey called "Vegaphobia: disproportionate talk about veganism in British national newspapers" took place in the United Kingdom, which examined 397 articles containing the terms "vegan", "vegans" and "veganism". The researchers found that 74.3% of the items are classified as "negatives"; 20.2% "neutral" and only 5.5% "positive". Negative items were in order of frequency: ridiculing veganism; characterize veganism as asceticism; affirming that veganism is difficult or impossible to sustain; describe veganism as a fashion; portray vegans as sentimentalists; defining vegans as hostile.

Animal industrial complex (AIC) is the accumulation of interests responsible for institutionalized exploitation of non-human animals. It entirely differs from individual acts of animal cruelty in that it is an institutionalized animal exploitation. It is one of the main topics of critical animal studies.

Laura Wright (academic) academic studying veganism

Laura Wright is a professor of English at Western Carolina University. Wright proposed 'vegan studies' as a new academic field, and her book The Vegan Studies Project: Food, Animals, and Gender in the Age of Terror (2015) served as the foundational text of the discipline.

References

  1. Wright (2017) , p. 729; Adkins (2017) , p. 3; Martinelli & Berkmanienė (2018) , pp. 3–5.
  2. 1 2 3 Almiron, Cole & Freeman (2018), p. 373.
  3. Quinn & Westwood (2018), p. 5.
  4. 1 2 Wright (2019), p. xv.
  5. Almiron, Cole & Freeman (2018) , p. 373; Larue (2019).
  6. For example, see Wright et al. (2017); Castricano & Simonsen (2016); Quinn & Westwood (2018).
  7. Twine (2018), p. 2.
  8. Wright (2015) , p. 109; "Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows: Understanding Carnism with Melanie Joy". Vegan Studies at UC Santa Barbara.
  9. Wright (2015) , pp. 16–18; Grant & MacKenzie-Dale (2016) , p. 307ff.
  10. Polish (2016) , pp. 373–374; Milburn (2018) , p. 253.
  11. Jones (2016) , p. 155; Milburn (2018) , p. 253.
  12. Holdier (2016), p. 52.
  13. Yarbrough & Thomas (2010) , p. 4; Quinn & Westwood (2018) , p. 6; Larue (2019).
  14. Milburn (2018).
  15. Leneman (1999) , p. 219; Farhall (1994) , p. iii; Watson (2002) , pp. 10–11.
  16. For Singer, Merchant, Regan and the "animal turn", see Kercsmar (2017) , p. 1018; for Singer and Regan, see DeMello (2012) , p. 4; for ecofeminism, see Taylor & Twine (2014) , p. 4.
  17. Kercsmar (2017), p. 1018.
  18. 1 2 DeMello (2012), p. 4.
  19. Armstrong & Simmons (2007), p. 1.
  20. Ritvo (2007), p. 119.
  21. Shapiro (1993), pp. 1–4.
  22. Gruen (2018), p. 9.
  23. Wolfe (2010), p. 99.
  24. DeMello (2012), p. 5, 10–11.
  25. DeMello (2012), p. 5.
  26. Taylor & Twine (2014), pp. 1–2, 4.
  27. Socha & Mitchell (2013), p. 111; also see Almiron, Cole & Freeman (2018), p. 373.
  28. 1 2 Quinn & Westwood (2018), p. 13.
  29. Wright (2015) , p. 18; Quinn & Westwood (2018) , p. 13.
  30. Adams (2015a), p. 154.
  31. Fiddes (1992); Fiddes (1989).
  32. Spencer (1996).
  33. Stuart (2006).
  34. Preece (2008).
  35. Giraud (2013), p. 56.
  36. Giraud (2013), pp. 49–59.
  37. Quinn & Westwood (2018) , pp. 8–9; Taylor & Twine (2014).
  38. "Vegan Theory event". Centre for Modern Studies, University of York. 1 December 2014. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Also see Quinn & Westwood (2018) , p. v.
  39. Quinn & Westwood (2018), pp. 8–9.
  40. Harper (2010a).
  41. Harper, A. Breeze (11 February 2010). "Critical Race and Veg*n Studies Intersect: Research Group". The Sistah Vegan Project. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012.
  42. Forson & Counihan (2012) , p. 606; also see Harper (2010b); Harper (2012).
    Harper, A. Breeze (16 June 2011). "Need for critical race vegan studies? Help Sistah Vegan Project Out". The Sistah Vegan Project. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012.
  43. Yarbrough & Thomas (2010), p. 3.
  44. Harper (2010b).
  45. "The Vegan Studies Project". University of Georgia Press. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019; Wright (2015).
  46. Quinn & Westwood (2018) , p. 8; also see Neufeld (2015); Almiron, Cole & Freeman (2018) , pp. 372–373.
  47. Wright (2018), p. 36.
  48. Wright (2015), p. 18.
  49. Stobie (2017) , p. 790; also see Martinelli & Berkmanienė (2018) , p. 515.
  50. Adkins (2017), p. 3.
  51. Prieto, Eric (Fall 2014 – Summer 2015). "News for Alumni & Friends of the Comparative Literature Program" (PDF). University of California, Santa Barbara. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2019.
    Garcia, Léna (15 March 2016). "What Vegans Study". Santa Barbara Independent. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016..
    Dicks, Brett Leigh (19 April 2016). "Animal Ethics 101" (PDF). Santa Barbara News-Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2019.
    Cugnier, Stéphane (20 April 2016). "Renan Larue, prophète français du veganisme à UC Santa Barbara". French Morning. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019.
    "Domain information: veganstudies.org". Whois.com. 1 February 2015. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019.
    Larue, Renan (2018). "Course description". veganstudies.org. Vegan Studies at UC Santa Barbara, University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on 31 December 2018.
    "Archive: Fall 2018. The Rise of Veganism and Vegan Studies". Westmont College. 2018. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019.
  52. Garcia (2016).
  53. Larue (2018); Dicks (2016); Garcia (2016); Pecnik (2016).
  54. Quinn & Westwood (2018) , p. v; Quinn & Westwood (2016).
    "Top university at forefront of vegan studies". Vegan Life. June 2016.
  55. Castricano & Simonsen (2016) , pp. v–xv; Joy & Tuider (2016) , p. xiv; Milburn (2018) , p. 252.
  56. Wright et al. (2017).
  57. Quinn & Westwood (2018), p. v.
  58. Wright (2019).
  59. Joy & Tuider (2016), p. xiv.
  60. Joy & Tuider (2016) , p. xiv; Larue (2019).
  61. Wright (2017) , p. 729; Almiron, Cole & Freeman (2018) , pp. 372–373.
  62. Adams (2015b), p. xvii.
  63. 1 2 Almiron, Cole & Freeman (2018), pp. 372–373.
  64. Milburn (2018), p. 253.
  65. Wright (2017), p. 734.
  66. Wright (2017) , p. 733; Stobie (2017).
  67. Salih (2018), pp. 57–60.
  68. Salih (2018), pp. 67, 70.
  69. Salih (2018), p. 67.
  70. Salih (2018), p. 70.
  71. Salih (2018), p. 72.
  72. Wright (2017) , pp. 729–730; Wright (2015) , p. 11.
  73. Larue (2019).
  74. Lockwood (2019), p. 219.
  75. Wright (2019), p. viii.

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Further reading