Index of sociology articles

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This is an index of sociology articles. For a shorter list, see List of basic sociology topics.

Sociology Scientific study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions

Sociology is the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social evolution. Sociology is also defined as the general science of society. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.

Contents

A

absolute povertyachieved statusacute diseaseadaptationAdultismaffect control theoryaffirmative actionaffluent alienationage gradeage structureaging in placeageismagencyAGIL Paradigmaggregateageismagrarian societyagribusinessAIDSair pollutionalcoholismaltermodernalienationalien land lawalternative societyaltruismalzheimer's diseaseAmaeamalgamationAmericanizationAnabaptistanarchyandrogynyanimal abuseanimismanomiaanomieanthropologyantipositivismantisemitismapartheidapollonianapplied scienceapproachappropriate technologyThe Archaeology of Knowledgearms racearms tradearranged marriageasceticismAsch conformity experimentsascribed statusassimilationassisted livingattribution theoryautarkyauthentic actauthoritarian personalityauthoritarianismauthorityautocracyautomationavant-gardeabortion

Poverty threshold Minimum income deemed adequate to live in a specific country or place

The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.

Achieved status is a concept developed by the anthropologist Ralph Linton denoting a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen. It is the opposite of Ascribed status. It reflects personal skills, abilities, and efforts. Examples of achieved status are being an Olympic athlete, being a criminal, or being a college professor.

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset. The quantitation of how much time constitutes "short" and "recent" varies by disease and by context, but the core denotation of "acute" is always qualitatively in contrast with "chronic", which denotes long-lasting disease. In addition, "acute" also often connotes two other meanings: sudden onset and severity, such as in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), where suddenness and severity are both established aspects of the meaning. It thus often connotes that the condition is fulminant, but not always. The one thing that acute MI and acute rhinitis have in common is that they are not chronic. They can happen again, but they are not the same case ongoing for months or years.

B

baby boomer — — balance of powerbase and superstructureThe Bell Curvebelongingberdachebiological determinismbioethicsbiosocial theoryBlack PowerBlack Panther Partyblended familyboomerang generationbourgeoisiebrainwashingbricolagebureaucracybureaucratic collectivismbureaucratizationbystander effect

In federations, the balance of power is occasionally used informally to designate the degree to which power is centralized in the federal government or devolved to the subnational governments. The term itself is largely a misnomer of its misapplication from geopolitics in the twentieth century and European politics in the nineteenth century involved, for example, in the assessment of the conditions of war following the Napoleonic campaigns across Europe In confederations, it is more likely that the balance of power will be in favour of the sub-national level of government. Canada is an example of such a federation. The Commonwealth of Australia is an example of a federation in which the balance of power has shifted in favour of the central (federal) government; although the states were constitutionally intended to be preponderant, the federal government has become dominant through various means of this power. The more refined use of the term usually defers to the designation of power at the domestic level using such terms as the separation of powers, or the distribution of powers among the states and institutions contained within a larger federal government.

Base and superstructure Marxist theory term

In Marxist theory, capitalist society consists of two parts: the base and superstructure. The base comprises the forces and relations of production into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. The base determines society's other relationships and ideas to comprise its superstructure, including its culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state. While the relation of the two parts is not strictly unidirectional, as the superstructure often affects the base, the influence of the base is predominant. Marx and Engels warned against such economic determinism.

<i>The Bell Curve</i> 1994 book by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray

The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life is a 1994 book by psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein and political scientist Charles Murray, in which the authors argue that human intelligence is substantially influenced by both inherited and environmental factors and that it is a better predictor of many personal outcomes, including financial income, job performance, birth out of wedlock, and involvement in crime than are an individual's parental socioeconomic status. They also argue that those with high intelligence, the "cognitive elite", are becoming separated from those of average and below-average intelligence. The book was controversial, especially where the authors wrote about racial differences in intelligence and discussed the implications of those differences.

C

capitalismcapitalistscarrying capacitycash cropcastecaste systemCatholic WorkerCatholicismcausationcause marketingcharismatic movementCBDChicago Area ProjectChicago schoolChicanochild laborchronic diseasechurchcitizencitizenshipcivil disordercivil inattentioncivil religioncivil rightscivil societyclanclassclass conflictclass consciousnessclass structureclassismcognitioncohabitationcold warcollective actioncollective behaviorcollective consciousnesscollective punishmentcollective representationcollective violencecolonialismcommoditycommodity chaincommodity fetishismcommunal riotcommunicationcommunismcommunitycommunity carecomparable worthcomparative sociologycomplex societycomputational sociologyconflict theoryconformityconglomeratesconscience collectiveconsciousnessconsensusconsensus decision-makingconsumerismcontent analysiscontingent workcontradictionconversation analysiscore countriescorporationcorrelationcorruptionCounterculturecounter-revolutionarycoup d'étatcreated environmentcreole languagecrimecritical theorycrowd psychologycrude birth ratecrude death ratecultcultural biascultural capitalcultural deprivationcultural imperialismcultural lagcultural materialismcultural pluralismcultural relativismcultural reproductioncultural systemcultural transmissioncultural universalcultureculture of povertyculture warscurative medicine

Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investments are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.

Carrying capacity The maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely

The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment. In population biology, carrying capacity is defined as the environment's maximal load, which is different from the concept of population equilibrium. Its effect on population dynamics may be approximated in a logistic model, although this simplification ignores the possibility of overshoot which real systems may exhibit.

Cash crop an agricultural crop which is grown to sell for profit

A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown to sell for profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm. The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family. In earlier times cash crops were usually only a small part of a farm's total yield, while today, especially in developed countries, almost all crops are mainly grown for revenue. In the least developed countries, cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in more developed nations, and hence have some export value.

D

Darwinismdeathdebt bondagedeconstructiondefensive medicinedeforestationdeinstitutionalisationdemocracydemographic transitiondemographydependency theorydependent variabledepletiondesertificationdeskillingdeterrence theorydevaluationdevelopmental statedeviancedeviance amplificationdeviant subculturedialecticdiasporadifferential associationdifferentiationdiffusiondionysiandiscoursediscriminationdivision of labourdivision of labourdomestic workerdomestic violencedouble standarddoubling timedramaturgical perspectiveDisneyficationdyaddysfunctiondystopia

Darwinism Theory of biological evolution

Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce. Also called Darwinian theory, it originally included the broad concepts of transmutation of species or of evolution which gained general scientific acceptance after Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859, including concepts which predated Darwin's theories. English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the term Darwinism in April 1860.

Death permanent cessation of vital functions

Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.

Debt bondage Persons pledge of their labor or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation

Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not clearly or reasonably stated, and the person who is holding the debt and thus has some control over the laborer, does not intend to ever admit that the debt has been repaid. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person supposedly owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation.

E

ecologismecologyeconomic determinismecological modernizationeconomic interdependenceeconomies of scaleeconomyecosystemeducationeducation systemegalitarianismelder abuseeliteembourgeoisement thesisemigrationempirical studiesencounterendogamyentrepreneurentropyenvironmentalismenvironmental sociologyepistemologyestateethnic groupethnic minorityethnicityethnocentrismethnographyethnomethodologyethnostatistics - eutrophicationevolutionevolutionary sociologyevolutionismexclusivistexistentialismexogamyexperimentexponential growthexport-processing zoneextended family

F

false consciousnessfamilyfascismfecundityfeedbackfemininityfeminismFerdinand Tönnies SocietyfertilityfetishismfeudalismFirst Worldflextime planforces of productionFordismforms of activity and interpersonal relationsfunctionalismfunctionsfundamentalismfutures studiesfuturistfuturistfuturology

G

gangGDPgemeinschaftGemeinschaft and Gesellschaftgendergendered division of labourgenderinggenealogy of power/knowledgegeneralized othergeneralized othergenetic engineeringgenocidegentrificationgeopoliticsGerman Society for Sociologygesellschaftgestalt psychologyghettoglobalizationglocalisationGNPgovernmentGreat Depressiongrounded theorygroup actiongroup behaviourgroup dynamicsThe Great TransformationGreen Revolutiongreenhouse effectgross domestic productgross national productguerrilla movement

H

habitushealth maintenance organizationhegemonyheterophobiaheterosexualityhidden curriculumhigher circleshigher educationHispanichistorical materialismhistorical sociologyholocausthomelessnesshomophobiahomosexualityhouse workhunter-gathererhuman ecologyhybridityhyperrealityhypothesishonour killing

I

'I' and the 'me'iatrogenesisideal typeidentityidentity politicsideologyimagined communitiesimmigrationimperialismingroupincomeindependent variableindustrial democracyindustrial productionindustrial societyindustrial sociologyindustrialisationindustrialization of warinfant mortalityinformal economyinformation technologyinfrastructureinner cityinstinctinstitutioninstitutional discriminationinstitutional racisminsurgencyintelligenceintelligence quotientintelligentsiaintentional communityinteractioninterest groupintergenerational mobilityinternal colonialisminternational division of laborinterpersonal violenceinterpretive

J

JapanizationJim Crow lawsjingoismJudaismjustice, distributivejuvenile delinquency

K

kin selectionkinshipkindness

L

labeling theorylabour powerlaissez-fairelate modernityLatino/alatent functionlawlegitimacylegitimation crisisLeipzig schoollesbianismliberal democracylife-courselife-cyclelife expectancylifeworldlimited warliteracylocal knowledgelongevitylongitudinal studylooking-glass selfloveluddismludditelumpenproletariat

M

macrosociologymalthusianismmanaged caremanagerial classmanifest functionmarginalizationmarriageMarxismmasculinitymass actionmass mediamass societymaster statusmaterialismmatriarchymatrilinealitymatrilocal residenceMcDonaldizationmeanmeans of productionmechanical solidaritymechanizationmedianmedicaidmedical gazemedical modelmedicalizationmedicaremegalopolismental disordermercantilismmedical sociologymeritocracymetanarrativemethodologymicrosociologymiddle classmilitarismmilitary-industrial complexmillenarianismminority groupmixed economymodemode of productionmode of reproductionmodernitymodernizationmonogamymonopolymonotheismmoral panicmoresmortality ratemulticulturalismmultilineal evolutionmultinational corporationmurder

N

nation statenationalismnatureneocolonialismneoliberalismneo-localitynew international division of labournon-state actornon-tariff barriers to tradenormnormal typenormlessnessnuclear family

O

objectivityoligarchyoligopolyontological securityontologyorganic solidarityorganizationorganizational behaviororganizational studiesorganized crime

P

paradigmparticipant observationparticipatory democracypastoral societypatient dumpingpatriarchalpatriarchypatrilinealitypeasantpeer groupperiphery countriesphenomenologyPhysician Assistantplea bargainingpluralismpluralist theorypolice brutalitypolitical economypolitical partypoliticspollutionpolyandrypolyarchypolygamypolygynypolylogismpolytheismpopular culturepositivismpost-Fordismpost-realismpost-structuralismpost-industrial societypostmodernismpostmodernitypovertypowerpower elitepragmatism — on pragmatic sociology, for now, see: George Herbert Meadprejudiceprimary deviancePrimary and secondary groupsprimary labor marketprimary sectorprivate health careprivatismprofanityprofessionalismprofessionproletariatprostitutionproto-globalizationpsychopathypsychosispublic order crimepublic healthpublic spherepurchasing power parity

Q

qualitative researchquantitative research

R

raceracismradicalraperationalisation processrationalityrationalizationrealismrebellionrecidivismreciprocityreductionismreflexivereflexivityreform movementreifyrelations of productionrelative deprivationrelative povertyrelativismreligionremodernismrepresentative democracyresearch methodsreserve army of labourresocializationretirement homerevolutionriotriskrite of passageritualrolerole conflictrural sociologyruling classruling elite

S

sacredsamplingsampling framesanctionSapir–Whorf hypothesisscapegoatingschizophreniascienceSecond Worldsecondary datasecondary deviancesecondary groupsecondary labor marketsectsecularizationselfself-consciousnesssemi-periphery countriessemioticsserial monogamyserial reciprocitysexsex rolesexismsexual harassmentsexual scriptsick rolesignificant othersimulationsnowball sampling — for entries beginning with social, see sections below — socialismsocializationsocietysociobiologysociocultural contextsociocultural evolution — for entries beginning with sociological, see sections below — sociology — for entries beginning with sociology of, see sections below — solid wastesolidaritysovereigntysplit labor market theorystanding armystate (polity)stateless nationstatusstatus groupstatus inconsistencystatus offensestem cellstepfamilystereotypestigmastigmatiseStrategic Defense Initiativestratificationstrikestructural unemploymentstructurationstructuresubculturesuburbanizationsurplus valuesurveillancesurveysymbolSymbolic Convergence Theorysymbolic interactionismsymbolic systemsystems theory

Social

social actionssocial activismsocial actorsocial analysissocial animalsocial anthropologysocial phobiasocial assistancesocial artifactsocial attitudesocial balance theorysocial behaviorsocial bookmarkingsocial capitalsocial centersocial changesocial charactersocial chauvinismsocial choice functionsocial choice theorysocial circlesocial classsocial clubsocial closuresocial cognitionsocial commentarysocial complexitysocial computingsocial condensersocial conflictsocial conservatismsocial contact [ disambiguation needed ]social contractsocial constructionsocial constructionismsocial construction of technologysocial contextsocial controlsocial costSocial Creditsocial cycle theorysocial dancesocial Darwinismsocial democracysocial demographysocial developmentsocial diffusion theorysocial dilemmasocial disobediencesocial disorganizationsocial divisionsocial ecologysocial effect of evolutionary theorysocial effects of rock and rollsocial elitesocial engineeringsocial environmentsocial enterprisesocial epistemologysocial equalitysocial evolutionsocial exchange theorysocial factsocial fobiasocial forcessocial forumsocial functionsocial geographysocial geometrysocial goodsocial groupsocial guidance filmsocial hackingsocial hierarchysocial historysocial housingsocial hygiene movementsocial identitysocial implosionsocial indicatorsocial inequalitysocial influencesocial informaticssocial infrastructuresocial injusticesocial insectsocial institutionsocial insurancesocial interactionsocial issuessocial judgment theorysocial justicesocial learning theorysocial liberalismsocial lifesocial loafingsocial maniasocial model of disabilitysocial mobilitysocial movementsocial networksocial normsocial ordersocial organisationsocial parasitismsocial phenomenonsocial philosophysocial policysocial positionsocial positivismsocial powersocial pressuresocial prestigesocial problemsocial progresssocial psychologysocial ranksocial realitysocial reformsocial relation - social reproductionsocial researchsocial resonancesocial responsibilitysocial risksocial risk positionssocial robotsocial rolesocial rulesocial sciencessocial simulationsocial skillssocial spacesocial statisticssocial statussocial stereotypesocial stigmasocial stratificationsocial structuresocial studiessocial supportsocial systemsocial theorysocial unrestsocial worksocial trendsocial science fictionSocial Solidaritysocial work

Sociological

sociology bookssociological frameworksociological imaginationsociological naturalismsociological paradigmsociological perspectivesociological positivismsociological theory

Sociology of

See Subfields of sociology for the full list of subfields of sociology

sociology of agingsociology of architecturesociology of artsociology of the bodysociology of childhoodsociology of conflictsociology of deviancesociology of disastersociology of educationsociology of emotionssociology of the familysociology of fatherhoodsociology of filmsociology of foodsociology of gendersociology of governmentsociology of health and illnesssociology of the history of sciencesociology of immigrationsociology of knowledgesociology of languagesociology of lawsociology of leisuresociology of marketssociology of medicinesociology of the militarysociology of musicsociology of politicssociology of punishmentsociology of racesociology of religionsociology of science and technologysociology of sportsociology of terrorismsociology of work-sociology of motherhood

T

tabooScientific managementTaylorizationtechnologyterrorismtertiary sector of economic activitythe Enlightenmentthe Renaissancetheoretical approachtheoryThird Worldtotal institutiontotal wartotalitarianismtotemismtotemtrading networktraditional statetransnational companytranssexualismtrusttemperament

U

unconsciousunderclassunderdevelopmentunemploymentunilineal evolutionunintended consequencesunionsuniversal health careupper classurban ecologyurban renewalurbanismurbanizationurban sociology

V

valuevalue-added theoryverstehenvertical mobilityVested interest (communication theory)victimless crimeviolencevisual sociology

W

wealthwealthfarewelfarewelfare statewhisper campaignwhite-collar crimewhite flightwhite guiltwhite privilegewomen's liberation movementworkworking classworld-systems theory

X

xenophobiaxenocentrism

Y

youth, youth subculture, youth welfare

Z

zero population growth


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Outline of sociology Overview of and topical guide to sociology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the discipline of sociology:

Émile Durkheim French sociologist

David Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and—with W. E. B. Du Bois, Karl Marx and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science.

In economics and sociology, the means of production are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, machinery and tools used in the production of goods and services. In the terminology of classical economics, the means of production are the "factors of production" minus financial and human capital.

Subculture group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong

A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural, political and sexual matters. Subcultures are part of society while keeping their specific characteristics intact. Examples of subcultures include hippies, goths and bikers. The concept of subcultures was developed in sociology and cultural studies. Subcultures differ from countercultures.

Marxs theory of alienation Sakhawat

Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes. The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity.

Conflict theories perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform

Conflict theories are perspectives in sociology and social psychology that emphasize a materialist interpretation of history, dialectical method of analysis, a critical stance toward existing social arrangements, and political program of revolution or, at least, reform. Conflict theories draw attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. It is therefore a macro-level analysis of society.

Political sociology branch of sociology

Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State and civil society to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power. The lineage of this discipline is typically traced from such thinkers as Montesquieu, Smith and Ferguson through the founding fathers of sociology – Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber – to such contemporary theorists as Gellner, Giddens, Habermas and Mann. Where a typical research question in political sociology might have been, "Why do so few American or European citizens choose to vote?" or even, "What difference does it make if women get elected?", political sociologists also now ask, "How is the body a site of power?", "How are emotions relevant to global poverty?", and, "What difference does knowledge make to democracy?"

Environmental sociology The study of interactions between societies and their natural environments

Environmental sociology is the study of interactions between societies and their natural environment. The field emphasizes the social factors that influence environmental resource management and cause environmental issues, the processes by which these environmental problems are socially constructed and defined as social issues, and societal responses to these problems.

The term new social movements (NSMs) is a theory of social movements that attempts to explain the plethora of new movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s which are claimed to depart significantly from the conventional social movement paradigm.

Collective consciousness, collective conscience, or collective conscious is the set of shared beliefs, ideas, and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society. In general, it does not refer to the specifically moral conscience, but to a shared understanding of social norms. The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his The Division of Labour in Society in 1893. The French word conscience generally means "conscience", "consciousness", "awareness", or "perception". Commentators and translators of Durkheim disagree on which is most appropriate, or whether the translation should depend on the context. Some prefer to treat the word 'conscience' as an untranslatable foreign word or technical term, without its normal English meaning. As for "collective", Durkheim makes clear that he is not reifying or hypostasizing this concept; for him, it is "collective" simply in the sense that it is common to many individuals; cf. social fact.

Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time. Whereas sociocultural development traces processes that tend to increase the complexity of a society or culture, sociocultural evolution also considers process that can lead to decreases in complexity (degeneration) or that can produce variation or proliferation without any seemingly significant changes in complexity (cladogenesis). Sociocultural evolution is "the process by which structural reorganization is affected through time, eventually producing a form or structure which is qualitatively different from the ancestral form".

Subcultural theory

In criminology, subcultural theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed through the symbolic interactionism school into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. The primary focus is on juvenile delinquency because theorists believe that if this pattern of offending can be understood and controlled, it will break the transition from teenage offender into habitual criminal. Some of the theories are functionalist assuming that criminal activity is motivated by economic needs, while others posit a social class rationale for deviance.

Marxism Economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Social conflict struggle for agency or power in society

Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society. Social conflict occurs when two or more actors oppose each other in social interaction, each exerts social power with reciprocity in an effort to achieve incompatible goals whilst preventing the other from attaining their own. It is a social relationship wherein action is intentionally oriented to carry out the actor's own will despite the resistance of others.

<i>The Division of Labour in Society</i> book by Émile Durkheim

The Division of Labour in Society is the doctoral dissertation of the French sociologist Émile Durkheim, published in 1893. It was influential in advancing sociological theories and thought, with ideas which in turn were influenced by Auguste Comte. Durkheim described how social order was maintained in societies based on two very different forms of solidarity – mechanical and organic – and the transition from more "primitive" societies to advanced industrial societies.

Deviance (sociology) Action or behavior that violates social norms

In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule, as well as informal violations of social norms. Deviance is a behavioural disposition that is not in conformity with an institutionalized set-up or code of conduct. Although deviance may have a negative connotation, the violation of social norms is not always a negative action; positive deviation exists in some situations. Although a norm is violated, a behavior can still be classified as positive or acceptable.

Marxian class theory asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by their role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position. A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests. Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction.

Articles in social and political philosophy include:

Criminology science about the causes and manifestations of crime

Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, which draws primarily upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.

Classical Marxism economic, philosophical, and sociological theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Classical Marxism refers to the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.