Last updated

Satellite image of deforestation in progress in eastern Bolivia. Worldwide, 10% of wilderness areas were lost between 1990 and 2015. Bolivia-Deforestation-EO.JPG
Satellite image of deforestation in progress in eastern Bolivia. Worldwide, 10% of wilderness areas were lost between 1990 and 2015.

Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. [2] Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. [3] About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests. [4]

Clearcutting forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down

Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down. Along with shelterwood and seed tree harvests, it is used by foresters to create certain types of forest ecosystemss and to promote select species that require an abundance of sunlight or grow in large, even-age stands. Logging companies and forest-worker unions in some countries support the practice for scientific, safety and economic reasons, while detractors consider it a form of deforestation that destroys natural habitats and contributes to climate change.

Clearing (geography) process by which vegetation, such as trees and bushes, together with their roots are permanently removed

The clearing of woods and forests is the process by which vegetation, such as trees and bushes, together with their roots are permanently removed. The main aim of this process is to clear areas of forest, woodland or scrub in order to use the soil for another purpose, such as pasture land, arable farming, human settlement or the construction of roads or railways.

Forest dense collection of trees covering a relatively large area

A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares (9.9×109 acres) (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006.


Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. As of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. [5] [6] Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.

Charcoal Lightweight black residue, made of carbon and ashes, after pyrolysis of animal or vegetal substances

Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon residue produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and plant materials. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis — the heating of wood or other organic materials in the absence of oxygen. This process is called charcoal burning. The finished charcoal consists largely of carbon.

Pasture land used for grazing

Pasture is a concrete spatial area where farmers keep livestock for grazing.

Livestock Domesticated animals

Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States. The USDA uses livestock similarly to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it specifically refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal, beef, and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category.

Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. In many countries, deforestation–both naturally occurring and human-induced–is an ongoing issue. [7] Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. [8] More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests. [9]

Human impact on the environment human impacts on environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation, mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crisis, and ecological collapse. Modifying the environment to fit the needs of society is causing severe effects, which become worse as the problem of human overpopulation continues. Some human activities that cause damage to the environment on a global scale include human reproduction, overconsumption, overexploitation, pollution, and deforestation, to name but a few. Some of the problems, including global warming and biodiversity loss pose an existential risk to the human race, and overpopulation causes those problems.

Extinction Termination of a taxon by the death of the last member

In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" after a period of apparent absence.


Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes a desert, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as through climate change and through the overexploitation of soil through human activity. When deserts appear automatically over the natural course of a planet's life cycle, then it can be called a natural phenomenon; however, when deserts emerge due to the rampant and unchecked depletion of nutrients in soil that are essential for it to remain arable, then a virtual "soil death" can be spoken of, which traces its cause back to human overexploitation. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem with far reaching consequences on socio-economic and political conditions.

Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres (890,000 sq mi) of forests around the world were cut down. [10] As a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres (2.4 million square miles) remain of the original 16 million square kilometres (6 million square miles) of tropical rainforest that formerly covered the Earth. [10] An area the size of a football pitch is cleared from the Amazon rainforest every minute, with 136 million acres (55 million hectares) of rainforest cleared for animal agriculture overall. [11]

Football pitch playing surface for the game of association football

A football pitch is the playing surface for the game of association football. Its dimensions and markings are defined by Law 1 of the Laws of the Game, "The Field of Play". The surface can either be natural or artificial. Artificial surfaces must be green in colour. The pitch is typically made of turf (grass) or artificial turf, although amateur and recreational teams often play on dirt fields.

Amazon rainforest rainforest in South America

The Amazon rainforest, also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2 (2,700,000 sq mi), of which 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, and with minor amounts in Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and France. States or departments in four nations contain "Amazonas" in their names. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world, with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species.

More than 3.6m hectares of virgin tropical forest was lost in 2018. [12]


The last batch of sawnwood from the peat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palm plantation. Riau deforestation 2006.jpg
The last batch of sawnwood from the peat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palm plantation.

According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture. Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32%; logging is responsible for 14%, and fuel wood removals make up 5%. [13]

Logging the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto transport vehicles

Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. Logging is the process of cutting trees, processing them, and moving them to a location for transport. It is the beginning of a supply chain that provides raw material for many products societies worldwide use for housing, construction, energy, and consumer paper products. Logging systems are also used to manage forests, reduce the risk of wildfires, and restore ecosystem functions.

Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation. [14] [15] Some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. [14] One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases. [16]

Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, [17] [18] the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, [19] population growth [20] and overpopulation, [21] [22] and urbanization. [23] Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, [24] [25] though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new flows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery. [26]

Deforestation in the Maranhao state of Brazil, 2016 Operacao Hymenaea, Julho-2016 (29399454651).jpg
Deforestation in the Maranhão state of Brazil, 2016

In 2000 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) found that "the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible", and that deforestation can result from "a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions". [20]

The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation. [27] Many important forest functions have no markets, and hence, no economic value that is readily apparent to the forests' owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being. [27] From the perspective of the developing world, the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go primarily to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services. Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world, such as the United States of America, cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited economically from this deforestation, and that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities, i.e. that the poor shouldn't have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem. [28]

Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years. [29] Whereas deforestation was primarily driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America, India, Java, and so on, during the late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century, by the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, and extensive agriculture. [30] Since 2001, commodity-driven deforestation, which is more likely to be permanent, has accounted for about a quarter of all forest disturbance, and this loss has been concentrated in South America and Southeast Asia. [31]

Environmental effects


Illegal "slash-and-burn" practice in Madagascar, 2010 Manantenina bushfire.jpg
Illegal "slash-and-burn" practice in Madagascar, 2010

Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. [32] [33] [34] [35]

Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, [36] [37] and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. [38] According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. [39] But recent calculations suggest that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6% to 17%. [40] Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun. The radiation converts to heat which causes global warming, which is better known as the greenhouse effect. [41] Plants remove carbon in the form of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis, but release some carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon, by storing it in plant tissues. Both the decay and the burning of wood release much of this stored carbon back into the atmosphere. Although an accumulation of wood is generally necessary for carbon sequestration, in some forests the network of symbiotic fungi that surround the trees' roots can store a significant amount of carbon, storing it underground even if the tree which supplied it dies and decays, or is harvested and burned. [42] Another way carbon can be sequestered by forests is for the wood to be harvested and turned into long-lived products, with new young trees replacing them. [43] Deforestation may also cause carbon stores held in soil to be released. Forests can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide (see carbon dioxide sink and carbon cycle).

In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall. [44] However, according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the models used to investigate remote responses to tropical deforestation showed a broad but mild temperature increase all through the tropical atmosphere. The model predicted <0.2 °C warming for upper air at 700 mb and 500 mb. However, the model shows no significant changes in other areas besides the Tropics. Though the model showed no significant changes to the climate in areas other than the Tropics, this may not be the case since the model has possible errors and the results are never absolutely definite. [45] Deforestation affects wind flows, water vapour flows and absorption of solar energy thus clearly influencing local and global climate. [46]

Fires on Borneo and Sumatra, 2006. People use slash-and-burn deforestation to clear land for agriculture. SouthEast Asia fires Oct 2006.jpg
Fires on Borneo and Sumatra, 2006. People use slash-and-burn deforestation to clear land for agriculture.

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as a new potential to complement ongoing climate policies. The idea consists in providing financial compensations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". [47]

Rainforests are widely believed by laymen to contribute a significant amount of the world's oxygen, [48] although it is now accepted by scientists that rainforests contribute little net oxygen to the atmosphere and deforestation has only a minor effect on atmospheric oxygen levels. [49] [50] However, the incineration and burning of forest plants to clear land releases large amounts of CO2, which contributes to global warming. [37] Scientists also state that tropical deforestation releases 1.5 billion tons of carbon each year into the atmosphere. [51]


The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the trees no longer transpire this water, resulting in a much drier climate. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. The dry soil leads to lower water intake for the trees to extract. [52] Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue. [53] [54]

Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows. Forests return most of the water that falls as precipitation to the atmosphere by transpiration. In contrast, when an area is deforested, almost all precipitation is lost as run-off. [55] That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover. Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapotranspiration, which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some cases affects precipitation levels downwind from the deforested area, as water is not recycled to downwind forests, but is lost in runoff and returns directly to the oceans. According to one study, in deforested north and northwest China, the average annual precipitation decreased by one third between the 1950s and the 1980s. [56]

Deforestation of the Highland Plateau in Madagascar has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. Madagascar highland plateau.jpg
Deforestation of the Highland Plateau in Madagascar has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.

Trees, and plants in general, affect the water cycle significantly: [57]

As a result, the presence or absence of trees can change the quantity of water on the surface, in the soil or groundwater, or in the atmosphere. This in turn changes erosion rates and the availability of water for either ecosystem functions or human services. Deforestation on lowland plains moves cloud formation and rainfall to higher elevations. [46]

The forest may have little impact on flooding in the case of large rainfall events, which overwhelm the storage capacity of forest soil if the soils are at or close to saturation.

Tropical rainforests produce about 30% of our planet's fresh water. [48]

Deforestation disrupts normal weather patterns creating hotter and drier weather thus increasing drought, desertification, crop failures, melting of the polar ice caps, coastal flooding and displacement of major vegetation regimes. [46]


Deforestation for the use of clay in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. The hill depicted is Morro da Covanca, in Jacarepagua Hillside deforestation in Rio de Janeiro.jpg
Deforestation for the use of clay in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. The hill depicted is Morro da Covanca, in Jacarepaguá

Due to surface plant litter, forests that are undisturbed have a minimal rate of erosion. The rate of erosion occurs from deforestation, because it decreases the amount of litter cover, which provides protection from surface runoff. [59] The rate of erosion is around 2 metric tons per square kilometre. [60] This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of (forest) roads and the use of mechanized equipment.

Deforestation in China's Loess Plateau many years ago has led to soil erosion; this erosion has led to valleys opening up. The increase of soil in the runoff causes the Yellow River to flood and makes it yellow colored. [60]

Greater erosion is not always a consequence of deforestation, as observed in the southwestern regions of the US. In these areas, the loss of grass due to the presence of trees and other shrubbery leads to more erosion than when trees are removed. [60]

Soils are reinforced by the presence of trees, which secure the soil by binding their roots to soil bedrock. Due to deforestation, the removal of trees causes sloped lands to be more susceptible to landslides. [57]


Deforestation on a human scale results in decline in biodiversity, [61] and on a natural global scale is known to cause the extinction of many species. [8] The removal or destruction of areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. [22] Forests support biodiversity, providing habitat for wildlife; [62] moreover, forests foster medicinal conservation. [63] With forest biotopes being irreplaceable source of new drugs (such as taxol), deforestation can destroy genetic variations (such as crop resistance) irretrievably. [64]

Illegal logging in Madagascar. In 2009, the vast majority of the illegally obtained rosewood was exported to China. Illegal export of rosewood 001.jpg
Illegal logging in Madagascar. In 2009, the vast majority of the illegally obtained rosewood was exported to China.

Since the tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on Earth [65] [66] and about 80% of the world's known biodiversity could be found in tropical rainforests, [67] [68] removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded [69] environment with reduced biodiversity. [8] [70] A study in Rondônia, Brazil, has shown that deforestation also removes the microbial community which is involved in the recycling of nutrients, the production of clean water and the removal of pollutants. [71]

It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant, animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation, which equates to 50,000 species a year. [72] Others state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction. [73] [74] The known extinction rates from deforestation rates are very low, approximately 1 species per year from mammals and birds which extrapolates to approximately 23,000 species per year for all species. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. [75] Such predictions were called into question by 1995 data that show that within regions of Southeast Asia much of the original forest has been converted to monospecific plantations, but that potentially endangered species are few and tree flora remains widespread and stable. [76]

Scientific understanding of the process of extinction is insufficient to accurately make predictions about the impact of deforestation on biodiversity. [77] Most predictions of forestry related biodiversity loss are based on species-area models, with an underlying assumption that as the forest declines species diversity will decline similarly. [78] However, many such models have been proven to be wrong and loss of habitat does not necessarily lead to large scale loss of species. [78] Species-area models are known to overpredict the number of species known to be threatened in areas where actual deforestation is ongoing, and greatly overpredict the number of threatened species that are widespread. [76]

A recent study of the Brazilian Amazon predicts that despite a lack of extinctions thus far, up to 90 percent of predicted extinctions will finally occur in the next 40 years. [79]

Economic impact

A satellite image showing deforestation for a palm oil plantation in Malaysia Malayasia iko 2002169.jpg
A satellite image showing deforestation for a palm oil plantation in Malaysia

Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standards for the world's poor and reduce global GDP by about 7% by 2050, a report concluded at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Bonn in 2008. [80] Historically, utilization of forest products, including timber and fuel wood, has played a key role in human societies, comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land. Today, developed countries continue to utilize timber for building houses, and wood pulp for paper. In developing countries, almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking. [81]

The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture, or over-exploitation of wood products, typically leads to a loss of long-term income and long-term biological productivity. West Africa, Madagascar, Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of declining timber harvests. Illegal logging causes billions of dollars of losses to national economies annually. [82]

The new procedures to get amounts of wood are causing more harm to the economy and overpower the amount of money spent by people employed in logging. [83] According to a study, "in most areas studied, the various ventures that prompted deforestation rarely generated more than US$5 for every ton of carbon they released and frequently returned far less than US$1". The price on the European market for an offset tied to a one-ton reduction in carbon is 23 euro (about US$35). [84]

Rapidly growing economies also have an effect on deforestation. Most pressure will come from the world's developing countries, which have the fastest-growing populations and most rapid economic (industrial) growth. [85] In 1995, economic growth in developing countries reached nearly 6%, compared with the 2% growth rate for developed countries. [85] As our human population grows, new homes, communities, and expansions of cities will occur. Connecting all of the new expansions will be roads, a very important part in our daily life. Rural roads promote economic development but also facilitate deforestation. [85] About 90% of the deforestation has occurred within 100 km of roads in most parts of the Amazon. [86]

The European Union is one of the largest importer of products made from illegal deforestation. [87]

Forest transition theory

The forest transition and historical baselines. Forest transition theory.jpg
The forest transition and historical baselines.

The forest area change may follow a pattern suggested by the forest transition (FT) theory, [89] whereby at early stages in its development a country is characterized by high forest cover and low deforestation rates (HFLD countries). [30]

Then deforestation rates accelerate (HFHD, high forest cover – high deforestation rate), and forest cover is reduced (LFHD, low forest cover – high deforestation rate), before the deforestation rate slows (LFLD, low forest cover – low deforestation rate), after which forest cover stabilizes and eventually starts recovering. FT is not a "law of nature", and the pattern is influenced by national context (for example, human population density, stage of development, structure of the economy), global economic forces, and government policies. A country may reach very low levels of forest cover before it stabilizes, or it might through good policies be able to “bridge” the forest transition. [90]

FT depicts a broad trend, and an extrapolation of historical rates therefore tends to underestimate future BAU deforestation for counties at the early stages in the transition (HFLD), while it tends to overestimate BAU deforestation for countries at the later stages (LFHD and LFLD).

Countries with high forest cover can be expected to be at early stages of the FT. GDP per capita captures the stage in a country’s economic development, which is linked to the pattern of natural resource use, including forests. The choice of forest cover and GDP per capita also fits well with the two key scenarios in the FT:

(i) a forest scarcity path, where forest scarcity triggers forces (for example, higher prices of forest products) that lead to forest cover stabilization; and

(ii) an economic development path, where new and better off-farm employment opportunities associated with economic growth (= increasing GDP per capita) reduce the profitability of frontier agriculture and slows deforestation. [30]

Historical causes


The Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse [8] was an event that occurred 300 million years ago. Climate change devastated tropical rainforests causing the extinction of many plant and animal species. The change was abrupt, specifically, at this time climate became cooler and drier, conditions that are not favorable to the growth of rainforests and much of the biodiversity within them. Rainforests were fragmented forming shrinking 'islands' further and further apart. Populations such as the sub class Lissamphibia were devastated, whereas Reptilia survived the collapse. The surviving organisms were better adapted to the drier environment left behind and served as legacies in succession after the collapse. [7]

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, ax heads, chisels, and polishing tools. Neolithique 0001.jpg
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, ax heads, chisels, and polishing tools.

Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth's land surface; now they cover a mere 6% and experts estimate that the last remaining rainforests could be consumed in less than 40 years. [91] Small scale deforestation was practiced by some societies for tens of thousands of years before the beginnings of civilization. [92] The first evidence of deforestation appears in the Mesolithic period. [93] It was probably used to convert closed forests into more open ecosystems favourable to game animals. [92] With the advent of agriculture, larger areas began to be deforested, and fire became the prime tool to clear land for crops. In Europe there is little solid evidence before 7000 BC. Mesolithic foragers used fire to create openings for red deer and wild boar. In Great Britain, shade-tolerant species such as oak and ash are replaced in the pollen record by hazels, brambles, grasses and nettles. Removal of the forests led to decreased transpiration, resulting in the formation of upland peat bogs. Widespread decrease in elm pollen across Europe between 8400–8300 BC and 7200–7000 BC, starting in southern Europe and gradually moving north to Great Britain, may represent land clearing by fire at the onset of Neolithic agriculture.

The Neolithic period saw extensive deforestation for farming land. [94] [95] Stone axes were being made from about 3000 BC not just from flint, but from a wide variety of hard rocks from across Britain and North America as well. They include the noted Langdale axe industry in the English Lake District, quarries developed at Penmaenmawr in North Wales and numerous other locations. Rough-outs were made locally near the quarries, and some were polished locally to give a fine finish. This step not only increased the mechanical strength of the axe, but also made penetration of wood easier. Flint was still used from sources such as Grimes Graves but from many other mines across Europe.

Evidence of deforestation has been found in Minoan Crete; for example the environs of the Palace of Knossos were severely deforested in the Bronze Age. [96]

Pre-industrial history

Easter Island, deforested. According to Jared Diamond: "Among past societies faced with the prospect of ruinous deforestation, Easter Island and Mangareva chiefs succumbed to their immediate concerns, but Tokugawa shoguns, Inca emperors, New Guinea highlanders, and 16th century German landowners adopted a long view and reafforested." Rano Raraku quarry.jpg
Easter Island, deforested. According to Jared Diamond: "Among past societies faced with the prospect of ruinous deforestation, Easter Island and Mangareva chiefs succumbed to their immediate concerns, but Tokugawa shoguns, Inca emperors, New Guinea highlanders, and 16th century German landowners adopted a long view and reafforested."

Throughout prehistory, humans were hunter gatherers who hunted within forests. In most areas, such as the Amazon, the tropics, Central America, and the Caribbean, [98] only after shortages of wood and other forest products occur are policies implemented to ensure forest resources are used in a sustainable manner.

Three regional studies of historic erosion and alluviation in ancient Greece found that, wherever adequate evidence exists, a major phase of erosion follows the introduction of farming in the various regions of Greece by about 500-1,000 years, ranging from the later Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age. [99] The thousand years following the mid-first millennium BC saw serious, intermittent pulses of soil erosion in numerous places. The historic silting of ports along the southern coasts of Asia Minor (e.g. Clarus, and the examples of Ephesus, Priene and Miletus, where harbors had to be abandoned because of the silt deposited by the Meander) and in coastal Syria during the last centuries BC.

Easter Island has suffered from heavy soil erosion in recent centuries, aggravated by agriculture and deforestation. [100] Jared Diamond gives an extensive look into the collapse of the ancient Easter Islanders in his book Collapse . The disappearance of the island's trees seems to coincide with a decline of its civilization around the 17th and 18th century. He attributed the collapse to deforestation and over-exploitation of all resources. [101] [102]

The famous silting up of the harbor for Bruges, which moved port commerce to Antwerp, also followed a period of increased settlement growth (and apparently of deforestation) in the upper river basins. In early medieval Riez in upper Provence, alluvial silt from two small rivers raised the riverbeds and widened the floodplain, which slowly buried the Roman settlement in alluvium and gradually moved new construction to higher ground; concurrently the headwater valleys above Riez were being opened to pasturage. [103]

A typical progress trap was that cities were often built in a forested area, which would provide wood for some industry (for example, construction, shipbuilding, pottery). When deforestation occurs without proper replanting, however; local wood supplies become difficult to obtain near enough to remain competitive, leading to the city's abandonment, as happened repeatedly in Ancient Asia Minor. Because of fuel needs, mining and metallurgy often led to deforestation and city abandonment. [104]

With most of the population remaining active in (or indirectly dependent on) the agricultural sector, the main pressure in most areas remained land clearing for crop and cattle farming. Enough wild green was usually left standing (and partially used, for example, to collect firewood, timber and fruits, or to graze pigs) for wildlife to remain viable. The elite's (nobility and higher clergy) protection of their own hunting privileges and game often protected significant woodland. [90]

Major parts in the spread (and thus more durable growth) of the population were played by monastical 'pioneering' (especially by the Benedictine and Commercial orders) and some feudal lords' recruiting farmers to settle (and become tax payers) by offering relatively good legal and fiscal conditions. Even when speculators sought to encourage towns, settlers needed an agricultural belt around or sometimes within defensive walls. When populations were quickly decreased by causes such as the Black Death or devastating warfare (for example, Genghis Khan's Mongol hordes in eastern and central Europe, Thirty Years' War in Germany), this could lead to settlements being abandoned. The land was reclaimed by nature, but the secondary forests usually lacked the original biodiversity.

Deforestation of Brazil's Atlantic Forest c.1820-1825 Rugendas - Defrichement d une Foret.jpg
Deforestation of Brazil's Atlantic Forest c.1820–1825

From 1100 to 1500 AD, significant deforestation took place in Western Europe as a result of the expanding human population. The large-scale building of wooden sailing ships by European (coastal) naval owners since the 15th century for exploration, colonisation, slave trade–and other trade on the high seas consumed many forest resources. Piracy also contributed to the over harvesting of forests, as in Spain. This led to a weakening of the domestic economy after Columbus' discovery of America, as the economy became dependent on colonial activities (plundering, mining, cattle, plantations, trade, etc.) [105]

In Changes In the Land (1983), William Cronon analyzed and documented 17th-century English colonists' reports of increased seasonal flooding in New England during the period when new settlers initially cleared the forests for agriculture. They believed flooding was linked to widespread forest clearing upstream.

The massive use of charcoal on an industrial scale in Early Modern Europe was a new type of consumption of western forests; even in Stuart England, the relatively primitive production of charcoal has already reached an impressive level. Stuart England was so widely deforested that it depended on the Baltic trade for ship timbers, and looked to the untapped forests of New England to supply the need. Each of Nelson's Royal Navy war ships at Trafalgar (1805) required 6,000 mature oaks for its construction. In France, Colbert planted oak forests to supply the French navy in the future. When the oak plantations matured in the mid-19th century, the masts were no longer required because shipping had changed.

Norman F. Cantor's summary of the effects of late medieval deforestation applies equally well to Early Modern Europe: [106]

Europeans had lived in the midst of vast forests throughout the earlier medieval centuries. After 1250 they became so skilled at deforestation that by 1500 they were running short of wood for heating and cooking. They were faced with a nutritional decline because of the elimination of the generous supply of wild game that had inhabited the now-disappearing forests, which throughout medieval times had provided the staple of their carnivorous high-protein diet. By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize.

Industrial era

In the 19th century, introduction of steamboats in the United States was the cause of deforestation of banks of major rivers, such as the Mississippi River, with increased and more severe flooding one of the environmental results. The steamboat crews cut wood every day from the riverbanks to fuel the steam engines. Between St. Louis and the confluence with the Ohio River to the south, the Mississippi became more wide and shallow, and changed its channel laterally. Attempts to improve navigation by the use of snag pullers often resulted in crews' clearing large trees 100 to 200 feet (61 m) back from the banks. Several French colonial towns of the Illinois Country, such as Kaskaskia, Cahokia and St. Philippe, Illinois, were flooded and abandoned in the late 19th century, with a loss to the cultural record of their archeology. [107]

The wholescale clearance of woodland to create agricultural land can be seen in many parts of the world, such as the Central forest-grasslands transition and other areas of the Great Plains of the United States. Specific parallels are seen in the 20th-century deforestation occurring in many developing nations.

Rates of deforestation

Slash-and-burn farming in the state of Rondonia, western Brazil Fires and Deforestation on the Amazon Frontier, Rondonia, Brazil - August 12, 2007.jpg
Slash-and-burn farming in the state of Rondônia, western Brazil

Global deforestation [108] sharply accelerated around 1852. [109] [110] It has been estimated that about half of the Earth's mature tropical forests—between 7.5 million and 8 million km2 (2.9 million to 3 million sq mi) of the original 15 million to 16 million km2 (5.8 million to 6.2 million sq mi) that until 1947 covered the planet [111] —have now been destroyed. [9] [112] Some scientists have predicted that unless significant measures (such as seeking out and protecting old growth forests that have not been disturbed) [111] are taken on a worldwide basis, by 2030 there will only be 10% remaining, [109] [112] with another 10% in a degraded condition. [109] 80% will have been lost, and with them hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable species. [109] Some cartographers have attempted to illustrate the sheer scale of deforestation by country using a cartogram. [113]

Estimates vary widely as to the extent of tropical deforestation. [114] [115] Over a 50-year period, percentage of land cover by tropical rainforests has decreased by 50%. Where total land coverage by tropical rainforests decreased from 14% to 6%. A large contribution to this loss can be identified between 1960 and 1990, when 20% of all tropical rainforests were destroyed. At this rate, extinction of such forests is projected to occur by the mid 21st century. [7]

A 2002 analysis of satellite imagery suggested that the rate of deforestation in the humid tropics (approximately 5.8 million hectares per year) was roughly 23% lower than the most commonly quoted rates. [116] Conversely, a newer analysis of satellite images reveals that deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is twice as fast as scientists previously estimated. [117] [118]

Some have argued that deforestation trends may follow a Kuznets curve, [119] which if true would nonetheless fail to eliminate the risk of irreversible loss of non-economic forest values (for example, the extinction of species). [120] [121]

Satellite image of Haiti's border with the Dominican Republic (right) shows the amount of deforestation on the Haitian side Haiti deforestation.jpg
Satellite image of Haiti's border with the Dominican Republic (right) shows the amount of deforestation on the Haitian side

A 2005 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that although the Earth's total forest area continued to decrease at about 13 million hectares per year, the global rate of deforestation has recently been slowing. [122] [123] The 2016 report by the FAO [124] reports from 2010 to 2015 there was a worldwide decrease in forest area of 3.3 million ha per year. During this five-year period, the biggest forest area loss occurred in the tropics, particularly in South America and Africa. Per capita forest area decline was also greatest in the tropics and subtropics but is occurring in every climatic domain (except in the temperate) as populations increase.

Others claim that rainforests are being destroyed at an ever-quickening pace. [125] The London-based Rainforest Foundation notes that "the UN figure is based on a definition of forest as being an area with as little as 10% actual tree cover, which would therefore include areas that are actually savannah-like ecosystems and badly damaged forests". [126] Other critics of the FAO data point out that they do not distinguish between forest types, [127] and that they are based largely on reporting from forestry departments of individual countries, [128] which do not take into account unofficial activities like illegal logging. [129]

Despite these uncertainties, there is agreement that destruction of rainforests remains a significant environmental problem. Up to 90% of West Africa's coastal rainforests have disappeared since 1900. [130] In South Asia, about 88% of the rainforests have been lost. [131] Much of what remains of the world's rainforests is in the Amazon basin, where the Amazon Rainforest covers approximately 4 million square kilometres. [132] The regions with the highest tropical deforestation rate between 2000 and 2005 were Central America—which lost 1.3% of its forests each year—and tropical Asia. [126] In Central America, two-thirds of lowland tropical forests have been turned into pasture since 1950 and 40% of all the rainforests have been lost in the last 40 years. [133] Brazil has lost 90–95% of its Mata Atlântica forest. [134] Paraguay was losing its natural semi humid forests in the country’s western regions at a rate of 15.000 hectares at a randomly studied 2-month period in 2010, [135] Paraguay’s parliament refused in 2009 to pass a law that would have stopped cutting of natural forests altogether. [136]

Deforestation around Pakke Tiger Reserve, India Deforestation around Pakke Tiger Reserve, India.JPG
Deforestation around Pakke Tiger Reserve, India

Madagascar has lost 90% of its eastern rainforests. [137] [138] As of 2007, less than 50% of Haiti's forests remained. [139] Mexico, India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Bangladesh, China, Sri Lanka, Laos, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Guinea, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, have lost large areas of their rainforest. [140] [141] Several countries, notably Brazil, have declared their deforestation a national emergency. [142] [143] The World Wildlife Fund's ecoregion project catalogues habitat types throughout the world, including habitat loss such as deforestation, showing for example that even in the rich forests of parts of Canada such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests of the prairie provinces half of the forest cover has been lost or altered.


Rates of deforestation vary around the world.

In 2011 Conservation International listed the top 10 most endangered forests, characterized by having all lost 90% or more of their original habitat, and each harboring at least 1500 endemic plant species (species found nowhere else in the world). [144]

Top 10 Most Endangered Forests 2011
Endangered forestRegionRemaining habitatPredominate vegetation typeNotes
Indo-Burma Asia-Pacific5% Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Rivers, floodplain wetlands, mangrove forests. Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, India. [145]
New Caledonia Asia-Pacific5%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsSee note for region covered. [146]
Sundaland Asia-Pacific7%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsWestern half of the Indo-Malayan archipelago including southern Borneo and Sumatra. [147]
Philippines Asia-Pacific7%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsForests over the entire country including 7,100 islands. [148]
Atlantic Forest South America8%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsForests along Brazil's Atlantic coast, extends to parts of Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay. [149]
Mountains of Southwest ChinaAsia-Pacific8% Temperate coniferous forest See note for region covered. [150]
California Floristic Province North America10% Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests See note for region covered. [151]
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Africa10%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia. [152]
Madagascar & Indian Ocean IslandsAfrica10%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Seychelles, Comoros. [153]
Eastern Afromontane Africa11%Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Montane grasslands and shrublands
Forests scattered along the eastern edge of Africa, from Saudi Arabia in the north to Zimbabwe in the south. [154]
Table source: [144]


Reducing emissions

Main international organizations including the United Nations and the World Bank, have begun to develop programs aimed at curbing deforestation. The blanket term Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) describes these sorts of programs, which use direct monetary or other incentives to encourage developing countries to limit and/or roll back deforestation. Funding has been an issue, but at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties-15 (COP-15) in Copenhagen in December 2009, an accord was reached with a collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources, including forestry and investments through international institutions, that will approach USD 30 billion for the period 2010–2012. [155] Significant work is underway on tools for use in monitoring developing country adherence to their agreed REDD targets. These tools, which rely on remote forest monitoring using satellite imagery and other data sources, include the Center for Global Development's FORMA (Forest Monitoring for Action) initiative [156] and the Group on Earth Observations' Forest Carbon Tracking Portal. [157] Methodological guidance for forest monitoring was also emphasized at COP-15. [158] The environmental organization Avoided Deforestation Partners leads the campaign for development of REDD through funding from the U.S. government. [159] In 2014, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and partners launched Open Foris – a set of open-source software tools that assist countries in gathering, producing and disseminating information on the state of forest resources. [160] The tools support the inventory lifecycle, from needs assessment, design, planning, field data collection and management, estimation analysis, and dissemination. Remote sensing image processing tools are included, as well as tools for international reporting for Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and MRV (Measurement, Reporting and Verification) [161] and FAO's Global Forest Resource Assessments.

In evaluating implications of overall emissions reductions, countries of greatest concern are those categorized as High Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (HFHD) and Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (LFHD). Afghanistan, Benin, Botswana, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe are listed as having Low Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (LFHD). Brazil, Cambodia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Malaysia, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Venezuela, Zambia are listed as High Forest Cover with High Rates of Deforestation (HFHD). [162]

Control can be made by the companies. In 2018 the biggest palm oil traider, Wilmar, decided to control his suppliers for avoid deforestation. This is an important precedent [163]

Payments for conserving forests

In Bolivia, deforestation in upper river basins has caused environmental problems, including soil erosion and declining water quality. An innovative project to try and remedy this situation involves landholders in upstream areas being paid by downstream water users to conserve forests. The landholders receive US$20 to conserve the trees, avoid polluting livestock practices, and enhance the biodiversity and forest carbon on their land. They also receive US$30, which purchases a beehive, to compensate for conservation for two hectares of water-sustaining forest for five years. Honey revenue per hectare of forest is US$5 per year, so within five years, the landholder has sold US$50 of honey. [164] The project is being conducted by Fundación Natura Bolivia and Rare Conservation, with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network.

Land rights

Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests. Shennongjia virgin forest.jpg
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.

Transferring rights over land from public domain to its indigenous inhabitants is argued to be a cost effective strategy to conserve forests. [165] This includes the protection of such rights entitled in existing laws, such as India’s Forest Rights Act. [165] The transferring of such rights in China, perhaps the largest land reform in modern times, has been argued to have increased forest cover. [166] In Brazil, forested areas given tenure to indigenous groups have even lower rates of clearing than national parks. [166]


New methods are being developed to farm more intensively, such as high-yield hybrid crops, greenhouse, autonomous building gardens, and hydroponics. These methods are often dependent on chemical inputs to maintain necessary yields. In cyclic agriculture, cattle are grazed on farm land that is resting and rejuvenating. Cyclic agriculture actually increases the fertility of the soil. Intensive farming can also decrease soil nutrients by consuming at an accelerated rate the trace minerals needed for crop growth. [7] The most promising approach, however, is the concept of food forests in permaculture, which consists of agroforestal systems carefully designed to mimic natural forests, with an emphasis on plant and animal species of interest for food, timber and other uses. These systems have low dependence on fossil fuels and agro-chemicals, are highly self-maintaining, highly productive, and with strong positive impact on soil and water quality, and biodiversity.

Monitoring deforestation

Agents from IBAMA, Brazil's environmental police, searching for illegal logging activity in Indigenous territory in the Amazon rainforest, 2018 Terra Indigena Tenharim do Igarape Preto, Amazonas (41737918674).jpg
Agents from IBAMA, Brazil's environmental police, searching for illegal logging activity in Indigenous territory in the Amazon rainforest, 2018

There are multiple methods that are appropriate and reliable for reducing and monitoring deforestation. One method is the “visual interpretation of aerial photos or satellite imagery that is labor-intensive but does not require high-level training in computer image processing or extensive computational resources”. [86] Another method includes hot-spot analysis (that is, locations of rapid change) using expert opinion or coarse resolution satellite data to identify locations for detailed digital analysis with high resolution satellite images. [86] Deforestation is typically assessed by quantifying the amount of area deforested, measured at the present time. From an environmental point of view, quantifying the damage and its possible consequences is a more important task, while conservation efforts are more focused on forested land protection and development of land-use alternatives to avoid continued deforestation. [86] Deforestation rate and total area deforested, have been widely used for monitoring deforestation in many regions, including the Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring by INPE. [51] A global satellite view is available. [167] [168]

Forest management

Efforts to stop or slow deforestation have been attempted for many centuries because it has long been known that deforestation can cause environmental damage sufficient in some cases to cause societies to collapse. In Tonga, paramount rulers developed policies designed to prevent conflicts between short-term gains from converting forest to farmland and long-term problems forest loss would cause, [169] while during the 17th and 18th centuries in Tokugawa, Japan, [170] the shōguns developed a highly sophisticated system of long-term planning to stop and even reverse deforestation of the preceding centuries through substituting timber by other products and more efficient use of land that had been farmed for many centuries. In 16th-century Germany, landowners also developed silviculture to deal with the problem of deforestation. However, these policies tend to be limited to environments with good rainfall, no dry season and very young soils (through volcanism or glaciation). This is because on older and less fertile soils trees grow too slowly for silviculture to be economic, whilst in areas with a strong dry season there is always a risk of forest fires destroying a tree crop before it matures.

In the areas where "slash-and-burn" is practiced, switching to "slash-and-char" would prevent the rapid deforestation and subsequent degradation of soils. The biochar thus created, given back to the soil, is not only a durable carbon sequestration method, but it also is an extremely beneficial amendment to the soil. Mixed with biomass it brings the creation of terra preta, one of the richest soils on the planet and the only one known to regenerate itself.

Sustainable practices

Bamboo is advocated as a more sustainable alternative for cutting down wood for fuel. Bamboo Feb09.jpg
Bamboo is advocated as a more sustainable alternative for cutting down wood for fuel.

Certification, as provided by global certification systems such as Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification and Forest Stewardship Council, contributes to tackling deforestation by creating market demand for timber from sustainably managed forests. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), "A major condition for the adoption of sustainable forest management is a demand for products that are produced sustainably and consumer willingness to pay for the higher costs entailed. Certification represents a shift from regulatory approaches to market incentives to promote sustainable forest management. By promoting the positive attributes of forest products from sustainably managed forests, certification focuses on the demand side of environmental conservation." [172] Rainforest Rescue argues that the standards of organizations like FSC are too closely connected to timber industry interests and therefore do not guarantee environmentally and socially responsible forest management. In reality, monitoring systems are inadequate and various cases of fraud have been documented worldwide. [173]

Some nations have taken steps to help increase the number of trees on Earth. In 1981, China created National Tree Planting Day Forest and forest coverage had now reached 16.55% of China's land mass, as against only 12% two decades ago. [174]

Using fuel from bamboo rather than wood results in cleaner burning, and since bamboo matures much faster than wood, deforestation is reduced as supply can be replenished faster. [171]


In many parts of the world, especially in East Asian countries, reforestation and afforestation are increasing the area of forested lands. [175] The amount of woodland has increased in 22 of the world's 50 most forested nations. Asia as a whole gained 1 million hectares of forest between 2000 and 2005. Tropical forest in El Salvador expanded more than 20% between 1992 and 2001. Based on these trends, one study projects that global forestation will increase by 10%—an area the size of India—by 2050. [176]

In the People's Republic of China, where large scale destruction of forests has occurred, the government has in the past required that every able-bodied citizen between the ages of 11 and 60 plant three to five trees per year or do the equivalent amount of work in other forest services. The government claims that at least 1 billion trees have been planted in China every year since 1982. This is no longer required today, but 12 March of every year in China is the Planting Holiday. Also, it has introduced the Green Wall of China project, which aims to halt the expansion of the Gobi desert through the planting of trees. However, due to the large percentage of trees dying off after planting (up to 75%), the project is not very successful.[ citation needed ] There has been a 47-million-hectare increase in forest area in China since the 1970s. [176] The total number of trees amounted to be about 35 billion and 4.55% of China's land mass increased in forest coverage. The forest coverage was 12% two decades ago and now is 16.55%. [174]

An ambitious proposal for China is the Aerially Delivered Re-forestation and Erosion Control System and the proposed Sahara Forest Project coupled with the Seawater Greenhouse.

In Western countries, increasing consumer demand for wood products that have been produced and harvested in a sustainable manner is causing forest landowners and forest industries to become increasingly accountable for their forest management and timber harvesting practices.

The Arbor Day Foundation's Rain Forest Rescue program is a charity that helps to prevent deforestation. The charity uses donated money to buy up and preserve rainforest land before the lumber companies can buy it. The Arbor Day Foundation then protects the land from deforestation. This also locks in the way of life of the primitive tribes living on the forest land. Organizations such as Community Forestry International, Cool Earth, The Nature Conservancy, World Wide Fund for Nature, Conservation International, African Conservation Foundation and Greenpeace also focus on preserving forest habitats. Greenpeace in particular has also mapped out the forests that are still intact [177] and published this information on the internet. [178] World Resources Institute in turn has made a simpler thematic map [179] showing the amount of forests present just before the age of man (8000 years ago) and the current (reduced) levels of forest. [180] These maps mark the amount of afforestation required to repair the damage caused by people.

Forest plantations

In order to acquire the world’s demand for wood, it is suggested that high yielding forest plantations are suitable according to forest writers Botkins and Sedjo. Plantations that yield 10 cubic meters per hectare a year would supply enough wood for trading of 5% of the world’s existing forestland. By contrast, natural forests produce about 1–2 cubic meters per hectare; therefore, 5–10 times more forestland would be required to meet demand. Forester Chad Oliver has suggested a forest mosaic with high-yield forest lands interspersed with conservation land. [181]

Globally, planted forests increased from 4.1% to 7.0% of the total forest area between 1990 and 2015. [182] Plantation forests made up 280 million ha in 2015, an increase of about 40 million ha in the last ten years. [183] Globally, planted forests consist of about 18% exotic or introduced species while the rest are species native to the country where they are planted. In South America, Oceania, and East and Southern Africa, planted forests are dominated by introduced species: 88%, 75% and 65%, respectively. In North America, West and Central Asia, and Europe the proportions of introduced species in plantations are much lower at 1%, 3% and 8% of the total area planted, respectively. [182]

In the country of Senegal, on the western coast of Africa, a movement headed by youths has helped to plant over 6 million mangrove trees. The trees will protect local villages from storm damages and will provide a habitat for local wildlife. The project started in 2008, and already the Senegalese government has been asked to establish rules and regulations that would protect the new mangrove forests. [184]

Military context

U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange during the Vietnam War US-Huey-helicopter-spraying-Agent-Orange-in-Vietnam.jpg
U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange during the Vietnam War

While demands for agricultural and urban use for the human population cause the preponderance of deforestation, military causes can also intrude. One example of deliberate deforestation played out in the U.S. zone of occupation in Germany after World War II ended in 1945. Before the onset of the Cold War, defeated Germany was still considered a potential future threat rather than a potential future ally. To address this threat, the victorious Allies made attempts to lower German industrial potential, of which forests were deemed[ by whom? ] an element. Sources in the U.S. government admitted that the purpose of this was that the "ultimate destruction of the war potential of German forests". As a consequence of the practice of clear-felling, deforestation resulted which could "be replaced only by long forestry development over perhaps a century". [185]

Operations in war can also cause deforestation. For example, in the 1945 Battle of Okinawa, bombardment and other combat operations reduced a lush tropical landscape into "a vast field of mud, lead, decay and maggots". [186]

Deforestation can also result from the intentional tactics of military forces. Clearing forest became an element in the Russian Empire's successful conquest of the Caucasus in the mid-19th century. [187] The British (during the Malayan Emergency) and the United States (in the Korean War [188] and in the Vietnam War) used defoliants (like Agent Orange or others). [189] [190] [191] [ need quotation to verify ]

Public health context

Deforestation eliminates a great number of species of plants and animals which also often results in an increase in disease. [192] Loss of native species allows new species to come to dominance. Often the destruction of predatory species can result in an increase in rodent populations which can carry plague. Additionally, erosion can produce pools of stagnant water that are perfect breeding grounds for mosquitos, well known vectors of malaria, yellow fever, nipah virus, and more. [193] Deforestation can also create a path for non-native species to flourish such as certain types of snails, which have been correlated with an increase in schistosomiasis cases. [192] [194]

Deforestation is occurring all over the world and has been coupled with an increase in the occurrence of disease outbreaks. In Malaysia, thousands of acres of forest have been cleared for pig farms. This has resulted in an increase in the zoonosis the Nipah virus. [195] In Kenya, deforestation has led to an increase in malaria cases which is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality the country. [196] [197] A 2017 study in the American Economic Review found that deforestation substantially increased the incidence of malaria in Nigeria. [198]

Another pathway through which deforestation affects disease is the relocation and dispersion of disease-carrying hosts. This disease emergence pathway can be called "range expansion", whereby the host’s range (and thereby the range of pathogens) expands to new geographic areas. [199] Through deforestation, hosts and reservoir species are forced into neighboring habitats. Accompanying the reservoir species are pathogens that have the ability to find new hosts in previously unexposed regions. As these pathogens and species come into closer contact with humans, they are infected both directly and indirectly.

A catastrophic example of range expansion is the 1998 outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia. [200] For a number of years, deforestation, drought, and subsequent fires led to a dramatic geographic shift and density of fruit bats, a reservoir for Nipah virus. [201] Deforestation reduced the available fruiting trees in the bats’ habitat, and they encroached on surrounding orchards which also happened to be the location of a large number of pigsties. The bats, through proximity spread the Nipah to pigs. While the virus infected the pigs, mortality was much lower than among humans, making the pigs a virulent host leading to the transmission of the virus to humans. This resulted in 265 reported cases of encephalitis, of which 105 resulted in death. This example provides an important lesson for the impact deforestation can have on human health.

Another example of range expansion due to deforestation and other anthropogenic habitat impacts includes the Capybara rodent in Paraguay. [202] This rodent is the host of a number of zoonotic diseases and, while there has not yet been a human-borne outbreak due to the movement of this rodent into new regions, it offers an example of how habitat destruction through deforestation and subsequent movements of species is occurring regularly.

A now well-developed theory is that the spread of HIV it is at least partially due deforestation. Rising populations created a food demand and with deforestation opening up new areas of the forest the hunters harvested a great deal of primate bushmeat, which is believed to be the origin of HIV. [192]

See also

Related Research Articles

Rainforest type of forest with high rainfall

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests. The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests.

Reforestation land regeneration method

Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation. Reforestation can be used to rectify or improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems, mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and harvest for resources, particularly timber, but also non-timber forest products.

Resource depletion wildlife depletion

Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished. Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources. Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. The value of a resource is a direct result of its availability in nature and the cost of extracting the resource, the more a resource is depleted the more the value of the resource increases. There are several types of resource depletion the most known being; Aquifer depletion, deforestation, mining for fossil fuels and minerals, pollution or contamination of resources, slash-and-burn agricultural practices, Soil erosion, and overconsumption, excessive or unnecessary use of resources.

Tropical rainforest specific ecosystem

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator ; they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28 degree latitudes. Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest that also includes the more extensive seasonal tropical forests.

Agroforestry land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland

Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied benefits, including increased biodiversity and reduced erosion. Agroforestry practices have been successful in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the United States.

Habitat destruction is the process by which natural habitat becomes incapable of supporting its native species. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed reducing biodiversity. Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industrial production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling, and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide. It is a process of natural environmental change that may be caused by habitat fragmentation, geological processes, climate change or by human activities such as the introduction of invasive species, ecosystem nutrient depletion, and other human activities.

Afforestation establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover

Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.

Deforestation in Ethiopia

Deforestation in Ethiopia is due to locals clearing forests for their personal needs, such as for fuel, hunting, agriculture, and at times for religious reasons. The main causes of deforestation in Ethiopia are shifting agriculture, livestock production and fuel in drier areas. Deforestation is the process of removing the forest ecosystem by cutting the trees and changing the shape of the land to suit different uses.

Deforestation in Brazil

Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually. Since 1970, over 700,000 square kilometers (270,000 sq mi) of the Amazon rainforest have been destroyed. In 2012, the Amazon was approximately 5.4 million square kilometres, which is only 87% of the Amazon's original state.

Deforestation in Nigeria

As of 2005, Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Between 2000 and 2005 the country lost 55.7% of its primary forests, and the rate of forest change increased by 31.2% to 3.12% per annum. Forest has been cleared for logging, timber export, subsistence agriculture and notably the collection of wood for fuel which remains problematic in western Africa.

Deforestation in Costa Rica

Deforestation is a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystems in Costa Rica. The country has a rich biodiversity with some 12,000 species of plants, 1,239 species of butterflies, 838 species of birds, 440 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 232 species of mammals, which have been under threat from deforestation.

Deforestation by region

Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world. In 2009, 2/3 of the world forests were in 10 top countries: 1) Russia, 2) Brazil, 3) Canada, 4) United States, 5) China, 6) Australia, 7) Congo, 8) Indonesia, 9) Peru and 10) India.

Environmental impact of agriculture agricultures impact on the environment

The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them, and how those effects can be traced back to those practices. The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. Ultimately, the environmental impact depends on the production practices of the system used by farmers. The connection between emissions into the environment and the farming system is indirect, as it also depends on other climate variables such as rainfall and temperature.


Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes.

Deforestation in Madagascar

Deforestation in Madagascar is an ongoing environmental issue. Deforestation creates agricultural or pastoral land but can also result in desertification, water resource degradation, biodiversity erosion and habitat loss, and soil loss.

The environmental effects of cocoa production

Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a significant transnational issue. In the DRC, forests are cleared for agricultural purposes by utilizing slash and burn techniques.

Afforestation in Japan

The Japanese temperate rainforest is well sustained and maintains a high biodiversity. One method that has been utilized in maintaining the health of forests in Japan has been afforestation. The Japanese government and private businesses have set up multiple projects to plant native tree species in open areas scattered throughout the country. This practice has resulted in shifts in forest structure and a healthy temperate rainforest that maintains a high biodiversity.

Deforestation is one of the main contributors to climate change. It comes in many forms: wildfire, agricultural clearcutting, livestock ranching, and logging for timber, among others. Forests cover 31% of the land area on Earth and annually, 18.7 million acres of forest is lost. Mass deforestation continues to threaten tropical forests, their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. The main area of concern of deforestation is in tropical rainforests, since it is home to the majority of the biodiversity. Organizations such as World Wildlife Fund focus on the preservation of nature and the reduction of the most pressing threats to the diversity of life on Earth.


  1. "Un dizième des terres sauvages ont disparu en deux décennies" (Radio Télévision Suisse) citing Watson, James E.M.; Shanahan, Danielle F.; Di Marco, Moreno; Allan, James; Laurance, William F.; Sanderson, Eric W.; MacKey, Brendan; Venter, Oscar (2016). "Catastrophic Declines in Wilderness Areas Undermine Global Environment Targets". Current Biology. 26 (21): 2929–2934. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.08.049. PMID   27618267.
  2. SAFnet Dictionary|Definition For [deforestation] Archived 25 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine . Dictionary of (29 July 2008). Retrieved 2011-05-15.
  3. Bradford, Alina. (4 March 2015) Deforestation: Facts, Causes & Effects. Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  4. Deforestation | Threats | WWF. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  5. Kauppi, P. E.; Ausubel, J. H.; Fang, J.; Mather, A. S.; Sedjo, R. A.; Waggoner, P. E. (2006). "Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (46): 17574–9. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10317574K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608343103. PMC   1635979 . PMID   17101996.
  6. "Use Energy, Get Rich and Save the Planet", The New York Times, 20 April 2009.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Henkel, Marlon. 21st Century Homestead: Sustainable Agriculture III: Agricultural Practices. ISBN   9781312939752.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J. & Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica". Geology. 38 (12): 1079–1082. Bibcode:2010Geo....38.1079S. doi:10.1130/G31182.1.
  9. 1 2 Rainforest Facts Archived 22 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine . (1 November 2016). Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  10. 1 2 "Facts About Rainforests" Archived 22 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine . The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  11. "Amazon Destruction". Mongabay. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  12. Human society under urgent threat from loss of Earth's natural life. Scientists reveal 1 million species at risk of extinction in damning UN report 6 May 2019 Guardian
  13. UNFCCC (2007). "Investment and financial flows to address climate change" (PDF). UNFCCC. p. 81.
  14. 1 2 Angelsen, Arild; Kaimowitz, David (February 1999). "Rethinking the causes of deforestation: Lessons from economic models". The World Bank Research Observer. Oxford University Press. 14 (1): 73–98. doi:10.1093/wbro/14.1.73. JSTOR   3986539. PMID   12322119.
  15. Laurance, William F. (December 1999). "Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 91 (2–3): 109–117. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00088-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2006.
  16. Geist, Helmut J.; Lambin, Eric F. (February 2002). "Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation" (PDF). BioScience. 52 (2): 143–150. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0143:PCAUDF]2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
  17. Burgonio, T.J. (3 January 2008). "Corruption blamed for deforestation". Philippine Daily Inquirer.[ permanent dead link ]
  18. "WRM Bulletin Number 74". World Rainforest Movement. September 2003. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  19. "Global Deforestation". Global Change Curriculum. University of Michigan Global Change Program. 4 January 2006. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011.
  20. 1 2 Marcoux, Alain (August 2000). "Population and deforestation". SD Dimensions. Sustainable Development Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Archived from the original on 28 June 2011.
  21. Butler, Rhett A. "Impact of Population and Poverty on Rainforests". / A Place Out of Time: Tropical Rainforests and the Perils They Face. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  22. 1 2 Stock, Jocelyn; Rochen, Andy. "The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day". Archived from the original on 16 April 2009.
  23. Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen. "Demographics, Democracy, Development, Disparity and Deforestation: A Crossnational Assessment of the Social Causes of Deforestation". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, 16 August 2003. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  24. "The Double Edge of Globalization". YaleGlobal Online. Yale University Press. June 2007.
  25. Butler, Rhett A. "Human Threats to Rainforests—Economic Restructuring". / A Place Out of Time: Tropical Rainforests and the Perils They Face. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  26. Hecht, Susanna B.; Kandel, Susan; Gomes, Ileana; Cuellar, Nelson; Rosa, Herman (2006). "Globalization, Forest Resurgence, and Environmental Politics in El Salvador" (PDF). World Development. 34 (2): 308–323. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.09.005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  27. 1 2 Pearce, David W (December 2001). "The Economic Value of Forest Ecosystems" (PDF). Ecosystem Health. 7 (4): 284–296. doi:10.1046/j.1526-0992.2001.01037.x.
  28. Bulte, Erwin H; Joenje, Mark; Jansen, Hans GP (2000). "Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica?". Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 30 (3): 495–506. doi:10.1139/x99-225.
  29. Butler, Rhett A.; Laurance, William F. (August 2008). "New strategies for conserving tropical forests" (PDF). Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 23 (9): 469–472. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.05.006.
  30. 1 2 3 Rudel, T.K. (2005) Tropical Forests: Regional Paths of Destruction and Regeneration in the Late 20th Century. Columbia University Press ISBN   0-231-13195-X
  31. Curtis, P. G.; Slay, C. M.; Harris, N. L.; Tyukavina, A.; Hansen, M. C. (2018). "Classifying drivers of global forest loss". Science. 361 (6407): 1108–1111. doi:10.1126/science.aau3445.
  33. Mweninguwe, Raphael (15 February 2005). "Massive deforestation threatens food security". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011.
  34. Confirmed: Deforestation Plays Critical Climate Change Role, ScienceDaily, 11 May 2007.
  35. Clearing Forests May Transform Local—and Global—Climate; Researchers are finding that massive deforestation may have a profound, and possibly catastrophic, impact on local weather Archived 13 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine . Scientific American (4 March 2013)
  36. Deforestation causes global warming, FAO
  37. 1 2 Fearnside, Philip M.; Laurance, William F. (2004). "Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions". Ecological Applications. 14 (4): 982. doi:10.1890/03-5225.
  38. "Fondation Chirac ' Deforestation and desertification".
  39. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis", Section p. 527
  40. Van Der Werf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Olivier, J. G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Jackson, R. B.; Collatz, G. J.; Randerson, J. T. (2009). "CO2 emissions from forest loss". Nature Geoscience. 2 (11): 737–738. Bibcode:2009NatGe...2..737V. doi:10.1038/ngeo671.
  41. Mumoki, Fiona (18 July 2006). "The Effects of Deforestation on our Environment Today". Panorama. TakingITGlobal..
  42. Clemmensen, K. E.; Bahr, A.; Ovaskainen, O.; Dahlberg, A.; Ekblad, A.; Wallander, H.; Stenlid, J.; Finlay, R. D.; Wardle, D. A.; Lindahl, B. D. (2013). "Roots and Associated Fungi Drive Long-Term Carbon Sequestration in Boreal Forest". Science. 339 (6127): 1615–8. Bibcode:2013Sci...339.1615C. doi:10.1126/science.1231923. PMID   23539604.
  43. Prentice, I.C. "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". IPCC
  44. NASA Data Shows Deforestation Affects Climate In The Amazon. NASA News. 9 June 2004.
  45. Findell, Kirsten L.; Knutson, Thomas R.; Milly, P. C. D. (2006). "Weak Simulated Extratropical Responses to Complete Tropical Deforestation". Journal of Climate. 19 (12): 2835–2850. Bibcode:2006JCli...19.2835F. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1175/JCLI3737.1.
  46. 1 2 3 Chakravarty, Sumit; Ghosh, S. K.; Suresh, C. P.; Dey, A. N.; Shukla, Gopal. "Causes, Effects and Control Strategies, Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management" (PDF). InTech. InTech. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  47. Wertz-Kanounnikoff, Sheila; Rubio Alvarado; Laura Ximena. "Why are we seeing "REDD"?". Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  48. 1 2 "How can you save the rain forest. 8 October 2006. Frank Field". The Times. London. 8 October 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  49. Broeker, Wallace S. (2006). "Breathing easy: Et tu, O2". Columbia University
  50. Moran, Emilio F. (1993). "Deforestation and land use in the Brazilian Amazon". Human Ecology. 21: 1–21. doi:10.1007/BF00890069.
  51. 1 2 Defries, Ruth; Achard, Frédéric; Brown, Sandra; Herold, Martin; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; De Souza, Carlos (2007). "Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries" (PDF). Environmental Science Policy. 10 (4): 385–394. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2007.01.010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2012.
  52. "Underlying Causes of Deforestation". UN Secretary-General’s Report. Archived from the original on 11 April 2001.
  53. Rogge, Daniel. "Deforestation and Landslides in Southwestern Washington". University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.
  54. China's floods: Is deforestation to blame? BBC News. 6 August 1999.
  55. Raven, P. H. and Berg, L. R. (2006) Environment, 5th ed, John Wiley & Sons. p. 406. ISBN   0471704385.
  56. Hongchang, Wang (1 January 1998). "Deforestation and Desiccation in China A Preliminary Study". In Schwartz, Jonathan Matthew (ed.). The Economic Costs of China's Environmental Degradation: Project on Environmental Scarcities, State Capacity, and Civil Violence, a Joint Project of the University of Toronto and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Committee on Internat. Security Studies, American Acad. of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009.
  57. 1 2 Mishra, D.D. (2010). Fundamental Concept in Environmental Studies. S. Chand Publishing. pp. 14–15. ISBN   978-8121929370.
  58. "Soil, Water and Plant Characteristics Important to Irrigation". North Dakota State University.
  59. Morgan, R.P.C (2009). Soil Erosion and Conservation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 343. ISBN   9781405144674.
  60. 1 2 3 Henkel, Marlon. 21st Century Homestead: Sustainable Agriculture III: Agricultural Practices. p. 110. ISBN   9781312939752.
  61. Nilsson, Sten (March 2001). Do We Have Enough Forests?, American Institute of Biological Sciences.
  62. Rainforest Biodiversity Shows Differing Patterns, ScienceDaily, 14 August 2007.
  63. "Medicine from the rainforest". Research for Biodiversity Editorial Office. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008.
  64. Single-largest biodiversity survey says primary rainforest is irreplaceable, Bio-Medicine, 14 November 2007.
  65. Tropical rainforests – The tropical rainforest, BBC
  66. Tropical Rain Forest.
  67. U.N. calls on Asian nations to end deforestation, Reuters, 20 June 2008.
  68. "Rainforest Facts".
  69. Tropical rainforests – Rainforest water and nutrient cycles Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine , BBC
  70. Butler, Rhett A. (2 July 2007) Primary rainforest richer in species than plantations, secondary forests,,
  71. Flowers, April. "Deforestation In The Amazon Affects Microbial Life As Well As Ecosystems". Science News. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  72. Rainforest Facts. (20 March 2010). Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  73. Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin, 1996, The Sixth Extinction : Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind, Anchor, ISBN   0-385-46809-1.
  74. The great rainforest tragedy, The Independent, 28 June 2003.
  75. Biodiversity wipeout facing South East Asia, New Scientist, 23 July 2003.
  76. 1 2 Pimm, S. L.; Russell, G. J.; Gittleman, J. L.; Brooks, T. M. (1995). "The Future of Biodiversity". Science. 269 (5222): 347–350. Bibcode:1995Sci...269..347P. doi:10.1126/science.269.5222.347. PMID   17841251.
  77. Pimm, S. L.; Russell, G. J.; Gittleman, J. L.; Brooks, T. M. (1995). "The future of biodiversity". Science. 269 (5222): 347–50. Bibcode:1995Sci...269..347P. doi:10.1126/science.269.5222.347. PMID   17841251.
  78. 1 2 Whitmore, Timothy Charles; Sayer, Jeffrey; International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. General Assembly; IUCN Forest Conservation Programme (15 February 1992). Tropical deforestation and species extinction. Springer. ISBN   978-0-412-45520-9 . Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  79. Sohn, Emily (12 July 2012). "More extinctions expected in Amazon". Discovery.
  80. Nature loss 'to hurt global poor', BBC News, 29 May 2008.
  81. Forest Products. (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  82. "Destruction of Renewable Resources".
  83. Deforestation Across the World's Tropical Forests Emits Large Amounts of Greenhouse Gases with Little Economic Benefits, According to a New Study at Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine , 4 December 2007.
  84. "New ASB Report finds deforestation offers very little money compared to potential financial benefits".
  85. 1 2 3 Chomitz, Kenneth; Gray, David A. (1999). "Roads, lands, markets, and deforestation: a spatial model of land use in Belize". Policy Research Working Papers. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-1444.
  86. 1 2 3 4 Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto; Theobald, David M. (2009). "Using indicators of deforestation and land-use dynamics to support conservation strategies: A case study of central Rondônia, Brazil". Forest Ecology and Management. 257 (7): 1586–1595. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.01.013.
  87. "Stolen Goods: The EU's complicity in illegal tropical deforestation" (PDF). Forests and the European Union Resource Network . 17 March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  88. "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD): An Options Assessment Report" (PDF). The Government of Norway. 28 March 2010. p. 16.
  89. Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F. (2011). "Global Forest Transition: Prospects for an End to Deforestation". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 36: 343. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-090710-143732.
  90. 1 2 Baofu, Peter (2014). Beyond Natural Resources to Post-Human Resources: Towards a New Theory of Diversity and Discontinuity. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 309. ISBN   9781443867061.
  91. Taylor, Leslie (2004). The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs: A Guide to Understanding and Using Herbal Medicinals. Square One. ISBN   9780757001444.
  92. 1 2 Flannery, T (1994). The future eaters. Melbourne: Reed Books. ISBN   0-7301-0422-2.
  93. Brown, Tony (1997). "Clearances and Clearings: Deforestation in Mesolithic/Neolithic Britain". Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 16 (2): 133–146. doi:10.1111/1468-0092.00030.
  94. "hand tool: Neolithic tools". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  95. "Neolithic Age from 4,000 BC to 2,200 BC or New Stone Age".
  96. Hogan, C. Michael (22 December 2007). "Knossos fieldnotes", The Modern Antiquarian
  97. Diamond, Jared (2005) "The world as a polder: what does it all mean to us today?" pp. 522–523 in Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive , Penguin Books. ISBN   978-0-241-95868-1.
  98. Encyclopćdia Britannica Online School Edition. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  99. Van Andel, Tjeerd H.; Zangger, Eberhard; Demitrack, Anne (2013). "Land Use and Soil Erosion in Prehistoric and Historical Greece" (PDF). Journal of Field Archaeology. 17 (4): 379–396. doi:10.1179/009346990791548628.
  100. "The Mystery of Easter Island", Smithsonian Magazine, 1 April 2007.
  101. "Historical Consequences of Deforestation: Easter Island (Diamond 1995)".
  102. "Jared Diamond, Easter Island's End".
  103. Iyyer, Chaitanya (2009). Land Management: Challenges & Strategies. Global India Publications. p. 11. ISBN   9789380228488.
  104. Chew, Sing C. (2001). World Ecological Degradation. Oxford, England: AltaMira Press. pp. 69–70.
  105. Baofu, Peter (2014). Beyond Natural Resources to Post-Human Resources: Towards a New Theory of Diversity and Discontinuity. pg.309: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 703. ISBN   9781443867061.
  106. Cantor, Norman F. (9 June 1994). The civilization of the Middle Ages: a completely revised and expanded edition of Medieval history, the life and death of a civilization. HarperCollins. p. 564. ISBN   978-0-06-092553-6 . Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  107. Norris, F. Terry (1997) "Where Did the Villages Go? Steamboats, Deforestation, and Archaeological Loss in the Mississippi Valley", in Common Fields: an environmental history of St. Louis, Andrew Hurley, ed., St. Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society Press, pp. 73–89. ISBN   978-1-883982-15-7.
  108. Duke Press policy studies / Global deforestation and the nineteenth-century world economy / edited by Richard P. Tucker and J. F. Richards
  109. 1 2 3 4 E. O. Wilson, 2002, The Future of Life, Vintage ISBN   0-679-76811-4.
  110. Map reveals extent of deforestation in tropical countries,, 1 July 2008.
  111. 1 2 Maycock, Paul F. Deforestation [ permanent dead link ]. WorldBookOnline.
  112. 1 2 Ron Nielsen, The Little Green Handbook: Seven Trends Shaping the Future of Our Planet, Picador, New York (2006) ISBN   978-0-312-42581-4.
  113. Victor Vescovo . (2006). The Atlas of World Statistics. The Caladan Press. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  114. Teja Tscharntke; Christoph Leuschner; Edzo Veldkamp; Heiko Faust; Edi Guhardja, eds. (2010). Tropical Rainforests and Agroforests Under Global Change. Springer. pp. 270–271. ISBN   978-3-642-00492-6.
  115. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2000). Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry. Cambridge University Press. [ page needed ]
  116. Achard, F; Eva, H. D.; Stibig, H. J.; Mayaux, P; Gallego, J; Richards, T; Malingreau, J. P. (2002). "Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests". Science. 297 (5583): 999–1003. Bibcode:2002Sci...297..999A. doi:10.1126/science.1070656. PMID   12169731.
  117. Jha, Alok (21 October 2005). "Amazon rainforest vanishing at twice rate of previous estimates". The Guardian .
  118. Satellite images reveal Amazon forest shrinking faster,, 21 October 2005.
  119. Culas, Richard J. (2007). "Deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve: An institutional perspective" (PDF). Ecological Economics. 61 (2–3): 429–437. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.03.014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  120. Whitehead, John (22 November 2006) Environmental Economics: A deforestation Kuznets curve?, .
  121. Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise (1999). "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation?". Journal of Development Economics. 58: 231. doi:10.1016/S0304-3878(98)00110-2.
  122. "Pan-tropical Survey of Forest Cover Changes 1980–2000". Forest Resources Assessment. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
  123. Committee On Forestry. FAO (16 March 2001). Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  124. FAO. 2016. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. How are the world’s forests changing?
  125. Worldwatch: Wood Production and Deforestation Increase & Recent Content, Worldwatch Institute
  126. 1 2 Butler, Rhett A. (16 November 2005). "World deforestation rates and forest cover statistics, 2000–2005".
  127. The fear is that highly diverse habitats, such as tropical rainforest, are vanishing at a faster rate that is partly masked by the slower deforestation of less biodiverse, dry, open forests. Because of this omission, the most harmful impacts of deforestation (such as habitat loss) could be increasing despite a possible decline in the global rate of deforestation.
  128. "Remote sensing versus self-reporting".
  129. The World Bank estimates that 80% of logging operations are illegal in Bolivia and 42% in Colombia, while in Peru, illegal logging accounts for 80% of all logging activities. (World Bank (2004). Forest Law Enforcement.) (The Peruvian Environmental Law Society (2003). Case Study on the Development and Implementation of Guidelines for the Control of Illegal Logging with a View to Sustainable Forest Management in Peru.)
  130. "Forest Holocaust". National Geographic.
  131. "THE SIZE OF THE RAINFORESTS". Archived from the original on 30 September 2012.
  132. The Amazon Rainforest, BBC, 14 February 2003.
  133. Revington, John. "The Causes of Tropical Deforestation". New Renaissance Magazine.
  134. "What is Deforestation?".
  135. "Paraguay es principal deforestador del Chaco". ABC Color newspaper, Paraguay. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  136. "Paraguay farmland". Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  137. IUCN – Three new sites inscribed on World Heritage List, 27 June 2007.
  138. "Madagascar's rainforest map". New Scientist.
  139. "Haiti Is Covered with Trees". EnviroSociety. Tarter, Andrew. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  140. Chart – Tropical Deforestation by Country & Region. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  141. Rainforest Destruction.
  142. Amazon deforestation rises sharply in 2007,, 24 January 2008.
  143. Vidal, John (31 May 2005). "Rainforest loss shocks Brazil". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  144. 1 2 The World's 10 Most Threatened Forest Hotspots, Conservation International, 2 February 2011.
  145. Indo-Burma, Conservation International.
  146. New Caledonia, Conservation International.
  147. Sundaland, Conservation International.
  148. Philippines, Conservation International.
  149. Atlantic Forest Archived 12 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Conservation International.
  150. Mountains of Southwest China, Conservation International.
  151. California Floristic Province Archived 14 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Conservation International.
  152. Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa, Conservation International.
  153. Madagascar & Indian Ocean Islands, Conservation International.
  154. Eastern Afromontane, Conservation International.
  155. "Copenhagen Accord of 18 December 2009" (PDF). UNFCC. 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  156. Forest Monitoring for Action (FORMA) : Center for Global Development : Initiatives: Active. (23 November 2009). Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  157. Browser – GEO FCT Portal [ permanent dead link ]. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  158. "Methodological Guidance" (PDF). UNFCC. 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  159. Agriculture Secretary Vilsack: $1 billion for REDD+ « Climate Progress. (16 December 2009). Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  160. "FAO sets standards to improve national forest monitoring systems".
  161. Steininger, Marc. "REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL" (PDF). US Aid. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  162. Angelsen, Arild; et al. (2009). "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD): An Options Assessment Report" (PDF). Meridian Institute for the Government of Norway. pp. 75–77. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
  163. Holder, Michael. "'Potential breakthrough': Palm oil giant Wilmar steps up 'no deforestation' efforts". Business Green. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  164. Payments for watershed services: A driver of climate compatible development, Climate & Development Knowledge Network, 30 December 2013.
  165. 1 2 "India should follow China to find a way out of the woods on saving forest people". The Guardian. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  166. 1 2 "China's forest tenure reforms". Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  167. "Global Forest Change – Google Crisis Map". Google Crisis Map. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  168. "Warning to forest destroyers: this scientist will catch you". Nature News & Comment. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  169. Diamond, Jared Collapse: How Societies Choose To Fail or Succeed; Viking Press 2004, pp. 301–302 ISBN   0-14-311700-9.
  170. Diamond, Jared Collapse: How Societies Choose To Fail or Succeed; Viking Press 2004, pp. 320–331 ISBN   0-14-311700-9.
  171. 1 2 Rosenberg, Tina (13 March 2012). "In Africa's vanishing forests, the benefits of bamboo". New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  172. "State of the World's Forests 2009". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.
  173. Facts about Tropical Timber. Rainforest Rescue. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  174. 1 2 Gittings, John (20 March 2001). "Battling China's Deforestation". The Guardian.
  175. Foley, J. A.; Defries, R; Asner, G. P.; Barford, C; Bonan, G; Carpenter, S. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Coe, M. T.; Daily, G. C.; Gibbs, H. K.; Helkowski, J. H.; Holloway, T; Howard, E. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Monfreda, C; Patz, J. A.; Prentice, I. C.; Ramankutty, N; Snyder, P. K. (2005). "Global Consequences of Land Use". Science. 309 (5734): 570–574. Bibcode:2005Sci...309..570F. doi:10.1126/science.1111772. PMID   16040698.
  176. 1 2 James Owen, "World's Forests Rebounding, Study Suggests". National Geographic News, 13 November 2006.
  177. The world’s last intact forest landscapes.
  178. "World Intact Forests campaign by Greenpeace".
  179. The World's Forests from a Restoration Perspective, WRI
  180. "Alternative thematic map by Howstuffworks; in pdf" (PDF).
  181. Botkin, Daniel B. (2001). No man's garden: Thoreau and a new vision for civilization and nature. Island Press. pp. 246–247. ISBN   978-1-55963-465-6 . Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  182. 1 2 Payn, T. et al. 2015. Changes in planted forests and future global implications, Forest Ecology and Management 352: 57–67
  183. FAO. 2015. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. How are the world’s forests changing?
  184. Stenstrup, Allen (2010). Forests. Greensboro, North Carolina: Morgan Reynolds Publishing. p. 89. ISBN   978-1-59935-116-2.
  185. Balabkins, Nicholas (1964) "Germany Under Direct Controls; Economic Aspects Of Industrial Disarmament 1945–1948, Rutgers University Press. p. 119. The two quotes used by Balabkins are referenced to, respectively: U.S. office of Military Government, A Year of Potsdam: The German Economy Since the Surrender (1946), p. 70; and U.S. Office of Military Government, The German Forest Resources Survey (1948), p. II. For similar observations see G.W. Harmssen, Reparationen, Sozialproduct, Lebensstandard (Bremen: F. Trujen Verlag, 1948), I, 48.
  186. Higa, Takejiro. Battle of Okinawa, The Hawaii Nisei Project
  187. Arreguín-Toft, Ivan. How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict. Cambridge Studies in International Relations ISSN 0959-6844. 99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 61. ISBN   9780521839761 . Retrieved 17 June 2018. [...] Voronzov [...] then set about organizing a more methodical destruction of Shamil and the subsequent conquest of the Caucasus. Over the next decade, this involved nothing more complicated or less deadly than the deforestation of Chechnia.
  188. "DEFOLIANT DEVELOPED BY US WAS FOR KOREAN WAR". States News Services. 29 May 2011.
  189. Pesticide Dilemma in the Third World: A Case Study of Malaysia. Phoenix Press. 1984. p. 23.
  190. Krech III, Shepard; Merchant, Carolyn; McNeill, John Robert, eds. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-93732-0.
  191. Marchak, M. Patricia (18 September 1995). Logging the globe. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. pp. 157–. ISBN   978-0-7735-1346-4 . Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  192. 1 2 3 Biodiversity and Infectious Diseases, Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University (last accessed May 15, 2017.
  193. Bruce A. Wilcox & Brett Ellis, Forests and emerging infectious diseases of humans, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Document Repository.
  194. Moslemi, Jennifer M.; Snider, Sunny B.; MacNeill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F.; Flecker, Alexander S. (2012). "Impacts of an Invasive Snail". PLoS ONE. 7 (6): e38806. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...738806M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038806. PMC   3382606 . PMID   22761706.
  195. Deforestation and emerging diseases | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. (15 February 2011). Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  196. African Politics Portal | Tag Archive | Environmental impact of deforestation in Kenya. (28 May 2009). Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  197. 2014 Kenya Economic Survey Marks Malaria As Country’s Leading Cause Of Death | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (1 May 2014). Retrieved 2016-11-13.
  198. Julia, Berazneva; S., Byker, Tanya (1 May 2017). "Does Forest Loss Increase Human Disease? Evidence from Nigeria". American Economic Review. 107 (5). doi:10.1257/aer.p20171132&etoc=1. ISSN   0002-8282.
  199. Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H. (2014). "Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)". PLoS ONE. 9 (10): e111510. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k1510S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111510. PMC   4213033 . PMID   25354270.
  200. Lam, Sai Kit; Chua, Kaw Bing (2002). "Nipah Virus Encephalitis Outbreak in Malaysia". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 34: S48–51. doi:10.1086/338818. PMID   11938496.
  201. "Nipah Virus (NiV)".
  202. Deforestation sparks giant rodent invasions. (15 December 2010). Retrieved 2016-11-13.
General references
Ethiopia deforestation references
In the media
Films online