Colonialism

Last updated
The pith helmet, an icon of colonialism in tropical lands. This one was used during the Second French colonial empire. Musee-de-lArmee-IMG 0976.jpg
The pith helmet, an icon of colonialism in tropical lands. This one was used during the Second French colonial empire.

Colonialism is the policy of a foreign polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized country or land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion, economics, and medicinal practices on the natives. Some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars refute this theory as being biased and Eurocentric, noting that modernization is a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is largely regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests. [1]

Polity group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force

A polity is any kind of political entity. It is a group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force such as identity, who have a capacity to mobilize resources, and are organized by some form of institutionalized hierarchy.

Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920), which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902–1979). The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been. Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the 1950s and 1960s, then went into a deep eclipse. It made a comeback after 1991 but remains a controversial model.

Indigenous peoples ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

Contents

Early records of colonization go as far back as Phoenecians, an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC and later the Greeks and Persians continued on this line of setting up colonies. Although these early European migration characteristics are recorded or documented as colonization, these examples wouldn't be the first time and certainly would not be the last. The Romans would soon follow, setting up colonies throughout the Mediterranean, Northern Africa, and Western Asia. In the 9th century a new wave of Mediterranean colonization had begun between competing states such as the Islamic Ottomans and the Venetians, Genovese and Amalfians, invading the wealthy previously Byzantine or Eastern Roman islands and lands. Venice began with the conquest of Dalmatia and reached its greatest nominal extent at the conclusion of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, with the declaration of the acquisition of three octaves of the Byzantine Empire.

Stato da Màr maritime and overseas territories of the Republic of Venice

The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea, the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete and Cyprus. It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e. Venice proper, and the Domini di Terraferma in northern Italy.

Genoese colonies

The colonies of the Republic of Genoa were a series of economic and trade posts in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Some of them had been established directly under the patronage of the republican authorities to support the economy of the local merchants, while others originated as feudal possessions of Genoese nobles, or had been founded by powerful private institutions, such as the Bank of Saint George.

Duchy of Amalfi human settlement in Italy

The Duchy of Amalfi or the Republic of Amalfi was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries. The city and its territory were originally part of the larger ducatus Neapolitanus, governed by a patrician, but it extracted itself from Byzantine vassalage and first elected a duke in 958. During the 10th and 11th centuries Amalfi was estimated to have a population of 50,000 -70,000 people. It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for centuries before being surpassed and superseded by the other maritime republics of the North, like Pisa, Venice, and Genoa. In 1073, Amalfi lost its independence, falling to French Norman invasion and subsequently to Pisa in 1137.

Later, in the 15th century some European states established their own empires during the European colonial period. The Belgian, British, Danish, Dutch, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swedish empires established colonies across large areas. Imperial Japan, the Ottoman Empire and the United States also acquired colonies, as did imperialist China and finally in the late 19th century the German and the Italian.

History of colonialism

The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time. Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism, began in the 15th century with the "Age of Discovery", led by Portuguese, and then by the Spanish exploration of the Americas, the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and East Asia. The Portuguese and Spanish empires were the first global empires because they were the first to stretch across different continents, covering vast territories around the globe. In 1492, notable Genoese (Italian) explorer Christopher Columbus and his Castilian (Spanish) crew discovered the Americas for the Crown of Castile. The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was first used for the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. During the late 16th and 17th centuries, England, France and the Dutch Republic also established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other.

Belgian colonial empire

Belgium controlled two colonies during its history, the Belgian Congo from 1908 to 1960, and Ruanda-Urundi from 1916 to 1962. It also had a concession in China, and was a co-administrator of the Tangier International Zone in Morocco.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

At first, European colonizing countries followed policies of mercantilism, in order to strengthen the home economy, so agreements usually restricted the colonies to trading only with the metropole (mother country). By the mid-19th century, however, the British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and adopted the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs. Christian missionaries were active in practically all of the colonies because the Colonialists were Christians. Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans already controlled at least 35% of the globe, and by 1914, they had gained control of 84%. [2] In the aftermath of World War II, the archetypal European colonial system practically ended between 1945–1975, when nearly all Europe's colonies gained political independence.

Mercantilism economic policy emphasizing exports

Mercantilism is a national economic policy that is designed to maximize the exports of a nation. Mercantilism was dominant in modernized parts of Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries before falling into decline, although some commentators argue that it is still practiced in the economies of industrializing countries in the form of economic interventionism.

The metropole is the homeland or central territory of a colonial empire. The term was mainly used in the scope of the British, French and Portuguese empires to designate their European territories, as opposed to their colonial or overseas territories.

Free trade policy in which countries governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries

Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports; it is the idea of the free market as applied to international trade. In government, free trade is predominately advocated by political parties that hold right-wing or liberal economic positions, while economically left-wing political parties generally support protectionism, the opposite of free trade.

Definitions

1541: Spanish Conquistadors founding Santiago de Chile Fundacion de Santiago.jpg
1541: Spanish Conquistadors founding Santiago de Chile

Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas". [3] Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary defines colonialism as "the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories". [4] The Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people". [5]

<i>Collins English Dictionary</i> printed and online English dictionary

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow.

Merriam-Webster American publisher

Merriam-Webster, Inc., is an American company that publishes reference books and is especially known for its dictionaries.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the term 'colonialism' to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas, Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia". It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s". [6]

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. It is maintained by Stanford University. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many academic institutions worldwide. Authors contributing to the encyclopedia give Stanford University the permission to publish the articles, but retain the copyright to those articles.

Imperialism creation of an unequal relationship between states through domination

Imperialism is a state government, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other areas. Because it always involves the use of power, whether military force or some subtler form, imperialism has often been considered morally reprehensible, and the term is frequently employed in international propaganda to denounce and discredit an opponent's foreign policy.

In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence." [7] In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can 'colonialism' be defined independently from 'colony?'" [8] He settles on a three-sentence definition:

Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous (or forcibly imported) majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are often defined in a distant metropolis. Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule. [9]

Types of colonialism

Dutch family in Java, 1927 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Rijsttafel TMnr 60053682.jpg
Dutch family in Java, 1927

Historians often distinguish between various overlapping forms of colonialism, which are classified into four types: settler colonialism, exploitation colonialism, surrogate colonialism, and internal colonialism. [10]

Socio-cultural evolution

As colonialism often played out in pre-populated areas, sociocultural evolution included the formation of various ethnically hybrid populations. Colonialism gave rise to culturally and ethnically mixed populations such as the mestizos of the Americas, as well as racially divided populations such as those found in French Algeria or in Southern Rhodesia. In fact, everywhere where colonial powers established a consistent and continued presence, hybrid communities existed.

Notable examples in Asia include the Anglo-Burmese, Anglo-Indian, Burgher, Eurasian Singaporean, Filipino mestizo, Kristang and Macanese peoples. In the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia) the vast majority of "Dutch" settlers were in fact Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans, formally belonging to the European legal class in the colony (see also Indos in pre-colonial history and Indos in colonial history). [13] [14]

History

Map of colonial empires throughout the world in 1800 Colonial empires in 1800.svg
Map of colonial empires throughout the world in 1800
Map of colonial empires throughout the world in 1914 World 1914 empires colonies territory.PNG
Map of colonial empires throughout the world in 1914
Map of colonial empires throughout the world in 1936 World 1936 empires colonies territory.png
Map of colonial empires throughout the world in 1936
Map of colonial empires at the end of the Second World War, 1945 Colonialism in 1945 updated legend.png
Map of colonial empires at the end of the Second World War, 1945

Activity that could be called colonialism has a long history starting with the pre-colonial African empires which led to the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans who all built colonies in antiquity. The word "metropole" comes from the Greek metropolis [Greek: "μητρόπολις"]—"mother city". The word "colony" comes from the Latin Colonia—"a place for agriculture". Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese established military colonies south of their original territory and absorbed the territory, in a process known as nam tiến. [15]

Modern colonialism started with the Age of Discovery. Spain (initially the Crown of Castile) and soon later Portugal encountered the Americas through sea travel and built trading posts or conquered large extensions of land. For some people, it is this building of colonies across oceans that differentiates colonialism from other types of expansionism. These new lands were divided between the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire (then still between Portugal and Castile—the Crown of Castile had a dynastic but not state union with the Crown of Aragon through the Catholic Monarchs), first by the papal bull Inter caetera and then by the treaties of Tordesillas and Zaragoza.

This period is also associated with the Commercial Revolution. The late Middle Ages saw reforms in accountancy and banking in Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. These ideas were adopted and adapted in western Europe to the high risks and rewards associated with colonial ventures.

The 17th century saw the creation of the French colonial empire and the Dutch Empire, as well as the English overseas possessions, which later became the British Empire. It also saw the establishment of a Danish colonial empire and some Swedish overseas colonies.

The spread of colonial empires was reduced in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by the American Revolutionary War and the Latin American wars of independence. However, many new colonies were established after this time, including the German colonial empire and Belgian colonial empire. In the late 19th century, many European powers were involved in the Scramble for Africa.

The Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Austrian Empire existed at the same time as the above empires but did not expand over oceans. Rather, these empires expanded through the more traditional route of the conquest of neighboring territories. There was, though, some Russian colonization of the Americas across the Bering Strait. The Empire of Japan modeled itself on European colonial empires. The United States of America gained overseas territories after the Spanish–American War for which the term "American Empire" was coined.

Map of the British Empire (as of 1910). Arthur Mees Flags of A Free Empire 1910 Cornell CUL PJM 1167 01.jpg
Map of the British Empire (as of 1910).

After the First World War, the victorious allies divided up the German colonial empire and much of the Ottoman Empire between themselves as League of Nations mandates. These territories were divided into three classes according to how quickly it was deemed that they would be ready for independence.

After World War II decolonization progressed rapidly. This was caused by a number of reasons. First, the Japanese victories in the Pacific War showed Indians and other subject peoples that the colonial powers were not invincible.[ citation needed ] Second, many colonial powers were significantly weakened by World War II.

Dozens of independence movements and global political solidarity projects such as the Non-Aligned Movement were instrumental in the decolonization efforts of former colonies. These included significant wars of independence fought in Indonesia, Vietnam, Algeria, and Kenya. Eventually, the European powers—pressured by the United States and Soviets—resigned themselves to decolonization.

In 1962 the United Nations set up a Special Committee on Decolonization, often called the Committee of 24, to encourage this process.

European empires in the 20th century

The major European empires consisted of the following colonies at the start of World War I (former colonies of the Spanish Empire became independent before 1914 and are not listed; former colonies of other European empires that previously became independent, such as the former French colony Haiti, are not listed).

Colonial Governor of the Seychelles inspecting police guard of honour in 1972 Seychelles Governor inspection 1972.jpg
Colonial Governor of the Seychelles inspecting police guard of honour in 1972
The Battle of Isandlwana during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 Isandhlwana.jpg
The Battle of Isandlwana during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879

The world's colonial population at the time of the First World War totaled about 560 million people, of whom 70% were in British domains, 10% in French, 9% in Dutch, 4% in Japanese, 2% in German, 2% in American, 2% in Portuguese, 1% in Belgian and 1/2 of 1% in Italian possessions. The home domains of the colonial powers had a total population of about 370 million people. [16]

Asking whether colonies paid, economic historian Grover Clark argues an emphatic "No!" He reports that in every case the support cost, especially the military system necessary to support and defend the colonies outran the total trade they produced. Apart from the British Empire, they were not favored destinations for the immigration of surplus populations. [17]

British colonies and protectorates

Harbour Street, Kingston, Jamaica, c. 1820 Hakewill, A Picturesque Tour of the Island of Jamaica, Plate 04.jpg
Harbour Street, Kingston, Jamaica, c. 1820
1966 flag of the Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides Flag of New Hebrides.svg
1966 flag of the Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides

French colonies

Russian colonies and protectorates

The Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak, Alaska), Russian America, 1814 Russian Sloop-of-War Neva.jpg
The Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak, Alaska), Russian America, 1814

German colonies

Kamerun (by R. Hellgrewe, 1908) Victoria (Cameroon).jpg
Kamerun (by R. Hellgrewe, 1908)

Italian colonies and protectorates

The Italian invasion of Libya during the Italo-Turkish War, 1911 Italian aircraft attacking Ottoman forces in Libya 1911 or 1912.jpg
The Italian invasion of Libya during the Italo-Turkish War, 1911

Dutch colonies

The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830 Nicolaas Pieneman - The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock.jpg
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

Portuguese colonies

Portuguese women in Goa, India, 16th century 1600gora.jpg
Portuguese women in Goa, India, 16th century

Spanish colonies

An 18th-century casta painting from New Spain shows a Spanish man and his indigenous wife. Mestizo.jpg
An 18th-century casta painting from New Spain shows a Spanish man and his indigenous wife.
The Battle of Tétouan, 1860, by Marià Fortuny 093 La batalla de Tetuan, de Marià Fortuny (detall).jpg
The Battle of Tétouan, 1860, by Marià Fortuny
Spanish General Arsenio Martínez Campos in Havana, Colonial Cuba, 1878 Entrada triunfal de Arsenio Martínez Campos en La Habana, 1878.jpg
Spanish General Arsenio Martínez Campos in Havana, Colonial Cuba, 1878

Austro-Hungarian colonies

Muslim Bosniak resistance during the battle of Sarajevo in 1878 against the Austro-Hungarian occupation Sarajevo 1878..jpg
Muslim Bosniak resistance during the battle of Sarajevo in 1878 against the Austro-Hungarian occupation

Danish colonies

Belgian colonies

Swedish colonies

Polish-Lituanian colonies and protectorates

Romanian colonies and occupied territories

Numbers of European settlers in the colonies (1500–1914)

Millions of Irish left Ireland for Canada and U.S. following the Great Famine in the 1840s Emigrants Leave Ireland by Henry Doyle 1868.jpg
Millions of Irish left Ireland for Canada and U.S. following the Great Famine in the 1840s

By 1914, Europeans had migrated to the colonies in the millions. Some intended to remain in the colonies as temporary settlers, mainly as military personnel or on business. Others went to the colonies as immigrants. British people were by far the most numerous population to migrate to the colonies: 2.5 million settled in Canada; 1.5 million in Australia; 750,000 in New Zealand; 450,000 in the Union of South Africa; and 200,000 in India. French citizens also migrated in large numbers, mainly to the colonies in the north African Maghreb region: 1.3 million settled in Algeria; 200,000 in Morocco; 100,000 in Tunisia; while only 20,000 migrated to French Indochina. Dutch and German colonies saw relatively scarce European migration, since Dutch and German colonial expansion focused on commercial goals rather than settlement. Portugal sent 150,000 settlers to Angola, 80,000 to Mozambique, and 20,000 to Goa. During the Spanish Empire, approximately 550,000 Spanish settlers migrated to Latin America. [18]

Other non-European colonialist countries

Australian protectorate

New Zealand dependencies

Governor Lord Ranfurly reading the annexation proclamation to Queen Makea on 7 October 1900. Cook Islands Annexation Ceremony.jpg
Governor Lord Ranfurly reading the annexation proclamation to Queen Makea on 7 October 1900.

United States colonies and protectorates

Governor General William Howard Taft addressing the audience at the Philippine Assembly in the Manila Grand Opera House Taft Addressing First Philippine Assembly 1907.jpg
Governor General William Howard Taft addressing the audience at the Philippine Assembly in the Manila Grand Opera House

Turkish (Ottoman) colonies

Belgrade, Ottoman Serbia, 19th century The ruined gateway of Prince Eugene, Belgrade.jpg
Belgrade, Ottoman Serbia, 19th century

Japanese colonies and protectorates

Chinese colonies and protectorates

Camp of the Qing Military in Khalkha in 1688. Pacification of the Dzungars.jpg
Camp of the Qing Military in Khalkha in 1688.

Omani colonies

Mexican colonies

Ecuatorian colonies

Colombian colonies

Argentine colonies

Chilean colonies

Paraguayan colonies

Bolivian colonies

Brazil colonies

Brazilian troop in Montevideo in 1825. Tropas brasileiras 1825.jpg
Brazilian troop in Montevideo in 1825.

Ethiopian colonies

Moroccan colonies

Siam colonies

Siamese Army in Laos in 1893. Siamese Army in Laos 1893.jpg
Siamese Army in Laos in 1893.

(Ancient) Egyptian colonies

Neocolonialism

The term neocolonialism has been used to refer to a variety of contexts since decolonization that took place after World War II. Generally it does not refer to a type of direct colonization, rather, colonialism by other means. Specifically, neocolonialism refers to the theory that former or existing economic relationships, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Central American Free Trade Agreement, or through companies (such as Royal Dutch Shell in Nigeria and Brunei) created by former colonial powers were or are used to maintain control of their former colonies and dependencies after the colonial independence movements of the post–World War II period.

Impact of colonialism and colonization

The Dutch Public Health Service provides medical care for the natives of the Dutch East Indies, May 1946

The impacts of colonization are immense and pervasive. [19] Various effects, both immediate and protracted, include the spread of virulent diseases, unequal social relations, exploitation, enslavement, medical advances, the creation of new institutions, abolitionism, [20] improved infrastructure, [21] and technological progress. [22] Colonial practices also spur the spread of colonist languages, literature and cultural institutions, while endangering or obliterating those of native peoples. The native cultures of the colonized peoples can also have a powerful influence on the imperial country.[ citation needed ]

Economy, trade and commerce

Economic expansion, sometimes described as the colonial surplus, has accompanied imperial expansion since ancient times.[ citation needed ] Greek trade networks spread throughout the Mediterranean region while Roman trade expanded with the primary goal of directing tribute from the colonized areas towards the Roman metropole. According to Strabo, by the time of emperor Augustus, up to 120 Roman ships would set sail every year from Myos Hormos in Roman Egypt to India. [23] With the development of trade routes under the Ottoman Empire,

Gujari Hindus, Syrian Muslims, Jews, Armenians, Christians from south and central Europe operated trading routes that supplied Persian and Arab horses to the armies of all three empires, Mocha coffee to Delhi and Belgrade, Persian silk to India and Istanbul. [24]

Aztec civilization developed into an extensive empire that, much like the Roman Empire, had the goal of exacting tribute from the conquered colonial areas. For the Aztecs, a significant tribute was the acquisition of sacrificial victims for their religious rituals. [25]

On the other hand, European colonial empires sometimes attempted to channel, restrict and impede trade involving their colonies, funneling activity through the metropole and taxing accordingly.

Despite the general trend of economic expansion, the economic performance of former European colonies varies significantly. In "Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-run Growth", economists Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson compare the economic influences of the European colonists on different colonies and study what could explain the huge discrepancies in previous European colonies, for example, between West African colonies like Sierra Leone and Hong Kong and Singapore. [26]

According to the paper, economic institutions are the determinant of the colonial success because they determine their financial performance and order for the distribution of resources. At the same time, these institutions are also consequences of political institutions – especially how de facto and de jure political power is allocated. To explain the different colonial cases, we thus need to look first into the political institutions that shaped the economic institutions. [26]

For example, one interesting observation is "the Reversal of Fortune" – the less developed civilizations in 1500, like North America, Australia, and New Zealand, are now much richer than those countries who used to be in the prosperous civilizations in 1500 before the colonists came, like the Mughals in India and the Incas in the Americas. One explanation offered by the paper focuses on the political institutions of the various colonies: it was less likely for European colonists to introduce economic institutions where they could benefit quickly from the extraction of resources in the area. Therefore, given a more developed civilization and denser population, European colonists would rather keep the existing economic systems than introduce an entirely new system; while in places with little to extract, European colonists would rather establish new economic institutions to protect their interests. Political institutions thus gave rise to different types of economic systems, which determined the colonial economic performance. [26]

European colonization and development also changed gendered systems of power already in place around the world. In many pre-colonialist areas, women maintained power, prestige, or authority through reproductive or agricultural control. For example, in certain parts of sub-Saharan Africa women maintained farmland in which they had usage rights. While men would make political and communal decisions for a community, the women would control the village's food supply or their individual family's land. This allowed women to achieve power and autonomy, even in patrilineal and patriarchal societies. [27]

Through the rise of European colonialism came a large push for development and industrialization of most economic systems. However, when working to improve productivity, Europeans focused mostly on male workers. Foreign aid arrived in the form of loans, land, credit, and tools to speed up development, but were only allocated to men. In a more European fashion, women were expected to serve on a more domestic level. The result was a technologic, economic, and class-based gender gap that widened over time. [28]

Slavery and indentured servitude

Slave memorial in Zanzibar. The Sultan of Zanzibar complied with British demands that slavery be banned in Zanzibar and that all the slaves be freed. Slave memorial Zanzibar.jpg
Slave memorial in Zanzibar. The Sultan of Zanzibar complied with British demands that slavery be banned in Zanzibar and that all the slaves be freed.

European nations entered their imperial projects with the goal of enriching the European metropole. Exploitation of non-Europeans and other Europeans to support imperial goals was acceptable to the colonizers. Two outgrowths of this imperial agenda were slavery and indentured servitude. In the 17th century, nearly two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants. [29]

European slave traders brought large numbers of African slaves to the Americas by sail. Spain and Portugal had brought African slaves to work at African colonies such as Cape Verde and the Azores, and then Latin America, by the 16th century. The British, French and Dutch joined in the slave trade in subsequent centuries. Ultimately, around 11 million Africans were taken to the Caribbean and North and South America as slaves by European colonizers. [30]

Slave traders in Gorée, Senegal, 18th century Marchands d'esclaves de Gorée-Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur mg 8526.jpg
Slave traders in Gorée, Senegal, 18th century
European empireColonial destinationNumber of slaves imported [30]
Portuguese EmpireBrazil3,646,800
British EmpireBritish Caribbean1,665,000
French EmpireFrench Caribbean1,600,200
Spanish EmpireLatin America1,552,100
Dutch EmpireDutch Caribbean500,000
British EmpireBritish North America399,000

Abolitionists in Europe and Americas protested the inhumane treatment of African slaves, which led to the elimination of the slave trade by the late 18th century. The labour shortage that resulted inspired European colonizers to develop a new source of labour, using a system of indentured servitude. Indentured servants consented to a contract with the European colonizers. Under their contract, the servant would work for an employer for a term of at least a year, while the employer agreed to pay for the servant's voyage to the colony, possibly pay for the return to the country of origin, and pay the employee a wage as well. The employee was "indentured" to the employer because they owed a debt back to the employer for their travel expense to the colony, which they were expected to pay through their wages. In practice, indentured servants were exploited through terrible working conditions and burdensome debts created by the employers, with whom the servants had no means of negotiating the debt once they arrived in the colony.

India and China were the largest source of indentured servants during the colonial era. Indentured servants from India travelled to British colonies in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, and also to French and Portuguese colonies, while Chinese servants travelled to British and Dutch colonies. Between 1830 and 1930, around 30 million indentured servants migrated from India, and 24 million returned to India. China sent more indentured servants to European colonies, and around the same proportion returned to China. [31]

Following the Scramble for Africa, an early but secondary focus for most colonial regimes was the suppression of slavery and the slave trade. By the end of the colonial period they were mostly successful in this aim, though slavery is still very active in Africa and the world at large with much the same practices of de facto servility despite legislative prohibition. [20]

Military innovation

The First Anglo-Ashanti War, 1823–31 Aschanti Gefecht 11 july 1824 300dpi.jpg
The First Anglo-Ashanti War, 1823–31

Imperial expansion follows military conquest in most instances. Imperial armies therefore have a long history of military innovation in order to gain an advantage over the armies of the people they aim to conquer. Greeks developed the phalanx system, which enabled their military units to present themselves to their enemies as a wall, with foot soldiers using shields to cover one another during their advance on the battlefield. Under Philip II of Macedon, they were able to organize thousands of soldiers into a formidable battle force, bringing together carefully trained infantry and cavalry regiments. [32] Alexander the Great exploited this military foundation further during his conquests.

The Spanish Empire held a major advantage over Mesoamerican warriors through the use of weapons made of stronger metal, predominantly iron, which was able to shatter the blades of axes used by the Aztec civilization and others. The European development of firearms using gunpowder cemented their military advantage over the peoples they sought to subjugate in the Americas and elsewhere.

The end of empire

Gandhi with Lord Pethwick-Lawrence, British Secretary of State for India, after a meeting on 18 April 1946 Lord Pethic-Lawrence and Gandhi.jpg
Gandhi with Lord Pethwick-Lawrence, British Secretary of State for India, after a meeting on 18 April 1946

The populations of some colonial territories, such as Canada, enjoyed relative peace and prosperity as part of a European power, at least among the majority; however, minority populations such as First Nations peoples and French-Canadians experienced marginalization and resented colonial practises. Francophone residents of Quebec, for example, were vocal in opposing conscription into the armed services to fight on behalf of Britain during World War I, resulting in the Conscription crisis of 1917. Other European colonies had much more pronounced conflict between European settlers and the local population. Rebellions broke out in the later decades of the imperial era, such as India's Sepoy Rebellion.

The territorial boundaries imposed by European colonizers, notably in central Africa and South Asia, defied the existing boundaries of native populations that had previously interacted little with one another. European colonizers disregarded native political and cultural animosities, imposing peace upon people under their military control. Native populations were often relocated at the will of the colonial administrators. Once independence from European control was achieved, civil war erupted in some former colonies, as native populations fought to capture territory for their own ethnic, cultural or political group.[ citation needed ] The Partition of India, a 1947 civil war that came in the aftermath of India's independence from Britain, became a conflict with 500,000 killed. Fighting erupted between Hindu, Sikh and Muslim communities as they fought for territorial dominance. Muslims fought for an independent country to be partitioned where they would not be a religious minority, resulting in the creation of Pakistan. [33]

Post-independence population movement

The annual Notting Hill Carnival in London is a celebration led by the Trinidadian and Tobagonian British community. Notting Hill Carnival 2002 large.jpg
The annual Notting Hill Carnival in London is a celebration led by the Trinidadian and Tobagonian British community.

In a reversal of the migration patterns experienced during the modern colonial era, post-independence era migration followed a route back towards the imperial country. In some cases, this was a movement of settlers of European origin returning to the land of their birth, or to an ancestral birthplace. 900,000 French colonists (known as the Pied-Noirs ) resettled in France following Algeria's independence in 1962. A significant number of these migrants were also of Algerian descent. 800,000 people of Portuguese origin migrated to Portugal after the independence of former colonies in Africa between 1974 and 1979; 300,000 settlers of Dutch origin migrated to the Netherlands from the Dutch West Indies after Dutch military control of the colony ended. [34]

After WWII 300,000 Dutchmen from the Dutch East Indies, of which the majority were people of Eurasian descent called Indo Europeans, repatriated to the Netherlands. A significant number later migrated to the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. [35] [36]

Global travel and migration in general developed at an increasingly brisk pace throughout the era of European colonial expansion. Citizens of the former colonies of European countries may have a privileged status in some respects with regard to immigration rights when settling in the former European imperial nation. For example, rights to dual citizenship may be generous, [37] or larger immigrant quotas may be extended to former colonies.

In some cases, the former European imperial nations continue to foster close political and economic ties with former colonies. The Commonwealth of Nations is an organization that promotes cooperation between and among Britain and its former colonies, the Commonwealth members. A similar organization exists for former colonies of France, the Francophonie; the Community of Portuguese Language Countries plays a similar role for former Portuguese colonies, and the Dutch Language Union is the equivalent for former colonies of the Netherlands.

Migration from former colonies has proven to be problematic for European countries, where the majority population may express hostility to ethnic minorities who have immigrated from former colonies. Cultural and religious conflict have often erupted in France in recent decades, between immigrants from the Maghreb countries of north Africa and the majority population of France. Nonetheless, immigration has changed the ethnic composition of France; by the 1980s, 25% of the total population of "inner Paris" and 14% of the metropolitan region were of foreign origin, mainly Algerian. [38]

Introduced diseases

Aztecs dying of smallpox, ("The Florentine Codex" 1540–85) Florentinoviruela.JPG
Aztecs dying of smallpox, ("The Florentine Codex" 1540–85)

Encounters between explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced new diseases, which sometimes caused local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. [39] For example, smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and others were unknown in pre-Columbian America. [40]

Disease killed the entire native (Guanches) population of the Canary Islands in the 16th century. Half the native population of Hispaniola in 1518 was killed by smallpox. Smallpox also ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, killing 150,000 in Tenochtitlan alone, including the emperor, and Peru in the 1530s, aiding the European conquerors. Measles killed a further two million Mexican natives in the 17th century. In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans. [41] Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. [42] Some believe that the death of up to 95% of the Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases. [43] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no time to build such immunity. [44]

Smallpox decimated the native population of Australia, killing around 50% of indigenous Australians in the early years of British colonisation. [45] It also killed many New Zealand Māori. [46] As late as 1848–49, as many as 40,000 out of 150,000 Hawaiians are estimated to have died of measles, whooping cough and influenza. Introduced diseases, notably smallpox, nearly wiped out the native population of Easter Island. [47] In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population. [48] The Ainu population decreased drastically in the 19th century, due in large part to infectious diseases brought by Japanese settlers pouring into Hokkaido. [49]

Conversely, researchers have hypothesized that a precursor to syphilis may have been carried from the New World to Europe after Columbus's voyages. The findings suggested Europeans could have carried the nonvenereal tropical bacteria home, where the organisms may have mutated into a more deadly form in the different conditions of Europe. [50] The disease was more frequently fatal than it is today; syphilis was a major killer in Europe during the Renaissance. [51] The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. Ten thousand British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic. [52] Between 1736 and 1834 only some 10% of East India Company's officers survived to take the final voyage home. [53] Waldemar Haffkine, who mainly worked in India, who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague in the 1890s, is considered the first microbiologist.

Countering disease

As early as 1803, the Spanish Crown organised a mission (the Balmis expedition) to transport the smallpox vaccine to the Spanish colonies, and establish mass vaccination programs there. [54] By 1832, the federal government of the United States established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans. [55] Under the direction of Mountstuart Elphinstone a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination in India. [56] From the beginning of the 20th century onwards, the elimination or control of disease in tropical countries became a driving force for all colonial powers. [57] The sleeping sickness epidemic in Africa was arrested due to mobile teams systematically screening millions of people at risk. [58] In the 20th century, the world saw the biggest increase in its population in human history due to lessening of the mortality rate in many countries due to medical advances. [59] The world population has grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to over seven billion today.

Colonialism and the history of thought

Universalism

The conquest of vast territories brings multitudes of diverse cultures under the central control of the imperial authorities. From the time of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, this fact has been addressed by empires adopting the concept of universalism, and applying it to their imperial policies towards their subjects far from the imperial capitol. The capitol, the metropole, was the source of ostensibly enlightened policies imposed throughout the distant colonies.

The empire that grew from Greek conquest, particularly by Alexander the Great, spurred the spread of Greek language, religion, science and philosophy throughout the colonies. While most Greeks considered their own culture superior to all others (the word barbarian is derived from mutterings that sounded to Greek ears like "bar-bar"), Alexander was unique in promoting a campaign to win the hearts and minds of the Persians. He adopted Persian customs of clothing and otherwise encouraged his men to go native by adopting local wives and learning their mannerisms. Of note is that he radically departed from earlier Greek attempts at colonization, characterized by the murder and enslavement of the local inhabitants and the settling of Greek citizens from the polis.

Roman universalism was characterized by cultural and religious tolerance and a focus on civil efficiency and the rule of law. Roman law was imposed on both Roman citizens and colonial subjects. Although Imperial Rome had no public education, Latin spread through its use in government and trade. Roman law prohibited local leaders to wage war between themselves, which was responsible for the 200 year long Pax Romana, at the time the longest period of peace in history. The Roman Empire was tolerant of diverse cultures and religious practises, even allowing them on a few occasions to threaten Roman authority.

Colonialism and geography

British Togoland in 1953 The National Archives UK - CO 1069-99-01.jpg
British Togoland in 1953

Settlers acted as the link between indigenous populations and the imperial hegemony, thus bridging the geographical, ideological and commercial gap between the colonizers and colonized. While the extent in which geography as an academic study is implicated in colonialism is contentious, geographical tools such as cartography, shipbuilding, navigation, mining and agricultural productivity were instrumental in European colonial expansion. Colonizers' awareness of the Earth's surface and abundance of practical skills provided colonizers with a knowledge that, in turn, created power. [60]

Anne Godlewska and Neil Smith argue that "empire was 'quintessentially a geographical project'".[ clarification needed ] [61] Historical geographical theories such as environmental determinism legitimized colonialism by positing the view that some parts of the world were underdeveloped, which created notions of skewed evolution. [60] Geographers such as Ellen Churchill Semple and Ellsworth Huntington put forward the notion that northern climates bred vigour and intelligence as opposed to those indigenous to tropical climates (See The Tropics) viz a viz a combination of environmental determinism and Social Darwinism in their approach. [62]

Political geographers also maintain that colonial behavior was reinforced by the physical mapping of the world, therefore creating a visual separation between "them" and "us". Geographers are primarily focused on the spaces of colonialism and imperialism; more specifically, the material and symbolic appropriation of space enabling colonialism. [63] :5

Maps played an extensive role in colonialism, as Bassett would put it "by providing geographical information in a convenient and standardized format, cartographers helped open West Africa to European conquest, commerce, and colonization". [64] However, because the relationship between colonialism and geography was not scientifically objective, cartography was often manipulated during the colonial era. Social norms and values had an effect on the constructing of maps. During colonialism map-makers used rhetoric in their formation of boundaries and in their art. The rhetoric favored the view of the conquering Europeans; this is evident in the fact that any map created by a non-European was instantly regarded as inaccurate. Furthermore, European cartographers were required to follow a set of rules which led to ethnocentrism; portraying one's own ethnicity in the center of the map. As Harley would put it "The steps in making a map – selection, omission, simplification, classification, the creation of hierarchies, and 'symbolization' – are all inherently rhetorical." [65]

A common practice by the European cartographers of the time was to map unexplored areas as "blank spaces". This influenced the colonial powers as it sparked competition amongst them to explore and colonize these regions. Imperialists aggressively and passionately looked forward to filling these spaces for the glory of their respective countries. [66] The Dictionary of Human Geography notes that cartography was used to empty 'undiscovered' lands of their Indigenous meaning and bring them into spatial existence via the imposition of "Western place-names and borders, [therefore] priming "virgin" (putatively empty land, "wilderness") for colonization (thus sexualizing colonial landscapes as domains of male penetration), reconfiguring alien space as absolute, quantifiable and separable (as property)." [67]

David Livingstone stresses "that geography has meant different things at different times and in different places" and that we should keep an open mind in regards to the relationship between geography and colonialism instead of identifying boundaries. [61] Geography as a discipline was not and is not an objective science, Painter and Jeffrey argue, rather it is based on assumptions about the physical world. [60] Comparison of exogeographical representations of ostensibly tropical environments in science fiction art support this conjecture, finding the notion of the tropics to be an artificial collection of ideas and beliefs that are independent of geography. [68]

Colonialism and imperialism

Governor-General Félix Éboué welcomes Charles de Gaulle to Chad Félix Éboué and Charles DeGaulle.jpg
Governor-General Félix Éboué welcomes Charles de Gaulle to Chad

A colony is a part of an empire and so colonialism is closely related to imperialism. Assumptions are that colonialism and imperialism are interchangeable, however Robert J. C. Young suggests that imperialism is the concept while colonialism is the practice. Colonialism is based on an imperial outlook, thereby creating a consequential relationship. Through an empire, colonialism is established and capitalism is expanded, on the other hand a capitalist economy naturally enforces an empire. In the next section Marxists make a case for this mutually reinforcing relationship.

Marxist view of colonialism

Marxism views colonialism as a form of capitalism, enforcing exploitation and social change. Marx thought that working within the global capitalist system, colonialism is closely associated with uneven development. It is an "instrument of wholesale destruction, dependency and systematic exploitation producing distorted economies, socio-psychological disorientation, massive poverty and neocolonial dependency". [69] Colonies are constructed into modes of production. The search for raw materials and the current search for new investment opportunities is a result of inter-capitalist rivalry for capital accumulation. Lenin regarded colonialism as the root cause of imperialism, as imperialism was distinguished by monopoly capitalism via colonialism and as Lyal S. Sunga explains: "Vladimir Lenin advocated forcefully the principle of self-determination of peoples in his "Theses on the Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination" as an integral plank in the programme of socialist internationalism" and he quotes Lenin who contended that "The right of nations to self-determination implies exclusively the right to independence in the political sense, the right to free political separation from the oppressor nation. Specifically, this demand for political democracy implies complete freedom to agitate for secession and for a referendum on secession by the seceding nation." [70] Non Russian marxists within the RSFSR and later the USSR, like Sultan Galiev and Vasyl Shakhrai, meanwhile, between 1918 and 1923 and then after 1929, considered the Soviet Regime a renewed version of the Russian imperialism and colonialism.

In his critique of colonialism in Africa, the Guyanese historian and political activist Walter Rodney states:

"The decisiveness of the short period of colonialism and its negative consequences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power. Power is the ultimate determinant in human society, being basic to the relations within any group and between groups. It implies the ability to defend one's interests and if necessary to impose one's will by any means available ... When one society finds itself forced to relinquish power entirely to another society that in itself is a form of underdevelopment  ... During the centuries of pre-colonial trade, some control over social political and economic life was retained in Africa, in spite of the disadvantageous commerce with Europeans. That little control over internal matters disappeared under colonialism. Colonialism went much further than trade. It meant a tendency towards direct appropriation by Europeans of the social institutions within Africa. Africans ceased to set indigenous cultural goals and standards, and lost full command of training young members of the society. Those were undoubtedly major steps backwards ... Colonialism was not merely a system of exploitation, but one whose essential purpose was to repatriate the profits to the so-called 'mother country'. From an African view-point, that amounted to consistent expatriation of surplus produced by African labour out of African resources. It meant the development of Europe as part of the same dialectical process in which Africa was underdeveloped.
"Colonial Africa fell within that part of the international capitalist economy from which surplus was drawn to feed the metropolitan sector. As seen earlier, exploitation of land and labour is essential for human social advance, but only on the assumption that the product is made available within the area where the exploitation takes place." [71] [72]

According to Lenin, the new imperialism emphasized the transition of capitalism from free trade to a stage of monopoly capitalism to finance capital. He states it is, "connected with the intensification of the struggle for the partition of the world". As free trade thrives on exports of commodities, monopoly capitalism thrived on the export of capital amassed by profits from banks and industry. This, to Lenin, was the highest stage of capitalism. He goes on to state that this form of capitalism was doomed for war between the capitalists and the exploited nations with the former inevitably losing. War is stated to be the consequence of imperialism. As a continuation of this thought G.N. Uzoigwe states, "But it is now clear from more serious investigations of African history in this period that imperialism was essentially economic in its fundamental impulses." [73]

Liberalism, capitalism and colonialism

Classical liberals were generally in abstract opposition to colonialism (as opposed to colonization) and imperialism, including Adam Smith, Frédéric Bastiat, Richard Cobden, John Bright, Henry Richard, Herbert Spencer, H.R. Fox Bourne, Edward Morel, Josephine Butler, W.J. Fox and William Ewart Gladstone. [74] Their philosophies found the colonial enterprise, particularly mercantilism, in opposition to the principles of free trade and liberal policies. [75] Adam Smith wrote in The Wealth of Nations that Britain should grant independence to all of its colonies and also argued that it would be economically beneficial for British people in the average, although the merchants having mercantilist privileges would lose out. [74] [76]

Scientific thought in colonialism, race and gender

During the colonial era, the global process of colonization served to spread and synthesize the social and political belief systems of the "mother-countries" which often included a belief in a certain natural racial superiority of the race of the mother-country. Colonialism also acted to reinforce these same racial belief systems within the "mother-countries" themselves. Usually also included within the colonial belief systems was a certain belief in the inherent superiority of male over female, however this particular belief was often pre-existing amongst the pre-colonial societies, prior to their colonization. [77] [78] [79]

Popular political practices of the time reinforced colonial rule by legitimizing European (and/ or Japanese) male authority, and also legitimizing female and non-mother-country race inferiority through studies of Craniology, Comparative Anatomy, and Phrenology. [78] [79] [80] Biologists, naturalists, anthropologists, and ethnologists of the 19th century were focused on the study of colonized indigenous women, as in the case of Georges Cuvier's study of Sarah Baartman. [79] Such cases embraced a natural superiority and inferiority relationship between the races based on the observations of naturalists' from the mother-countries. European studies along these lines gave rise to the perception that African women's anatomy, and especially genitalia, resembled those of mandrills, baboons, and monkeys, thus differentiating colonized Africans from what were viewed as the features of the evolutionarily superior, and thus rightfully authoritarian, European woman. [79]

In addition to what would now be viewed as pseudo-scientific studies of race, which tended to reinforce a belief in an inherent mother-country racial superiority, a new supposedly "science-based" ideology concerning gender roles also then emerged as an adjunct to the general body of beliefs of inherent superiority of the colonial era. [78] Female inferiority across all cultures was emerging as an idea supposedly supported by craniology that led scientists to argue that the typical brain size of the female human was, on the average, slightly smaller than that of the male, thus inferring that therefore female humans must be less developed and less evolutionarily advanced than males. [78] This finding of relative cranial size difference was later simply attributed to the general typical size difference of the human male body versus that of the typical human female body. [81]

Within the former European colonies, non-Europeans and women sometimes faced invasive studies by the colonial powers in the interest of the then prevailing pro-colonial scientific ideology of the day. [79] Such seemingly flawed studies of race and gender coincided with the era of colonialism and the initial introduction of foreign cultures, appearances, and gender roles into the now gradually widening world-views of the scholars of the mother-countries.

The Other

"The East offering its riches to Britannia", painted by Spiridione Roma for the boardroom of the British East India Company The East offering its riches to Britannia - Roma Spiridone, 1778 - BL Foster 245.jpg
"The East offering its riches to Britannia", painted by Spiridione Roma for the boardroom of the British East India Company

"The Other", or "othering" is the process of creating a separate entity to persons or groups who are labelled as different or non-normal due to the repetition of characteristics. [82] Othering is the creation of those who discriminate, to distinguish, label, categorize those who do not fit in the societal norm. Several scholars in recent decades developed the notion of the "other" as an epistemological concept in social theory. [82] For example, postcolonial scholars, believed that colonizing powers explained an "other" who were there to dominate, civilize, and extract resources through colonization of land. [82]

Political geographers explain how colonial/imperial powers (countries, groups of people etc.) "othered" places they wanted to dominate to legalize their exploitation of the land. [82] During and after the rise of colonialism the Western powers perceived the East as the "other", being different and separate from their societal norm. This viewpoint and separation of culture had divided the Eastern and Western culture creating a dominant/subordinate dynamic, both being the "other" towards themselves. [82]

Post-colonialism

Queen Victoria Street in the former British colony of Hong Kong HK Queen Victoria Street The Central Market.jpg
Queen Victoria Street in the former British colony of Hong Kong

Post-colonialism (or post-colonial theory) can refer to a set of theories in philosophy and literature that grapple with the legacy of colonial rule. In this sense, one can regard post-colonial literature as a branch of postmodern literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of peoples formerly subjugated in colonial empires. Many practitioners take Edward Saïd's book Orientalism (1978) as the theory's founding work (although French theorists such as Aimé Césaire (1913–2008) and Frantz Fanon (1925–1961) made similar claims decades before Saïd).

Saïd analyzed the works of Balzac, Baudelaire and Lautréamont, arguing that they helped to shape a societal fantasy of European racial superiority. Writers of post-colonial fiction interact with the traditional colonial discourse, but modify or subvert it; for instance by retelling a familiar story from the perspective of an oppressed minor character in the story. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's Can the Subaltern Speak? (1998) gave its name to Subaltern Studies.

In A Critique of Postcolonial Reason (1999), Spivak argued that major works of European metaphysics (such as those of Kant and Hegel) not only tend to exclude the subaltern from their discussions, but actively prevent non-Europeans from occupying positions as fully human subjects. Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), famous for its explicit ethnocentrism, considers Western civilization as the most accomplished of all, while Kant also had some traces of racialism in his work.

Colonistics

The field of colonistics studies colonialism from such viewpoints as those of economics, sociology and psychology. [83]

Effects of Colonialism on the Colonizers

In his 1955 essay, Discourse on Colonialism (French: Discours sur le colonialisme), French Poet Aimé Césaire evaluates the effects of racist, sexist, and capitalist attitudes and motivations on the civilizations that attempted to colonize other civilizations. In explaining his position, he says "I admit that it is a good thing to place different civilizations in contact with each other that it is an excellent thing to blend different worlds; that whatever its own particular genius may be, a civilization that withdraws into itself atrophies; that for civilizations, exchange is oxygen." [84] However, he contends that colonization is a harmful and counterproductive means of interacting with and learning from neighboring civilizations.

To illustrate his point, he explains that colonization relies on racist and xenophobic frameworks that dehumanize the targets of colonization and justify their extreme and brutal mistreatment. Every time an immoral act perpetrated by colonizers onto the colonized is justified by racist, sexist, otherwise xenophobic, or capitalist motivations to subjugate a group of people, the colonizing civilization "acquires another dead weight, a universal regression takes place, a gangrene sets in, a center of infection begins to spread." [84] Césaire argues the result of this process is that "a poison [is] instilled into the veins of Europe and, slowly but surely, the continent proceeds toward savagery." [85] Césaire is indicating that the racist and xenophobic justifications for colonization—motivated by capitalist desires—ultimately result in the moral and cultural degradation of the colonizing nation. Thusly, colonization is damaging to the civilizations that participate as perpetrators in a way that is internally harmful.

British public opinion about the British Empire

The 2014 YouGov survey found that British people are mostly proud of colonialism and the British Empire: [86]

A new YouGov survey finds that most think the British Empire is more something to be proud of (59%) rather than ashamed of (19%). 23% don't know. Young people are least likely to feel pride over shame when it comes to the Empire, though about half (48%) of 18–24 year olds do. In comparison, about two-thirds (65%) of over 60s feel mostly proud. ... A third of British people (34%) also say they would like it if Britain still had an empire. Under half (45%) say they would not like the Empire to exist today. 20% don't know. [87]

Colonial migrations

"Areas of European settlement". Censuses, articles quoted in description..) European Ancestry Large.svg
"Areas of European settlement". Censuses, articles quoted in description..)

Nations and regions outside Europe with significant populations of European ancestry [88]

Boer family in South Africa, 1886 Boerfamily1886.jpg
Boer family in South Africa, 1886
Russian settlers in Central Asia, present-day Kazakhstan, 1911 Prokudin-Gorskii Russians in Central Asia.jpg
Russian settlers in Central Asia, present-day Kazakhstan, 1911

See also

Notes

  1. Veracini, Lorenzo (2010). Settler Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 5. ISBN   978-0-230-22097-3.
  2. Philip T. Hoffman (2015). Why Did Europe Conquer the World?. Princeton University Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN   978-1-4008-6584-0.
  3. "Colonialism". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins. 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  4. Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989, p. 291.
  5. "Colonialism". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  6. Margaret Kohn (29 August 2017). "Colonialism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Stanford University . Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  7. Tignor, Roger (2005). Preface to Colonialism: a theoretical overview. Markus Weiner Publishers. p. x. ISBN   978-1-55876-340-1 . Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  8. Osterhammel, Jürgen (2005). Colonialism: a theoretical overview. trans. Shelley Frisch. Markus Weiner Publishers. p. 15. ISBN   978-1-55876-340-1 . Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  9. Osterhammel, Jürgen (2005). Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. trans. Shelley Frisch. Markus Weiner Publishers. p. 16. ISBN   978-1-55876-340-1 . Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  10. 1 2 Healy, Roisin; Dal Lago, Enrico (2014). The Shadow of Colonialism on Europe's Modern Past. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 126. ISBN   978-1-137-45075-3.
  11. Global Social Theory. "Settler Colonialism". Global Social Theory. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  12. Gabbidon, Shaun (2010). Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice: An International Dilemma. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. p. 8. ISBN   978-1-4129-4988-0.
  13. Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008) p. 223. ISBN   9971-69-373-9 Googlebook
  14. Gouda, Frances [https://books.google.com/books?id=nN6G-lMk_DEC Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies 1900–1942[. (Publisher: Equinox, 2008) ISBN   978-979-3780-62-7. Chapter 5, p. 163.
  15. The Le Dynasty and Southward Expansion
  16. The Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Spain and Denmark are not included. U.S. Tariff Commission. Colonial tariff policies (1922), p. 5 online
  17. Raymond Leslie Buell, "Do Colonies Pay?" The Saturday Review, August 1, 1936 p 6
  18. King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN   978-0-520-26151-8.
  19. Come Back, Colonialism, All is Forgiven
  20. 1 2 Lovejoy, Paul E. (2012). Transformations of Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. London: Cambridge University Press.
  21. Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Allen Lane.
  22. [Thong, Tezenlo. Civilized Colonizers and Barbaric Colonized: Reclaiming Naga Identity by Demythologizing Colonial Portraits, History and Anthropology 23, no. 3 (2012): 375–97]
  23. "Strabo's Geography Book II Chapter 5 "
  24. Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. p. 45. ISBN   978-0-8129-6761-6.
  25. Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. p. 5. ISBN   978-0-8129-6761-6.
  26. 1 2 3 Acemoglu, Daron (May 8, 2005). "Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth". Handbook of Economic Growth, Volume IA.
  27. Freedman, Estelle (2002). No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and The Future of Women. Random House Publishing Group. pp. 25–26. ISBN   978-0-345-45053-1.
  28. Freedman, Estelle (2002). No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and The Future of Women. Random House Publishing. p. 113. ISBN   978-0-345-45053-1.
  29. "White Servitude", by Richard Hofstadter, Montgomery College
  30. 1 2 King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 24. ISBN   978-0-520-26124-2.
  31. King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN   978-0-520-26124-2.
  32. Pagden, Anthony (2003). Peoples and Empires. New York: Modern Library. p. 6. ISBN   978-0-8129-6761-6.
  33. White, Matthew (2012). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things. W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 427–28. ISBN   978-0-393-08192-3.
  34. King, Russell (2010). People on the Move: An Atlas of Migration. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN   978-0-520-26124-2.
  35. Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001). ISBN   90-351-2361-1
  36. Crul, Lindo and Lin Pang. Culture, Structure and Beyond, Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children (Het Spinhuis Publishers, 1999). ISBN   90-5589-173-8
  37. "British Nationality Act 1981". The National Archives, United Kingdom. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  38. Seljuq, Affan (July 1997). "Cultural Conflicts: North African Immigrants in France". The International Journal of Peace Studies. 2 (2). ISSN   1085-7494 . Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  39. Kenneth F. Kiple, ed. The Cambridge Historical Dictionary of Disease (2003).
  40. Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (1974)
  41. Smallpox – The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge Archived 2008-09-07 at the Wayback Machine , David A. Koplow.
  42. Houston, C.S.; Houston, S. (2000). "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words". The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 11 (2): 112–15. PMC   2094753 . PMID   18159275.
  43. The Story Of ... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs.
  44. Stacy Goodling, "Effects of European Diseases on the Inhabitants of the New World" Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine
  45. "Smallpox Through History". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
  46. New Zealand Historical Perspective Archived June 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  47. How did Easter Island's ancient statues lead to the destruction of an entire ecosystem?, The Independent.
  48. Fiji School of Medicine Archived October 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  49. Meeting the First Inhabitants Archived June 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , TIMEasia.com, 21 August 2000.
  50. Genetic Study Bolsters Columbus Link to Syphilis, New York Times, January 15, 2008.
  51. "Columbus May Have Brought Syphilis to Europe". LiveScience.
  52. Cholera's seven pandemics. CBC News. December 2, 2008.
  53. Sahib: The British Soldier in India, 1750–1914 by Richard Holmes.
  54. Dr. Francisco de Balmis and his Mission of Mercy, Society of Philippine Health History. Archived 2004-12-23 at the Wayback Machine
  55. Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832.
  56. Smallpox History – Other histories of smallpox in South Asia. Archived 2012-04-16 at the Wayback Machine
  57. Conquest and Disease or Colonialism and Health? Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine , Gresham College | Lectures and Events.
  58. WHO Media centre (2001). "Fact sheet N°259: African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness".
  59. Iliffe, John (1989). "The Origins of African Population Growth". The Journal of African History. 30 (1): 165–69. JSTOR   182701.
  60. 1 2 3 "Painter, J. & Jeffrey, A., 2009. Political Geography, 2nd ed., Sage. "Imperialism" p. 23 (GIC).
  61. 1 2 Nayak, Anoop; Jeffrey, Alex (2011). Geographical thought : an introduction to ideas in human geography. Harlow, England: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 4–5. ISBN   978-0-13-222824-4.
  62. Arnold, David (March 2000). ""Illusory Riches": Representations of the Tropical World, 1840-1950". Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 21 (1): 6–18. doi:10.1111/1467-9493.00060.
  63. Gallaher, Carolyn; Dahlman, Carl T.; Gilmartin, Mary; Mountz, Alison; Shirlow, Peter (2009). Key Concepts in Political Geography. London: Sage. p. 392. ISBN   978-1-4129-4672-8 . Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  64. Bassett, Thomas J. (July 1994). "Cartography and Empire Building in Nineteenth-Century West Africa". Geographical Review. 84, No. 3 (American Geographical Society): 316–35. JSTOR   215456.
  65. Harley, J.B. "Deconstructing the Map" (University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee /): 2,7,11.
  66. Bassett, Thomas J. (July 1994). "Cartography and Empire Building in Nineteenth-Century West Africa". Geographical Review. 84, No 3 (American Geographical Society): 322, 324–25. JSTOR   215456.
  67. Gregory, Derek; Johnston, Ron; Pratt, Geraldine; Watts, Michael; Whatmore, Sarah, eds. (2009). The dictionary of human geography (5th ed.). Chichester (UK): Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 96–97. ISBN   978-1-4051-3288-6.
  68. Menadue, Christopher Benjamin (2018-09-04). "Cities in Flight: A Descriptive Examination of the Tropical City Imagined in Twentieth Century Science Fiction Cover Art". ETropic: Electronic Journal of Studies in the Tropics. 17 (2). doi:10.25120/etropic.17.2.2018.3658. ISSN   1448-2940.
  69. Dictionary of Human Geography, "Colonialism"
  70. In the Emerging System of International Criminal Law: Developments and Codification, Brill Publishers (1997) at page 90, Sunga traces the origin of the international movement against colonialism, and relates it to the rise of the right to self-determination in international law.
  71. Walter Rodney. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. East African Publishers. pp. 149, 224. ISBN   978-9966-25-113-8.
  72. Henry Schwarz; Sangeeta Ray (2004). A Companion To Postcolonial Studies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 271. ISBN   978-0-470-99833-5.
  73. Boahen, A. Adu. Africa under Colonial Domination 1880–1935. London: Heinemann, 1985. 11. Print.
  74. 1 2 Liberal Anti-Imperialism Archived 2011-09-22 at the Wayback Machine , professor Daniel Klein, 1.7.2004
  75. Hidalgo, Dennis (2007). "Anticolonialism". In Benjamin, Thomas. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 (Gale Virtual Reference Library ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 57–65. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
  76. Smith, Adam (1811). The nature and causes of the wealth of nations ("Of Colonies"). London: T. Cadell. pp. 343–84.
  77. Stoler, Ann L. (Nov 1989). "Making Empire Respectable: The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in 20th-Century Colonical Cultures". American Ethnologist. 16 (4): 634–60. doi:10.1525/ae.1989.16.4.02a00030.
  78. 1 2 3 4 Fee, Elizabeth (1979). "Nineteenth Century Craniology: The Study of the Female Skull". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 53: 415–53.
  79. 1 2 3 4 5 Fausto-Sterling, Anne (2001). Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch, ed. Gender, Race, and Nation: The Comparative Anatomy of "Hottentot" women in Europe, 1815–1817. The Gender and Science Reader. Routledge.
  80. Stepan, Nancy (1993). Sandra Harding, ed. The "Racial" Economy of Science (3 ed.). Indiana University press. pp. 359–76. ISBN   978-0-253-20810-1.
  81. Male and female brains: the REAL differences 10 February 2016, by Dean Burnett, The Guardian
  82. 1 2 3 4 5 Mountz, Alison. The Other, Key Concepts in Human Geography. p. 2.
  83. Maunier, René (1949). The Sociology of the Colonies [Part 1]: An Introduction to the Study of Race Contact. International Library of Sociology. Translated by Lorimer, E.-O. Routledge (published 2013). p. 137. ISBN   978-1-136-24522-0 . Retrieved 7 December 2018. There are thus three elements in Colonistics or colonial study: Colonial Economics, Colonial Sociology' and Colonial Psychology.
  84. 1 2 Aimé., Césaire (1972). Discourse on colonialism. New York and London: Monthly Review Press. p. 2. OCLC   849914517.Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  85. Aimé., Césaire (1972). Discourse on colonialism. New York and London: Monthly Review Press. p. 3. OCLC   849914517.Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  86. "Colonial nostalgia is back in fashion, blinding us to the horrors of empire". The Guardian. 24 August 2016.
  87. "The British Empire is 'something to be proud of'". YouGov.
  88. Ethnic groups by country. Statistics (where available) from CIA Factbook.
  89. South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  90. Namibia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  91. Tarnus, Evelyne; Bourdon, Emmanuel (2006). "Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Réunion". Advances in Physiology Education. 30 (4): 248–53. doi:10.1152/advan.00069.2005. PMID   17108254. Archived from the original on 2013-05-22.
  92. "Former settlers return to Algeria". BBC News. July 29, 2006.
  93. Botswana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  94. De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (1994) Migration and development co-operation. . Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN   92-871-2611-9.
  95. "Ivory Coast – The Economy". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  96. Senegal, About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities.
  97. Swaziland: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  98. Tunisia, Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. Thomson Gale. 2007. Encyclopedia.com.
  99. Fiona Hill, Russia — Coming In From the Cold? Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine , The Globalist, 23 February 2004
  100. "Siberian Germans".
  101. " Migrant resettlement in the Russian federation: reconstructing 'homes' and 'homelands' ". Moya Flynn. (1994). p. 15. ISBN   1-84331-117-8}
  102. 1 2 3 4 5 Robert Greenall, "Russians left behind in Central Asia", BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  103. Kyrgyzstan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  104. " The Kyrgyz – Children of Manas. ". Petr Kokaisl, Pavla Kokaislova (2009). p. 125. ISBN   80-254-6365-6.
  105. Turkmenistan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  106. Tajikistan – Ethnic Groups. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
  107. HK Census. " HK Census". Statistical Table. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  108. Argentina: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  109. Bolivia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  110. Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  111. Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2007). Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI. UAEM. ISBN   978-970-757-052-8.
  112. Informe Latinobarómetro 2011, Latinobarómetro (p. 58).
  113. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.
  114. Colombia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  115. "Costa Rica; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-21. white (including mestizo) 94% = 3.9 million whites and mestizos
  116. "Tabla II.3 Población por color de la piel y grupos de edades, según zona de residencia y sexo". Censo de Población y Viviendas (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas. 2002. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  117. Dominican Republic: People: Ethnic groups. World Factbook of CIA
  118. "Ecuador: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
  119. El Salvador: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  120. "Mexico: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
  121. "Mexico: Ethnic Groups". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  122. Mexico: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  123. Mexico – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  124. "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
  125. "Panama; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  126. Puerto Rico: People: Ethnic Groups World Factbook of CIA
  127. Peru: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  128. 8 LIZCANO Archived June 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  129. Uruguay: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  130. Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011 (p. 14).
  131. Bahamas: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  132. Barbados: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  133. Bermuda: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  134. Canadian Census 2006
  135. French Guiana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  136. Greenland
  137. Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  138. Fact Sheet on St. Barthélemy
  139. Trinidad French Creole
  140. French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  141. American FactFinder – Results Archived March 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  142. Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA

Further reading

Primary sources

Related Research Articles

Colony territory under the political control of an overseas state, generally with its own subordinate colonial government

In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception.

Colonization is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

European colonization of the Americas settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.

New Imperialism period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States and the Empire of Japan

In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest, and exploiting the resources of the subjugated countries. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers individually conquered almost all of Africa and parts of Asia. The new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a "civilizing mission" ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II.

French colonial empire Set of territories that were under French rule primarily from the 17th century to the late 1960s

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "first colonial empire," that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830. The second colonial empire came to an end after the loss in later wars of Indochina (1954) and Algeria (1962), and relatively peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after 1960.

Decolonization or decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories. The concept particularly applies to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. However, decolonization not only includes the complete "removal of the domination of non-indigenous forces" within the geographical space and different institutions of the colonized, but it also includes the intellectual decolonization from the colonizers' ideas that made the colonized feel inferior.

German colonial empire

The German colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. The chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Claiming much of the left-over colonies that were yet unclaimed in the Scramble of Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire after the British and the French, at the time. Germany lost control when World War I began in 1914 and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. However some military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa only in 1918 at the end of the war. Germany's colonial empire was officially confiscated with the Treaty of Versailles after Germany's defeat in the war and the various units became League of Nations mandates under the supervision of one of the victorious powers.

Dutch Empire overseas territories controlled by the Dutch Republic and, later, the modern Netherlands from the 17th century to the mid-1950s

The Dutch colonial empire comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815. It was initially a trade-based system which derived most of its influence from merchant enterprise and from Dutch control of international maritime shipping routes through strategically placed outposts, rather than from expansive territorial ventures. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the Dutch colonial empire's overseas holdings consisted of coastal forts, factories, and port settlements with varying degrees of incorporation of their hinterlands and surrounding regions. Dutch chartered companies often dictated that their possessions be kept as confined as possible in order to avoid unnecessary expense, and while some such as the Dutch Cape Colony and Dutch East Indies expanded anyway, others remained undeveloped, isolated trading centres dependent on an indigenous host-nation. This reflected the primary purpose of the Dutch colonial empire: commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses.

Europeans in Oceania

European exploration and settlement of Oceania began in the 16th century, starting with Portuguese settling the Moluccas and Spanish (Castilian) landings and shipwrecks in the Marianas Islands, east of the Philippines, followed by the Portuguese landing and settling temporarily in the Tanimbar or the Aru Islands and in some of the Caroline Islands and Papua New Guinea, and several Spanish landings in the Caroline Islands and New Guinea. Subsequent rivalry between European colonial powers, trade opportunities and Christian missions drove further European exploration and eventual settlement. After the 17th century Dutch landings in New Zealand and Australia, but not settling these lands, the British became the dominant colonial power in the region, establishing settler colonies in what would become Australia and New Zealand, both of which now have majority European-descended populations. New Caledonia (Caldoche), Hawaii, French Polynesia, Norfolk Island and Guam also have significant European populations. Europeans remain a primary ethnic group in much of Oceania, both numerically and economically.

Colonial empire overseas possessions of a nation-state, usually a product of the European Age of Exploration

A colonial empire is a collective of territories, mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.

Western European colonialism and colonization

European colonialism and colonization was the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over other societies and territories, creating a colony, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. Research suggests, the current conditions of postcolonial countries have roots in colonial actions and policies. For example, colonial policies, such as the type of rule implemented, the nature of investments, and identity of the colonizers, are cited as impacting postcolonial states. Examination of the state-building process, economic development, and cultural norms and mores shows the direct and indirect consequences of colonialism on the postcolonial states.

European colonialism Historical process

European colonialism refers to the worldwide colonial expansion of European countries, which began in the early modern period, c. 1500. Following up on the various medieval European colonising crusades in the Levant and in the Baltic region, states such as Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Britain, Italy and France established colonial spheres of influence, most notably in Africa, India, Southeast Asia and the Americas.

Colonisation of Africa

The history of external colonisation of Africa can be divided into two stages: Classical antiquity and European colonialism. In popular parlance, discussions of colonialism in Africa usually focus on the European conquests that resulted in the Scramble for Africa after the Berlin Conference in the 19th century. Settlements established by Europeans while incorporated abjection of natives, also brought with it governing and academic institutions as well as agricultural and technological innovations that offset the extractive institutions commonly attributed to colonialism by Western powers.

White Africans of European ancestry are Africans descended from any of the white ethnic groups originating on the European continent. In 1989, there were an estimated 5.6 million white people with European ancestry on the African continent. Most are of Dutch, British, Portuguese, German, and French descent; and to a lesser extent there are also those descended from Italians, Spaniards, Greeks, Russians, and Jews. The majority once lived along the Mediterranean coast, in South Africa, or in Zimbabwe.

Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonized people and their lands.

Christianity and colonialism are often closely associated because Catholicism and Protestantism were the religions of the European colonial powers and acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of those powers. According to Edward Andrews, Christian missionaries were initially portrayed as "visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery". However, by the time the colonial era drew to a close in the last half of the twentieth century, missionaries became viewed as "ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them", colonialism's "agent, scribe and moral alibi."

Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers. As with all forms of colonialism, it is based on exogenous domination, typically organized or supported by an imperial authority. Settler colonialism is enacted by a variety of means ranging from violent depopulation of the previous inhabitants, to more subtle, legal means such as assimilation or recognition of indigenous identity within a colonial framework. Unlike other forms of colonialism, the imperial power does not always represent the same nationality as the settlers. However, the colonizing authority generally views the settlers as racially superior to the previous inhabitants, which may give settlers’ social movements and political demands greater legitimacy than those of colonized peoples in the eyes of the home colonies, whereas natural and human resources are the main motivation behind other forms of colonialism. Normal colonialism typically ends eventually, whereas settler colonialism lasts indefinitely, except in the rare event of complete evacuation or settler decolonization.

Exploitation colonialism Type of colonization without mass population settlement

Exploitation colonialism is the national economic policy of conquering a country to exploit its population as labour and its natural resources as raw material. The practice of exploitation colonialism contrasts with settler colonialism, the policy of conquering a country to establish a branch of the metropole (motherland). A reason for which a country might practice exploitation colonialism is the immediate financial gain produced by the low-cost extraction of raw materials by means of a native people, usually administered by a colonial government.