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Tutupaca is a volcano complex in Tacna, the southernmost region of Peru. It is in the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes, where the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate causes volcanic activity. Tutupaca consists of three overlapping volcanoes formed by lava flows and lava domes made out of andesite and dacite, which grew on top of older volcanic rocks. It features geothermal manifestations with fumaroles and hot springs. Its highest peak is usually reported to be 5,815 metres (19,078 ft), and was glaciated in the past. Tutupaca became active about 700,000 years ago. Several volcanoes in Peru have been active in recent times, including Tutupaca; one of these generated a large debris avalanche when it collapsed, probably in 1802, with pyroclastic flows and an eruption that was among the largest in Peru for which there are historical records. (Full article...)

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Meinhardt Schomberg (d. 1719) · Mildred Lewis Rutherford (b. 1851) · Alexis Herman (b. 1947)

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The Saturn V SA-506 carrying Apollo 11, the first crewed lunar landing mission, on July 16, 1969, at 13:32  UTC. Launching from Launch Pad 39A at Florida's Kennedy Space Center, the five Rocketdyne F-1 engines of the rocket's S-IC first stage can be seen arrayed in a quincunx, with a fixed center engine and four outer engines that gimballed for steering.

A multistage liquid-fuel expendable launcher, the Saturn V was designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun at the Marshall Space Flight Center. It was the largest production model of the Saturn family, with a height of 111 m (363 ft), although larger models were theorized. The super heavy-lift launch vehicle consisted of liquid-propellant rockets in three stages, the first of which had a total mass at launch of 2.3 million kilograms (5.1 million pounds), consisting mostly of its RP-1 fuel and liquid oxygen. As well as launching Apollo missions, the Saturn V also launched the Skylab space station. Thirteen rockets were launched from 1967 to 1973, with an almost perfect launch record Apollo 6 and Apollo 13 did lose engines, but the onboard computers were able to compensate.

Photograph credit: NASA; retouched by PawełMM

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