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The Coldrum Long Barrow is a ruined British Early Neolithic chambered long barrow near the village of Trottiscliffe, Kent. Probably constructed in the fourth millennium BCE, it was built by pastoralist communities soon after the introduction of agriculture to Britain. Built out of earth and around fifty local sarsen-stone megaliths, the barrow consisted of a tumulus enclosed by kerb-stones. At the eastern end of the tumulus was a stone chamber containing the remains of at least seventeen human bodies, at least one of which had been dismembered before burial, potentially reflecting a tradition of excarnation and secondary burial. The long barrow later became dilapidated, possibly exacerbated through deliberate destruction by iconoclasts or treasure hunters. Local folklore associates the site with the burial of a prince and the countless stones motif. Excavations took place in the early 20th century, and in 1926, ownership was transferred to the National Trust. Entry is free, and the stones are the site of various modern Pagan rituals. ( Full article... )

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Reverse genetics is a method in molecular genetics that is used to help understand the function of a gene by analysing the phenotypic effects of specific nucleic acid sequences after being genetically engineered. The process usually proceeds in the opposite direction to so-called forward genetic screens of classical genetics. In other words, while forward genetics seeks to find the genetic basis of a phenotype or trait, reverse genetics seeks to find what phenotypes arise as a result of particular genetic sequences. For instance, such procedures allow scientists to manipulate the genomes of influenza viruses by transferring genes between different strains. The novel genotypes of the viruses produced in this way have greatly diminished pathogenic potency but can still induce protective immunity in a host. Using this technique, vaccines can be created, as illustrated in this diagram depicting the development of an avian flu vaccine.

Diagram credit: Mouagip