Multiplayer video game

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A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time, either locally (e.g. New Super Mario Bros. Wii ) or online over the internet (e.g. World of Warcraft , Call Of Duty ). Multiplayer games usually require players to share the resources of a single game system or use networking technology to play together over a greater distance; players may compete against one or more human contestants, work cooperatively with a human partner to achieve a common goal, or supervise other players' activity. Multiplayer games allow players interaction with other individuals in partnership, competition or rivalry, providing them with social communication absent from single-player games.

Contents

Asynchronous multiplayer

Asynchronous multiplayer is a form of multiplayer gameplay where players do not have to be playing at the same time. [1]

History

Non-networked

Some of the earliest video games were two-player games, including early sports games (such as 1958's Tennis For Two and 1972's Pong ), early shooter games such as Spacewar! (1962) [2] and early racing video games such as Astro Race (1973). [3] The first examples of multiplayer real-time games were developed on the PLATO system about 1973. Multi-user games developed on this system included 1973's Empire and 1974's Spasim; the latter was an early first-person shooter. Other early video games included turn-based multiplayer modes, popular in tabletop arcade machines. In such games, play is alternated at some point (often after the loss of a life). All players' scores are often displayed onscreen so players can see their relative standing.

Gauntlet (1985) and Quartet (1986) introduced co-operative 4-player gaming to the arcades. The games had broader consoles to allow for four sets of controls.

Networked

The first large-scale serial sessions using a single computer[ citation needed ] were STAR (based on Star Trek ), OCEAN (a battle using ships, submarines and helicopters, with players divided between two combating cities) and 1975's CAVE (based on Dungeons and Dragons), created by Christopher Caldwell (with art work and suggestions by Roger Long and assembly coding by Robert Kenney) on the University of New Hampshire's DECsystem-1090. The university's computer system had hundreds of terminals, connected (via serial lines) through cluster PDP-11s for student, teacher and staff access. The games had a program running on each terminal (for each player), sharing a segment of shared memory (known as the "high segment" in the OS TOPS-10). The games became popular, and the university often banned them because of their RAM use. STAR was based on 1974's single-user, turn-oriented BASIC program STAR, written by Michael O'Shaughnessy at UNH.

Ken Wasserman and Tim Stryker in a 1980 BYTE article identified three factors which make networked computer games appealing: [4]

  1. Multiple humans competing with each other instead of a computer
  2. Incomplete information resulting in suspense and risk-taking
  3. Real-time play requiring quick reaction

Wasserman and Stryker described how to network two Commodore PET computers with a cable. Their article includes a type-in, two-player Hangman, and describes the authors' more-sophisticated Flash Attack. [4] Digital Equipment Corporation distributed another multi-user version of Star Trek, Decwar, without real-time screen updating; it was widely distributed[ by whom? ] to universities with DECsystem-10s. In 1981 Cliff Zimmerman wrote an homage to Star Trek in MACRO-10 for DECsystem-10s and -20s using VT100-series graphics. "VTtrek" pitted four Federation players against four Klingons in a three-dimensional universe.

Flight Simulator II , released in 1986 for the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga, allowed two players to connect via modem or serial cable and fly together in a shared environment.

MIDI Maze , an early first-person shooter released in 1987 for the Atari ST, featured network multiplay through a MIDI interface before Ethernet and Internet play became common. It is considered[ by whom? ] the first multiplayer 3D shooter on a mainstream system, and the first network multiplayer action-game (with support for up to 16 players). There followed ports to a number of platforms (including Game Boy and Super NES) in 1991 under the title Faceball 2000, making it one of the first handheld, multi-platform first-person shooters and an early console example of the genre. [5]

Networked multiplayer gaming modes are known as "netplay". The first popular video-game title with a Local Area Network(LAN) version, 1991's Spectre for the Apple Macintosh, featured AppleTalk support for up to eight players. Spectre's popularity was partially attributed[ by whom? ] to the display of a player's name above their cybertank. There followed 1993's Doom, whose first network version allowed four simultaneous players. [6]

Networked multiplayer LAN games eliminate common Internet problems such as lag and anonymity, and are the focus of LAN parties. Play-by-email multiplayer games use email to communicate between computers. Other turn-based variations not requiring players to be online simultaneously are Play-by-post gaming and Play-by-Internet. Some online games are "massively multiplayer", with many players participating simultaneously. Two massively-multiplayer genres are MMORPG (such as World of Warcraft or EverQuest ) and MMORTS.

Some networked multiplayer games, including MUDs and massively multiplayer online games (MMOG) such as RuneScape, omit a single-player mode. First-person shooters have become popular multiplayer games; Battlefield 1942 and Counter-Strike have little (or no) single-player gameplay. Developer and gaming site OMGPOP's library includes multiplayer Flash games for the casual player. The world's largest MMOG is South Korea's Lineage, with 19 million registered players (primarily in Asia). [7] The largest Western MMOG in 2008 was World of Warcraft, with over 10 million registered players worldwide. This category of games requires multiple machines to connect via the Internet; before the Internet became popular, MUDs were played on time-sharing computer systems and games like Doom were played on a LAN.

During the 2010s, as the number of Internet users increased, two new video game genres rapidly gained worldwide popularity – multiplayer online battle arena and battle royale game, both designed exclusively for multiplayer gameplay over the Internet.

Gamers refer to latency using the term "ping", after a utility which measures round-trip network communication delays (by the use of ICMP packets). A player on a DSL connection with a 50-ms ping can react faster than a modem user with a 350-ms average latency. Other problems include packet loss and choke, which can prevent a player from "registering" their actions with a server. In first-person shooters, this problem appears when bullets hit the enemy without damage. The player's connection is not the only factor; some servers are slower than others.

Beginning with the Sega NetLink in 1996, Game.com in 1997 and Dreamcast in 2000, game consoles support network gaming over LANs and the Internet. Many mobile phones and handheld consoles also offer wireless gaming with Bluetooth (or similar) technology. By the early 2010s online gaming had become a mainstay of console platforms such as Xbox and PlayStation.[ citation needed ]

Single-system

In modern console, arcade and personal computer games, "multiplayer" implies play with several controllers plugged into one game system. Home-console games often use split screen, so each player has an individual view of the action (important in first-person shooters and in racing video games); most arcade games, and some console games (since Pong), do not. Nearly all multiplayer modes on beat 'em up games have a single-system option, but racing games have started to abandon split screen in favor of a multiple-system, multiplayer mode. Turn-based games such as chess also lend themselves to single system single screen and even to a single controller.

The term "local co-op" refers to local multiplayer games played in a cooperative manner on the same system; these may use split-screen or some other display method.

Hotseat games are typically turn-based games with only one controller or input set - such as a single keyboard/mouse on the system. Players rotate using the input device to perform their turn such that each is taking a turn on the "hotseat".

Asymmetrical gameplay

Asymmetrical multiplayer is a type of gameplay in which players can have significantly different roles or abilities from each other; enough to provide a significantly different experience of the game. In games with "soft asymmetry", the players have the same basic mechanics (such as movement and death), yet have different roles in the game. In "strong asymmetry" games, one player/team may have one gameplay experience (or be in softly asymmetric roles) while the other player/team play in a drastically different way, with different mechanics and/or a different type of objective.

Online cheating

Online cheating (in gaming) usually refers to modifying the game experience to give one player an advantage over others such as Aimbot in shooting games. [8] [9] [10] This is also known as "hacking" or "glitching" (Note that "glitching" refers to using a glitch, or a mistake in the code of a game, where as "hacking" is manipulating the code of a game). Cheating in video games is often done via a third party program which modifies the game's code at runtime to give one or more players an advantage. In other situations, it is frequently done by changing the games files to change the game's mechanics. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Video game Electronic game that involves a user interface and visual feedback

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device -- such as a joystick, controller, keyboard, or motion sensing devices, to generate visual feedback for a player. This is then shown on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV set, monitor, touchscreen, or virtual reality headset. Video games are augmented with audio feedback from speakers or headphones, and optionally with other types of feedback systems including haptic technology.

A massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a video game that combines aspects of a role-playing video game and a massively multiplayer online game.

A LAN party is a gathering of people with computers or compatible game consoles, where a local area network (LAN) connection is established between the devices using a router or switch, primarily for the purpose of playing multiplayer video games together. The size of these networks may vary from as few as two people, to very large gatherings of a hundred or more. Small parties can form spontaneously and take advantage of common household networking equipment, but larger ones typically require more planning, equipment, and preparation.

A massively multiplayer online game is an online game with large numbers of players, often hundreds or thousands, on the same server. MMOs usually feature a huge, persistent open world, although some games differ. These games can be found for most network-capable platforms, including the personal computer, video game console, or smartphones and other mobile devices.

An online game is a video game that is either partially or primarily played through the Internet or any other computer network available. Online games are ubiquitous on modern gaming platforms, including PCs, consoles and mobile devices, and span many genres, including first-person shooters, strategy games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG). In 2019, revenue in the online games segment reached $16.9 billion, with $4.2 billion generated by China and $3.5 billion in the United States. Since 2010s, a common trend among online games has been operating them as games as a service, using monetization schemes such as loot boxes and battle passes as purchasable items atop freely-offered games. Unlike purchased retail games, online games have the problem of not being permanently playable, as they require special servers in order to function.

<i>Mario Kart DS</i> 2005 racing video game

Mario Kart DS is a racing video game developed and published by Nintendo. It was released for the Nintendo DS handheld game console on November 14, 2005 in North America, on November 17, 2005 in Australia, on November 25, 2005 in Europe, on December 8, 2005 in Japan, and on April 5, 2007 in South Korea.

A griefer or bad faith player is a player in a multiplayer video game who deliberately irritates and harasses other players within the game (trolling), using aspects of the game in unintended ways. A griefer derives pleasure primarily or exclusively from the act of annoying other users, and as such is a particular nuisance in online gaming communities. To qualify as griefing, a player must be using aspects of the game in unintended ways to annoy other players—if they are trying to gain a strategic advantage, it is instead called "cheating".

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to video games:

Cooperative gameplay is a feature in games that allows players to work together as teammates, usually against one or more non-player character opponents. In the case of video games, commonly specific reference to multiple users on separate systems entering the game of a single host user.

XLink Kai is a program developed by Team XLink allowing for online play of video games with support for LAN multiplayer modes. It enables players on the Nintendo GameCube, Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation Vita, Xbox, Xbox 360, and Xbox One to play games across the Internet using a network configuration that simulates a local area network (LAN). It notably also allows original Xbox games to be played online again following the Xbox Live shutdown on April 21, 2010 and certain GameSpy titles such as Saints Row 2 to be played online after the GameSpy network shutdown on May 31, 2014.

Twitch gameplay

Twitch gameplay is a type of video gameplay scenario that tests a player's response time. Action games such as shooters, sports, multiplayer online battle arena, and fighting games often contain elements of twitch gameplay. For example, first-person shooters such as Counter-Strike as well as Call of Duty shooters require quick reaction times for the players to shoot enemies, and fighting games such as Street Fighter and Mortal Kombat require quick reaction times to attack or counter an opponent. Other video game genres may also involve twitch gameplay. For example, the puzzle video game Tetris gradually speeds up as the player makes progress.

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System Link is a form of offline multiplayer gaming on the Xbox and Xbox 360 gaming console over a LAN. A network switch and standard straight-through Ethernet cables may be used to link multiple consoles together, or two consoles can be connected directly. Connecting two Xbox consoles to each other without a switch requires a crossover cable, while Xbox 360 consoles can use standard cables. On the Xbox One, if one's console will not connect to their home WiFi system, the best thing they can do is to factory reset the console and change their DNS system when the console is restarted and refreshed.

Cheating in video games involves a video game player using various methods to create an advantage beyond normal gameplay, in order to make the game easier. Cheats may be activated from within the game itself, or created by third-party software or hardware. They can also be realized by exploiting software bugs; this may or may not be considered cheating based on whether the bug is considered common knowledge.

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Online games are video games played over a computer network. The evolution of these games parallels the evolution of computers and computer networking, with new technologies improving the essential functionality needed for playing video games on a remote server. Many video games have an online component, allowing players to play against or cooperatively with players across a network around the world.

First-person shooter Action video game genre

First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered on gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral.

This list includes terms used in video games and the video game industry, as well as slang used by players.

Split screen (video games) display technique in computer graphics

A split screen is a display technique in computer graphics that consists of dividing graphics and/or text into adjacent parts, typically as two or four rectangular areas. This is done to allow the simultaneous presentation of (usually) related graphical and textual information on a computer display. TV Sports used this presentation methodology in the 1960s for instant replay.

References

  1. Kelly, Tadhg. "Opinion: Synchronous or Asynchronous Gameplay".
  2. "Getting Connected". Next Generation . No. 19. Imagine Media. July 1996. p. 29. There have been multiplayer electronic games since the dawn of computing. Space War!, the first real videogame, programmed by Steve Russell on the PDP-1, was an exclusive two-player game. So was Nolan Bushnell's pioneering coin-op Pong.
  3. Astro Race at the Killer List of Videogames
  4. 1 2 Wasserman, Ken; Stryker, Tim (December 1980). "Multimachine Games". BYTE. p. 24. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
  5. Parish, Jeremy, The Essential 50: Faceball 2000 Archived 2004-08-20 at the Wayback Machine , 1UP, Accessed April 24, 2009
  6. "Doom - electronic game".
  7. "NCsoft's Lineage II Expansion Dramatically Speeds Up Character Progression - IGN". Ca.ign.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  8. "Cheating". Dictionary.com. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  9. Thompson, Clive (December 19, 2012). "What Type of Game Cheater Are You?". Wired.com . Retrieved 2009-09-15.
  10. "How To Hurt The Hackers" . Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  11. Carter, M. & Gibbs, M. (2013) “eSports in EVE Online: Skullduggery, Fair Play and Acceptability in an Unbounded Competition.” In Proceedings of FDG’13. ACM