Arcade game

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A player in Japan playing Police 911, an arcade game in which players use a light gun. Light gun survival horror arcade game.jpg
A player in Japan playing Police 911 , an arcade game in which players use a light gun.
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Video games

An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost. The eastern hemisphere retains a strong arcade industry. [1]

Amusement arcade a place to play video games and other coin operated games

An amusement arcade is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers, or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables. In some countries, some types of arcades are also legally permitted to provide gambling machines such as slot machines or pachinko machines. Games are usually housed in cabinets. The term used for ancestors of these venues in the beginning of the 20th century was penny arcades.

Video game electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an increasingly important part of the entertainment industry, and whether they are also a form of art is a matter of dispute.

Pinball type of arcade game

Pinball is a type of arcade game, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more metallic balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball machine. The primary objective of the game is to score as many points as possible. Many modern pinball machines include a "storyline" where the player must complete certain objectives in a certain fashion to complete the story, usually earning high scores for different methods of completing the game. Different numbers of points are earned when the ball strikes different targets on the play field. A drain is situated at the bottom of the play field, partially protected by player-controlled paddles called flippers. A game ends after all the balls fall into the drain a certain number of times. Secondary objectives are to maximize the time spent playing and to earn bonus games.

Contents

History

The first popular "arcade games" included early amusement-park midway games such as shooting galleries, ball-toss games, and the earliest coin-operated machines, such as those that claimed to tell a person's fortune or that played mechanical music. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks (such as Coney Island in New York) provided the inspiration and atmosphere for later arcade games. In the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. These early amusement machines differed from their later electronic cousins in that they were made of wood. They lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, and used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring. [2]

Amusement park park with rides and attractions

An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme, often featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation. They are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds, usually providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks often contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects.

Midway (fair) place at a fair or circus where rides, entertainment, and booths are concentrated

A midway at a fair is the location where carnival games, amusement rides, entertainment, dime stores, themed events, exhibitions and trade shows, pleasure gardens, water parks and food booths cluster.

A ball is a round object with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch or juggling. Balls made from hard-wearing materials are used in engineering applications to provide very low friction bearings, known as ball bearings. Black-powder weapons use stone and metal balls as projectiles.

Popularity of arcade machines came with contention through the mid 1970s and early 1980s. During the same period that video games proliferated and were celebrated as a sign of technological progress, numerous communities organized against arcades. [3] Efforts to regulate coin op video gaming were geographically widespread, and they also drew on long standing suspicions of the coin-operated industry, which included organized crime and influence of violence. Existing regulation in several communities facilitated the ongoing regulation existed due to its associations to money laundering and organized criminal activity and its long standing cultural and historical ties with gambling. [3] Despite the negative connotations of the coin operated industry in the preceding decades of the 1960s and the 1950s, by the 1970s, those in the industry were working towards professionalization and acceptance as a legitimate business. Two major trade journals RePlay Magazine published in 1975 and Play Meter published in 1974 offered profiles on industry professional and updates on industry news that helped professionalize the industry.

Gambling wagering of money on a game of chance or event with an uncertain outcome

Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements to be present: consideration, risk (chance), and a prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season.

Play Meter was an American trade magazine focusing on the coin-op and arcade game industry. It was founded in December 1974 by publisher and editor Ralph C. Lally II and it is published in physical form by Skybird Publishing on a monthly basis. Together with rival publication RePlay it chronicled the arcade industry from its nascency, through market fluctuations like the video game crashes of 1977 and 1983, and the rebirth and maturation of the medium through the 1980s. It is the earliest example of video game journalism, establishing such practices as individual video game reviews and the ten-point assessment scale for video game reviews.

Electro-mechanical games

In 1966 Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope [4] – an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter [5] which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine. [6] It became an instant success in Japan, Europe, and North America, [7] where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, [4] which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. [7] In 1967 Taito released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, Crown Soccer Special, a two-player sports game that simulated association football, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers. [8]

Sega Japanese video game developer and publisher and subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings

Sega Games Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are respectively headquartered in Irvine, California and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co., Ltd., also a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015.

An electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play. Video game is the most common form today, and for this reason the two terms are often mistakenly used synonymously. Other common forms of electronic game include such products as handheld electronic games, standalone systems, and exclusively non-visual products.

<i>Periscope</i> (arcade game)

Periscope is an electromechanical shooting gallery arcade game. Two different companies independently developed and released the game: Nakamura Manufacturing Co. and Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Masaya Nakamura claims it to be the first arcade game he built, with his company claiming a release in Japan as early as 1965. Sega's version of Periscope is the company's first produced arcade game, released in Japan in 1966.

Sega later produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but which were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. [9] The first of these, the light-gun game Duck Hunt , [10] appeared in 1969; [11] it featured animated moving targets on a screen, printed out the player's score on a ticket, and had volume-controllable sound-effects. [10] That same year, Sega released an electro-mechanical arcade racing game, Grand Prix, which had a first-person view, electronic sound, a dashboard with a racing wheel and accelerator, [12] and a forward-scrolling road projected on a screen. [13] Another Sega 1969 release, Missile, a shooter and vehicle-combat simulation, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen. It was the earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button, which formed part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move the player's tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen; when a plane is hit, an animated explosion appears on screen, accompanied by the sound of an explosion. [14] In 1970 Midway released the game in North America as S.A.M.I.. [14] [15] In the same year, Sega released Jet Rocket, a combat flight-simulator featuring cockpit controls that could move the player aircraft around a landscape displayed on a screen and shoot missiles onto targets that explode when hit. [16]

First-person shooter Action video game genre

First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral.

Rear projection is part of many in-camera effects cinematic techniques in film production for combining foreground performances with pre-filmed backgrounds. It was widely used for many years in driving scenes, or to show other forms of "distant" background motion.

Zoetrope pre-cinema animation device

A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakisticope, suggested almost immediately after the stroboscopic discs were introduced in 1833. The definitive version, with easily replaceable picture strips, was introduced as a toy by Milton Bradley in 1866 and became very successful.

In the course of the 1970s, following the release of Pong in 1972, electronic video-games gradually replaced electro-mechanical arcade games. [17] In 1972, Sega released an electro-mechanical game called Killer Shark, a first-person light-gun shooter known for appearing in the 1975 film Jaws . [9] In 1974, Nintendo released Wild Gunman , a light-gun shooter that used full-motion video-projection from 16 mm film to display live-action cowboy opponents on the screen. [18] One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was F-1 , a racing game developed by Namco and distributed by Atari in 1976; [19] this game appeared in the films Dawn of the Dead (1978) [20] and Midnight Madness (1980), as did Sega's Jet Rocket in the latter film. The 1978 video game Space Invaders , however, dealt a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games. [21]

<i>Jaws</i> (film) 1975 American horror film directed by Steven Spielberg

Jaws is a 1975 American thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on Peter Benchley's 1974 novel of the same name. In the film, a giant man-eating great white shark attacks beachgoers on Amity Island, a fictional New England summer resort town, prompting police chief Martin Brody to hunt it with the help of a marine biologist and a professional shark hunter. Murray Hamilton plays the mayor, and Lorraine Gary portrays Brody's wife. The screenplay is credited to Benchley, who wrote the first drafts, and actor-writer Carl Gottlieb, who rewrote the script during principal photography.

Nintendo Japanese video game company

Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, and Pokémon.

<i>Wild Gunman</i> video game

Wild Gunman is a light gun shooter game created by Nintendo. Originally created as an electro-mechanical arcade game in 1974 by Gunpei Yokoi, it was adapted to a video game format and released in 1985 as a launch title for the Nintendo Entertainment System. It is one of the few games making use of the NES Zapper peripheral.

Arcade video games

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History of video games

In 1971, students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game , a coin-operated version of the video game Spacewar . This ranks as the earliest known instance of a coin-operated video game. Later in the same year, Nolan Bushnell created the first mass-manufactured game, Computer Space , for Nutting Associates.

In 1972, Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney. Atari essentially created the coin-operated video game industry with the game Pong , the first successful electronic ping pong video game. Pong proved to be popular, but imitators helped keep Atari from dominating the fledgling coin-operated video game market.

Golden age

Taito's Space Invaders , in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game. [22] Its success marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games. Video game arcades sprang up in shopping malls, and small "corner arcades" appeared in restaurants, grocery stores, bars and movie theaters all over the United States, Japan and other countries during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Space Invaders (1978), Galaxian (1979), Pac-Man (1980), Battlezone (1980), Defender (1980), and Bosconian (1981) were especially popular. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion [23] ($22 billion in 2018).

During the late 1970s and 1980s, chains such as Chuck E. Cheese's, Ground Round, Dave and Busters, ShowBiz Pizza Place and Gatti's Pizza combined the traditional restaurant or bar environment with arcades. [24] By the late 1980s, the arcade video game craze was beginning to fade due to advances in home video game console technology. By 1991, US arcade video game revenues had fallen to $2.1 billion. [25]

Late 1980s

Sega AM2's Hang-On , designed by Yu Suzuki and running on the Sega Space Harrier hardware, was the first of Sega's "Super Scaler" arcade system boards that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates. [26] The pseudo-3D sprite/tile scaling was handled in a similar manner to textures in later texture-mapped polygonal 3D games of the 1990s. [27] Designed by Sega AM2's Yu Suzuki, he stated that his "designs were always 3D from the beginning. All the calculations in the system were 3D, even from Hang-On. I calculated the position, scale, and zoom rate in 3D and converted it backwards to 2D. So I was always thinking in 3D." [28] It was controlled using a video game arcade cabinet resembling a motorbike, which the player moves with their body. This began the "Taikan" trend, the use of motion-controlled hydraulic arcade cabinets in many arcade games of the late 1980s, two decades before motion controls became popular on video game consoles. [29]

Renaissance

Arcades experienced a major resurgence with the 1991 release of Capcom's Street Fighter II , [30] which popularized competitive fighting games and revived the arcade industry to a level of popularity not seen since the days of Pac-Man, [31] setting off a renaissance for the arcade game industry in the early 1990s. [32] Its success led to a wave of other popular games which mostly were in the fighting genre, such as Pit-Fighter (1990) by Atari, Mortal Kombat by Midway Games, [33] Fatal Fury: King of Fighters (1992) by SNK, Virtua Fighter (1993) by Sega, Killer Instinct (1994) by Rare, Tekken (1994) by Namco, and The King of Fighters (1994–2005) by SNK. In 1993, Electronic Games noted that when "historians look back at the world of coin-op during the early 1990s, one of the defining highlights of the video game art form will undoubtedly focus on fighting/martial arts themes" which it described as "the backbone of the industry" at the time. [34]

3D polygon graphics were popularized by the Sega Model 1 games Virtua Racing (1992) and Virtua Fighter (1993), [35] followed by racing games [31] like the Namco System 22 title Ridge Racer (1993) and Sega Model 2 title Daytona USA , and light gun shooters like Sega's Virtua Cop (1994) [36] and Mesa Logic's Area 51 (1995), gaining considerable popularity in the arcades. [31] By 1994, arcade games in the United States were generating revenues of $7 billion [37] in quarters (equivalent to $11.8 billion in 2018), [38] in comparison to home console game sales of $6 billion, [37] with many of the best-selling home video games in the early 1990s often being arcade ports. [39] Combined, total US arcade and console game revenues of $13 billion in 1994 ($22 billion in 2018) was nearly two and a half times the $5 billion revenue grossed by movies in the United States at the time. [37]

Around the mid-1990s, the fifth-generation home consoles, Sega Saturn, PlayStation, and Nintendo 64, began offering true 3D graphics, improved sound, and better 2D graphics, than the previous generation. By 1995, personal computers followed, with 3D accelerator cards. While arcade systems such as the Sega Model 3 remained considerably more advanced than home systems in the late 1990s, [40] [41] the technological advantage that arcade games had, in their ability to customize and use the latest graphics and sound chips, slowly began narrowing, and the convenience of home games eventually caused a decline in arcade gaming. Sega's sixth generation console, the Dreamcast, could produce 3D graphics comparable to the Sega NAOMI arcade system in 1998, after which Sega produced more powerful arcade systems such as the Sega NAOMI Multiboard and Sega Hikaru in 1999 and the Sega NAOMI 2 in 2000, before Sega eventually stopped manufacturing expensive proprietary arcade system boards, with their subsequent arcade boards being based on more affordable commercial console or PC components.

Decline

Arcade video games had declined in popularity so much by the late 1990s, that revenues in the United States dropped to US$1.33 billion in 1999, [42] and reached a low of $866 million in 2004. [43] The gap in release dates and quality between console ports and the arcade games they were ported from dramatically narrowed, thus setting up home consoles as a major competitor with arcades. [44] Furthermore, by the early 2000s, networked gaming via computers and then consoles across the Internet had also appeared, [45] replacing the venue of head-to-head competition and social atmosphere once provided solely by arcades. [46]

The arcade market suffered from a lack of diversity even compared to other gaming markets (a 1996 survey showed that 70% of arcade players were teenage males), leading to a cycle in which the uniformity of the audience discouraged innovation in game design, which in turn further discouraged people outside the narrow target audience from visiting arcades. [47] The arcades lost their status as the forefront of new game releases. Given the choice between playing a game at an arcade three or four times (perhaps 15 minutes of play for a typical arcade game), and renting, at about the same price, exactly the same game—for a video game console—the console became the preferred choice. Fighting games were the most attractive feature for arcades, since they offered the prospect of face-to-face competition and tournaments, which correspondingly led players to practice more (and spend more money in the arcade), but they could not support the business all by themselves.

A 20th anniversary arcade machine, combining the two classic games Ms Pac-Man and Galaga. Video game - Ms Pacman and Galaga.jpg
A 20th anniversary arcade machine, combining the two classic games Ms Pac-Man and Galaga .

To remain viable, arcades added other elements to complement the video games such as redemption games, merchandiser games, and food service, typically snacks and fast food. Referred to as "fun centers" or "family fun centers", [48] some of the longstanding chains such as Chuck E. Cheese's and Gatti's Pizza ("GattiTowns") [49] also changed to this format. Many 1980s-era video game arcades have long since closed, and classic coin-operated games have become largely the province of dedicated gamers and hobbyists. In the 2010s, some movie theaters and family fun centers still have small arcades.

2000s–2010s

In the 2000s and 2010s, arcades have found a niche market by providing games that use special controllers largely inaccessible to home users, such as dance games that have a floor that senses the user's dancing. An alternative interpretation[ by whom? ] (one that includes fighting games, which continue to thrive and require no special controller) is that the arcade is now a more socially-oriented hangout, with games that focus on an individual's performance, rather than the game's content, as the primary form of novelty. Examples of today's popular genres are rhythm games such as Dance Dance Revolution (1998) and DrumMania (1999), and rail shooters such as Virtua Cop (1994), Time Crisis (1995) and House of the Dead (1996).[ citation needed ] In the Western world, the arcade video game industry still exists, but in a greatly reduced form. Video arcade game hardware is often based on home game consoles to reduce development costs; there are video arcade versions of Dreamcast (NAOMI, Atomiswave), PlayStation 2 (System 246), Nintendo GameCube (Triforce), and Microsoft Xbox (Chihiro) home consoles and PC (e.g. Taito Type X). Some arcades have survived by expanding into ticket-based prize redemption and more physical games with no home console equivalent, such as skee ball and Whac-A-Mole. Some genres, particularly dancing and rhythm games (such as Konami's Dance Dance Revolution ), continue to be popular in arcades.

Worldwide, arcade game revenues gradually increased from US$1.8 billion in 1998 to US$3.2 billion in 2002, rivalling PC game sales of US$3.2 billion that same year. [50] In particular, arcade video games are a thriving industry in China, where arcades are widespread across the country. [51] The US market has also experienced a slight resurgence, with the number of video game arcades across the nation increasing from 2,500 in 2003 to 3,500 in 2008, though this is significantly less than the 10,000 arcades in the early 1980s. As of 2009, a successful arcade game usually sells around 4000 to 6000 units worldwide. [52]

The relative simplicity yet solid gameplay of many of these early games has inspired a new generation of fans who can play them on mobile phones or with emulators such as MAME. Some classic arcade games are reappearing in commercial settings, such as Namco's Ms. Pac-Man/Galaga: Class of 1981 two-in-one game, [53] or integrated directly into controller hardware (joysticks) with replaceable flash drives storing game ROMs. Arcade classics have also been reappearing as mobile games, with Pac-Man in particular selling over 30 million downloads in the United States by 2010. [54] Arcade classics have also begun to appear on multi-game arcade machines for home users. [55]

Japan

A man playing a drumming arcade game (Drummania) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2005. GitarFreaks and DrumMania V cabinets and player.jpg
A man playing a drumming arcade game ( Drummania ) in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2005.
Girls playing The House of the Dead III in an amusement arcade in Japan, 2005. Girls playing video games in Japan.jpg
Girls playing The House of the Dead III in an amusement arcade in Japan, 2005.

In the Japanese gaming industry, arcades have remained popular through to the present day. Much of the consistent popularity and growing industry is due to several factors such as support for continued innovation and that developers of machines own the arcades. Additionally, Japan arcade machines are notably more unique as to US machines, where Japanese arcades can offer experiences that players could not get at home. This is constant throughout Japanese arcade history. [56] As of 2009, out of Japan's US$20 billion gaming market, US$6 billion of that amount is generated from arcades, which represent the largest sector of the Japanese video game market, followed by home console games and mobile games at US$3.5 billion and US$2 billion, respectively. [57] According to in 2005, arcade ownership and operation accounted for a majority of Namco's for example. [58] With considerable withdrawal from the arcade market from companies such as Capcom, Sega became the strongest player in the arcade market with 60% marketshare in 2006. [59] Despite the global decline of arcades, Japanese companies hit record revenue for three consecutive years during this period. [60] However, due to the country's economic recession, the Japanese arcade industry has also been steadily declining, from ¥702.9 billion (US$8.7 billion) in 2007 to ¥504.3 billion (US$6.2 billion) in 2010. [61] In 2013, estimation of revenue is ¥470 billion. [61]

The layout of an arcade in Japan greatly differs from an arcade in America. The arcades of Japan are multi-floor complexes (often taking up entire buildings), split into sections by game types. On the ground level the arcade typically hosts physically demanding games that draw crowds of onlookers, like music rhythm games. Another floor is often a maze of multi-player games and battle simulators. These multi-player games often have online connectivity tracking rankings and reputation of each player; top players are revered and respected in arcades. The top floor of the arcade is typically for rewards where Players can trade credits or tickets for prizes. [62]

In the Japanese market, network and card features introduced by Virtua Fighter 4 and World Club Champion Football , and novelty cabinets such as Gundam Pod machines have caused revitalizations in arcade profitability in Japan. The reason for the continued popularity of arcades in comparison to the west, are heavy population density and an infrastructure similar to casino facilities.

Outside of Sega Arcade, a famous arcade located in Akihabara, Japan Outside of Akihabara.jpg
Outside of Sega Arcade, a famous arcade located in Akihabara, Japan

Former rivals in the Japanese arcade industry, Konami, Taito, Bandai Namco Entertainment and Sega, are now working together to keep the arcade industry vibrant. This is evidenced in the sharing of arcade networks, and venues having games from all major companies rather than only games from their own company. [63]

Technology

Inside of a Neo Geo Neogeoguts.JPG
Inside of a Neo Geo

Virtually all modern arcade games (other than the very traditional Midway-type games at county fairs) make extensive use of solid state electronics, integrated circuits and cathode-ray tube screens. In the past, coin-operated arcade video games generally used custom per-game hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips, and the latest in expensive computer graphics display technology. This allowed arcade system boards to produce more complex graphics and sound than what was then possible on video game consoles or personal computers, which is no longer the case in the 2010s. Arcade game hardware in the 2010s is often based on modified video game console hardware or high-end PC components. Arcade games frequently have more immersive and realistic game controls than either PC or console games, including specialized ambiance or control accessories: fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated lightguns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of automobile or airplane cockpits, motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or highly dedicated controllers such as dancing mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually what set modern video games apart from other games, as they are usually too bulky, expensive, and specialized to be used with typical home PCs and consoles. Currently with the advent of Virtual reality, arcade makers have begun to experiment with Virtual reality technology. Arcades have also progressed from using coin as credits to operate machines to cards that hold the virtual currency of credits.

Arcade genre

A man playing World Combat (here known by its alternate name Warzaid) in Jakarta, Indonesia Mall culture jakarta24.jpg
A man playing World Combat (here known by its alternate name Warzaid) in Jakarta, Indonesia

Arcade games often have short levels, simple and intuitive control schemes, and rapidly increasing difficulty. This is due to the environment of the Arcade, where the player is essentially renting the game for as long as their in-game avatar can stay alive (or until they run out of tokens). Games on consoles or PCs can be referred to as "arcade games" if they share these qualities or are direct ports of arcade titles. Many independent developers are now producing games in the arcade genre that are designed specifically for use on the Internet. These games are usually designed with Flash/Java/DHTML and run directly in web-browsers. Arcade racing games have a simplified physics engine and do not require much learning time when compared with racing simulators. Cars can turn sharply without braking or understeer, and the AI rivals are sometimes programmed so they are always near the player (rubberband effect).

Arcade flight games also use simplified physics and controls in comparison to flight simulators. These are meant to have an easy learning curve, in order to preserve their action component. Increasing numbers of console flight video games, from Crimson Skies to Ace Combat and Secret Weapons Over Normandy indicate the falling of manual-heavy flight sim popularity in favor of instant arcade flight action. [64] Other types of arcade-style games include fighting games (often played with an arcade controller), beat 'em up games (including fast-paced hack and slash games), light gun rail shooters and "bullet hell" shooters (intuitive controls and rapidly increasing difficulty), music games (particularly rhythm games), and mobile/casual games (intuitive controls and often played in short sessions).

Arcade action games

The term "arcade game" is also used to refer to an action video game that was designed to play similarly to an arcade game with frantic, addictive gameplay. [65] The focus of arcade action games is on the user's reflexes, and the games usually feature very little puzzle-solving, complex thinking, or strategy skills. Games with complex thinking are called strategy video games or puzzle video games.

Emulation

Emulators such as MAME, which can be run on modern computers and a number of other devices, aim to preserve the games of the past. Emulators enable game enthusiasts to play old video games using the actual code from the 1970s or 1980s, which is translated by a modern software system. Legitimate emulated titles started to appear on the Macintosh (1994) [66] [67] with Williams floppy disks, Sony PlayStation (1996) and Sega Saturn (1997), with CD-ROM compilations such as Williams Arcade's Greatest Hits and Arcade's Greatest Hits: The Atari Collection 1 , and on the PlayStation 2 and GameCube with DVD-ROM titles such as Midway Arcade Treasures . Arcade games are currently being downloaded and emulated through the Nintendo Wii Virtual Console Service starting in 2009 with Gaplus , Mappy , Space Harrier , Star Force , The Tower of Druaga , Tecmo Bowl , Altered Beast and many more. Other classic arcade games such as Asteroids , Tron , Discs of Tron , Yie Ar Kung-Fu , Pac-Man , Joust , Battlezone , Dig Dug , Robotron: 2084 , and Missile Command are emulated on PlayStation Network and Xbox Live Arcade. The emulators have evolved to be used in mobile phones (APPS) or websites that function as an online emulator.

Industry

In addition to restaurants and video arcades, arcade games are also found in bowling alleys, college campuses, video rental shops, dormitories, laundromats, movie theaters, supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, ice rinks, corner shops, truck stops, bars/pubs, hotels, and even bakeries. In short, arcade games are popular in places open to the public where people are likely to have free time. [68]

Currently

Arcade machines spawned various communities and industries such as Fighting game community, and popular tournaments such as Evolution Championship Series.

The American Amusement Machine Association (AAMA) is a trade association established in 1981 [69] that represents the coin-operated amusement machine industry, [70] including 120 arcade game distributors and manufacturers. [71]

Often averaging the amount paid per game based on the length of the game play, knowing people are likely to try more than one game.

List of highest-grossing games

For arcade games, success was usually judged by either the number of arcade hardware units sold to operators, or the amount of revenue generated, from the number of coins (such as quarters or 100 yen coins) inserted into machines, [72] or the hardware sales (with arcade hardware prices often ranging from US$1000 to US$4000 or more). This list only includes arcade games that have either sold more than 1000 hardware units or generated a revenue of more than US$1 million. Most of the games in this list date back to the golden age of arcade video games, though some are also from before and after the golden age.

GameRelease yearHardware units soldEstimated gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Estimated gross revenue
(US$ with 2018 inflation) [38]
Pac-Man 1980400,000 (up to 1982) [73] $3.5 billion(up to 1999) [74] [n 1] $10.6 billion
Space Invaders 1978360,000 (up to 1980) [75] $2.702 billion(up to 1982) [n 2] $10.4 billion
Street Fighter II 1991200,000 (up to 1992)
( The World Warrior : 60,000
Champion Edition : 140,000)
[n 3]
$2.312 billion(up to 1995)
(The World Warrior
Champion Edition)
[74]
$4.25 billion
(The World Warrior
Champion Edition)
Donkey Kong 1981132,000 (up to 1982) [n 4] $280 million(up to 1982)
(US hardware sales) [79]
$772 million
(US hardware sales)
Ms. Pac-Man 1981125,000 (up to 1988) [80] [81]
Asteroids 1979100,000(up to 2001) [81] [82] $800 million(up to 1991) [83] [84] $1.47 billion
Defender 198160,000(up to 2002) [85] [86] $1 billion(up to 2002) [87] [88] $1.39 billion
Galaxian 197940,000(in the US up to 1982) [89] [90]
Donkey Kong Jr. 198230,000(in the US up to 1982) [91]
Mr. Do! 198230,000(in the US up to 1982) [92]
Popeye 198220,000(in the US up to 1982) [78]
Out Run 198620,000(up to 1987) [93]
Pump It Up 199920,000(up to 2005) [94]
NBA Jam 199320,000(up to 2013) [95] $1 billion(up to 2010) [96] $1.15 billion
Gun Fight 19758,000(up to 1976) [97] [98]
Sega Network Mahjong MJ3 20057,608(up to 2006) [99]
Hang-On 19857,500(up to 1985) [100]
Dinosaur King 20057,000(up to 2006) [101]
Speed Race 19747,000(up to 1975) [102] [103]
Sega Network Mahjong MJ2 20035,486(up to 2005) [106]
Donkey Kong 3 19835,000(in the US up to 1982) [n 4]
Sangokushi Taisen 2 20064,041(up to 2007) [n 5]
Initial D Arcade Stage 4 20073,904(up to 2007) [n 6]
Mario Bros. 19833,800(in the US up to 1983) [109]
Dance Dance Revolution 19983,500(in Japan as of 1999) [110]
Zoo Keeper 19823,000(in the US up to 1983) [111]
Initial D Arcade Stage 20012,534(up to 2004) [112]
World Club Champion Football 20022,479(up to 2009) [n 8] $706.014 million(up to 2012) [117] $983 million
Mortal Kombat 199224,000 (up to 2002) [33] $570 million(up to 2002) [33] $794 million
Jungle Hunt 198218,000(in the US up to 1983) [111]
Scramble 198115,136(up to 1981) [118]
Mushiking: King of the Beetles 200313,500(up to 2005) [119] $530 million(up to 2007) [n 10] $722 million
Mahjong Fight Club 3 200413,000(up to 2004) [120]
Super Cobra 198112,337(up to 1981) [118]
Oshare Majo: Love and Berry 200410,300(up to 2006) [121] [122] $302.68 million(up to 2007) [n 11] $401 million
Centipede 198155,988(up to 1991) [123] $115.65 million(up to 1991) [123] $213 million
Shining Force Cross 20092,389(up to 2009) [124]
Pengo 19822,000(in the US up to 1983) [111]
Sangokushi Taisen 20051,942(up to 2006) [125]
World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 20081,689(up to 2009) [n 7] $150.1 million(up to 2012) [n 9] $175 million
Dragon's Lair 198316,000(up to 1983) [127] [128] $68.8 million(up to 1983) [127] [129] $173 million
Mortal Kombat II 199327,000 (up to 2002) [33] $100 million(up to 1994) [130] $169 million
Pole Position 198221,000(in the US up to 1983) [109] $60.933 million(up to 1983) [109] [123]
(US hardware sales)
$158 million
(US hardware sales)
StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins 2011$132.18 million(up to 2012) [n 12] $147 million
Border Break 20092,998(up to 2009) [124] $107 million(up to 2012) [n 13] $125 million
Dig Dug 198222,228 [123] (in the US up to 1983) [111] $46.3 million(up to 1983) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$120 million
(US hardware sales)
Tempest 198129,000(up to 1983) [109] $62.408 million(up to 1991) [123] $115 million
TV Basketball (Basketball) 19741,400(up to 1974) [131]
The House of the Dead 4 20051,008(up to 2005) [132]
Radar Scope 19801,000(in the US up to 1980) [133]
Tron 1982800(in the US up to 1982) [134] $45 million(up to 1983) [135] $102 million
Sengoku Taisen 2010$94.04 million(up to 2012) [n 14] $108 million
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007$78.2 million(up to 2008) [n 15] $94.5 million
Starhorse2200538,614(up to 2009) [n 16] $59.321 million(up to 2011)
(Fifth Expansion) [n 17]
$76.1 million
(Fifth Expansion)
Q*bert 198225,000(up to 2001) [139]
Robotron: 2084 198223,000(up to 1983) [109]
Samba de Amigo 19993,000(up to 2000) [140] $47.11 million(up to 2000) [141] $70.9 million
Asteroids Deluxe 198122,399(up to 1999) [142] $46.1 million(up to 1999) [142] $69.3 million
Missile Command 198019,999(up to 2010) [143] $36.8 million(up to 1991) [142] $67.7 million
Berzerk 198015,780(up to 1981) [118]
Sangokushi Taisen 3 2007$54.4 million(up to 2011) [n 18] $65.7 million
Pong 19728,500–19,000 [144] [145] $11 million(up to 1973) [146] $62.1 million}
Lord of Vermilion 2008$50.443 million(up to 2008) [n 19] $58.7 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 200812,892(up to 2009) [147] $47 million(up to 2010) [n 20] $54.7 million
Kangaroo 19829,803 [123] (up to 1983) [111] $20.58 million(up to 1983)
(US hardware sales) [123]
$53.4 million
(US hardware sales)
Battlezone 198015,122(up to 1999) [142] $31.2 million(up to 1999) [142] $46.9 million
Stargate 198315,000(up to 1983) [109]
Space Duel 198212,038(up to 1991) [123]
Big Buck Hunter Pro 200610,000(up to 2009) [149] [150]
Snake Pit 19839,000(up to 1983) [151]
Bagman 19835,000(in the US up to 1983) [111]
Big Buck Safari 20085,500(up to 2009) [149]
Hard Drivin' 19893,318(up to 1989) [123] $22.9 million(up to 1989) [123] $46.3 million
Gauntlet 19857,848(up to 1985) [123] $18.01 million(up to 1985) [123] $42 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ5 2011$34.87 million(up to 2012) [n 21] $38.8 million
Millipede 19829,990(up to 1991) [123] $20.669 million(up to 1991) [123] $38 million
Race Drivin' 19903,525(up to 1991) [123] $20.03 million(up to 1991) [123] $36.8 million
Time Traveler 1991$18 million(up to 1991) [129] $33.1 million
Space Ace 1984$13 million(up to 1984) [129] $31.4 million
Xevious 19825,295(in the US up to 1983) [123] $11.1 million(up to 1983) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$28.8 million
(US hardware sales)
Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season 20093,000(up to 2010) [153]
Silver Strike Live 20103,000(up to 2010) [154]
H2Overdrive 20092,000(up to 2010) [155]
Atari Football 197811,306(up to 1999) [142] $17.266 million(up to 1999) [142] $26 million
Final Lap 19871,150(in the US up to 1988) [123] $9.5 million(up to 1988) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$21 million
(US hardware sales)
Paperboy 19843,442(up to 1991) [123] $8.6 million(up to 1991) [123] $15.8 million
Star Wars 198312,695(up to 1991) [123] $7.595 million(up to 1991) [123] $14 million
Beatmania 199725,000(up to 2000) [156] $12.4 million(up to 1998)
(Japan hardware sales) [n 22]
$19.4 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Sprint 2 19768,200(up to 1999) [142] $12.669 million(up to 1999) [142] $19.1 million
Championship Sprint 19863,595(up to 1991) [123] $8.26 million(up to 1991) [123] $15.2 million
Pole Position II 19832,400(in the US up to 1983) [123] $7.43 million(up to 1983) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$18.7 million
(US hardware sales)
Breakout 197611,000(up to 1999) [142] $12.045 million(up to 1999) [142] $18.1 million
Sea Wolf 197610,000(up to 2000) [157]
Lunar Lander 19794,830(up to 1999) [142] $8.19 million(up to 1999) [142] $12.3 million
Super Sprint 19862,232(up to 1999) [142] $7.8 million(up to 1999) [142] $11.7 million
Marble Madness 19844,000(up to 1985) [158] $6.3 million(up to 1991) [123] $11.6 million
Sea Wolf II 19784,000(up to 2000) [159]
Rolling Thunder 19862,406(in the US up to 1987) [123] $4.8 million(up to 1987) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$11 million
(US hardware sales)
Tetris 19895,771(in the US up to 1991) [123] $5.2 million(up to 1991) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$9.57 million
(US hardware sales)
Arabian 19831,950(in the US up to 1983) [111] $3.9 million(up to 1983) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$9.81 million
(US hardware sales)
Terminator Salvation 20101,000(up to 2010) [160] $8 million(up to 2010) [160] $9.19 million
Blasteroids 19872,000(up to 1991) [123] $4.69 million(up to 1991) [123] $8.63 million
Super Breakout 19784,805(up to 1999) [142] $5.7 million(up to 1999) [142] $8.57 million
Pac-Mania 19871,412(in the US up to 1987) [123] $2.82 million(up to 1987) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$6.22 million
(US hardware sales)
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 19852,825(up to 1991) [123] $3.2 million(up to 1991) [123] $5.89 million
Four Trax 1989205(in the US & EU as of 1989) [123] $2.9 million(up to 1989) [123]
(US & EU hardware sales)
$5.86 million
(US & EU hardware sales)
Assault 19881,079(in the US up to 1988) [123] $2.5 million(up to 1988) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$5.3 million
(US hardware sales)
Gauntlet II 19863,520(up to 1991) [123] $2.4 million(up to 1991) [123] $4.41 million
Guitar Hero Arcade 20092,000(up to 2009) [161]
Drag Race 19771,900(up to 1999) [142] $2.8 million(up to 1999) [142] $4.21 million
Night Driver 19762,100(up to 1999) [142] $2.4675 million(up to 1999) [142] $3.71 million
I, Robot 1984750-1,000 [123] [162] $1.5 million(up to 1984) [123] $3.62 million
R.B.I. Baseball 19873,945(in the US up to 1987) [123] $1.6 million(up to 1987) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$3.53 million
(US hardware sales)
Computer Space 19711,500–2,000(up to 1984) [163] [164]
Death Race 19761,000(up to 1976) [98]
Dunk Shot 1986556(in the US up to 1987) [123] $1.4 million(up to 1987) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$3.2 million
(US hardware sales)
Star Wars: Return of the Jedi 1984800(up to 1991) [123] $1.68 million(up to 1991) [123] $3.09 million
Dragon Spirit 1987600(in the US up to 1987) [123] $1.2 million(up to 1987) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$2.65 million
(US hardware sales)
Triple Hunt 1977865(up to 1999) [142] $1.2 million(up to 1999) [142] $1.8 million

Best-selling arcade video game franchises

These are the combined hardware sales of at least two or more arcade games that are part of the same franchise. This list only includes franchises that have sold at least 5,000 hardware units or grossed at least $10 million revenues.

FranchiseOriginal release yearTotal hardware units soldGross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Gross revenue
(US$ with 2018 inflation) [38]
Pac-Man 1980526,412 (up to 1988) [n 23] $3.853 billion(up to 1999) [n 24] $11.7 billion
Street Fighter 1987500,000 (up to 2002) [166] [167] $2.312 billion(up to 1993)
( Street Fighter II: The World Warrior
Street Fighter II′: Champion Edition )
[74]
$5.1 billion
(Street Fighter II: The World Warrior
Street Fighter II': Champion Edition)
Space Invaders 1978360,000 (up to 1980) [75] $2.702 billion(up to 1982) [168] $10.4 billion
Pac-Man clones 1980300,000 (up to 2002) [169]
Mario 1981170,800 (up to 1983) [n 25] $280 million(up to 1982)
(US hardware sales) [79]
$772 million
(US hardware sales)
Donkey Kong 1981167,000 (up to 1983) [n 4] $280 million(up to 1982)
(US hardware sales) [79]
$772 million
(US hardware sales)
Asteroids 1979136,437 (up to 1999) [n 26] $850.79 million(up to 1999) [n 27] $1.28 billion
Golden Tee Golf 1989100,000 (up to 2011) [170]
Defender 198175,000(up to 2002) [n 28] $1 billion(up to 2002) [87] $1.39 billion
Centipede 198165,978(up to 1991) [n 29] $136.3 million(up to 1991) [n 30] $251 million
Mortal Kombat 199251,000(up to 2002) [33] $1 billion(up to 1995) [171] $1.39 billion
Galaxian 197940,986(in the US up to 1988) [n 31]
Starhorse 200038,734(up to 2009) [n 32] $191.501 million(up to 2012) [n 33] $279 million
Big Buck 200033,500(up to 2010) [n 34]
Mr. Do! 198230,000(in the US up to 1982) [92]
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007$78.2 million(up to 2008) [n 15] $94.5 million
Lord of Vermilion 2008$50.443 million(up to 2008) [n 19] $58.7 million
Bemani 199728,500(up to 2000) [n 35] $12.4 million(up to 1998)
(Japan hardware sales) [n 22]
$19.4 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Scramble 198127,473(up to 1981) [118]
Sega Network Mahjong 200025,986(up to 2006) [n 38] $81.87 million(up to 2012) [n 39] $119 million
Pole Position 198224,550(in the US up to 1983) [n 40] $77.9 million(up to 1988)
(US hardware sales) [n 41]
$202 million
(US hardware sales)
Dig Dug 198222,228 [123] (in the US up to 1983) [111] $46.3 million(up to 1983) [123]
(US hardware sales)
$120 million
(US hardware sales)
Pump It Up 199920,000(up to 2005) [94]
Breakout 197615,805(up to 1999) [142] $17.745 million(up to 1999) [142] $26.7 million
Star Wars 198314,039(up to 1991) [123] $9.275 million(up to 1983) [123] $17.1 million
Sprint 197614,027(up to 1999) [142] $28.729 million(up to 1999) [142] $43.2 million
Mushiking 200313,500(up to 2005) [119] $530 million(up to 2007) [n 10] $722 million
Sea Wolf 197614,000(up to 2000) [157]
Mahjong Fight Club 200213,000(up to 2004) [120]
Gauntlet 198511,368(up to 1991) [123] $20.41 million(up to 1991) [123] $37.5 million
Love and Berry 200410,300(up to 2006) [121] $302.68 million(up to 2007) [n 11] $401 million
Sangokushi Taisen 20059,929(up to 2008) [n 43] $148.44 million(up to 2012) [n 44] $190 million
Pong 19728500–19,000 [144] [145] $11 million(up to 1973) [146] $62.1 million
Hang-On 19857,500(up to 1985) [100]
Initial D Arcade Stage 20017,111(up to 2005) [174]
Dinosaur King 20057,000(up to 2006) [101]
Hard Drivin' 19896,843(up to 1991) [123] $42.93 million(up to 1991) [123] $75.48 million
Xevious 19825,295(in the US up to 1983) [123]
Samba de Amigo 19993,000(up to 2000) [140] $47.11 million(up to 2000) [n 45] $70.9 million
Border Break 20092,998(up to 2009) [124] $107 million(up to 2012) [n 13] $125 million
World Club Champion Football 20122,479(up to 2015) [n 8] $706.014 million(up to 2012) [n 46] $983 million

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 Pac-Man:
    • Estimated 10 billion quarters ($2.5 billion) by 1999:
      • Chris Morris (10 May 2005). "Pac Man turns 25: A pizza dinner yields a cultural phenomenon – and millions of dollars in quarters". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. In the late 1990s, Twin Galaxies, which tracks video game world record scores, visited used game auctions and counted how many times the average Pac Man machine had been played. Based on those findings and the total number of machines that were manufactured, the organization said it believed the game had been played more than 10 billion times in the 20th century.
      • Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 73. ISBN   0-313-33868-X . Retrieved 10 April 2011. It would go on to become arguably the most famous video game of all time, with the arcade game alone taking in more than a billion dollars, and one study estimated that it had been played more than 10 billion times during the twentieth century.
    • Estimated 7 billion coins (7 billion quarters / $1.75 billion) by 1982. [73]
    • $1 billion cabinet sales by 1982:
    • $1 billion revenue in 1980:
  2. Space Invaders:
  3. Street Fighter II:
  4. 1 2 3 4 Donkey Kong:
    • Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong
    • Ashcraft, Brian; Snow, Jean (2008). "sixty-five+thousand" Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN   4-7700-3078-9 . Retrieved 12 February 2012. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo and laying the groundwork for Nintendo and Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond.
    • United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong
      • Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Retrieved 8 April 2012. Donkey Kong sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States.
    • United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr. and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3 . [78]
  5. Sangokushi Taisen 2:
    • 3,211 units during April–September 2006. [101]
    • 830 units during April–September 2007. [107]
  6. 1 2 Initial D Arcade Stage 4:
    • 3,056 units in fiscal year ending March 2007. [108]
    • 848 units during April–September 2007. [107]
  7. 1 2 World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006–2007 – 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009 [126]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 858 units from April 2009 to December 2009 [124]
  8. 1 2 World Club Champion Football series, unit sales:
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 – 514 units in fiscal year ending March 2006 [99]
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 Ver. 2 – 276 units during April–September 2006 (240 satellite units during April–June 2006, [113] and 36 body units during April–September 2006) [101]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 1,689 units from June 2008 to December 2009 [n 7]
  9. 1 2 3 World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥4.2 billion
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥3.8 billion
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥3.6 billion
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion
    • Currency conversion:
      • ¥4.2 billion = $51.9159 million
      • ¥3.8 billion = $46.9716 million
      • ¥3.6 billion = $44.8253 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  10. 1 2 Mushiking:
  11. 1 2 Love and Berry:
  12. 1 2 StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins
    • Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥10.1 billion
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion
    • Currency conversion:
      • ¥10.1 billion = $125.8 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  13. 1 2 Border Break:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.3 billion [148]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.5 billion [175]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥2.3 billion [152] [176]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion [177]
    • Currency conversion: [116]
      • ¥3.3 billion = $40.7317 million
      • ¥2.5 billion = $30.8542 million
      • ¥2.3 billion = $28.6371 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  14. 1 2 Sengoku Taisen:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥6.4 billion
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥1.2 billion
    Currency conversion:
    • ¥6.4 billion = $79.1 million
    • ¥1.2 billion = $14.94 million
  15. 1 2 Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road
    • ¥4.5 billion from June 2007 to March 2008 [136]
      • Currency conversion: $56.731 million [116]
    • ¥1.7 billion from April 2008 to September 2008 [137]
      • Currency conversion: $21.4317 million [116]
  16. 1 2 StarHorse2:
    • From April 2005 to March 2007: 18,079 units
      • StarHorse2: New Generation – 7,819 units from April 2005 to June 2006 (6,020 units in fiscal year ended March 2006, [99] and 1,799 units during April–June 2006) [101]
      • StarHorse2: Second Fusion – 10,260 units from April 2006 to March 2007 (8,105 conversion kits during April–December 2006, [121] and 2,155 body and satellite units in fiscal year ending March 2007) [108]
    • From April 2007 to March 2008: 10,275 units (756 body and satellite units of StarHorse2: Second Fusion during April–September 2007, [107] and 9,519 conversion kits in fiscal year ended March 2008) [138]
    • From April 2009 to December 2009: 10,657 units of StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion [124]
  17. 1 2 StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥2.8 billion
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2 billion
    • Currency conversion:
      • ¥2.8 billion = $34.6039 million
      • ¥2 billion = $24.7171 million
  18. 1 2 Sangokushi Taisen 3:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥1.8 billion
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.6 billion
    • Currency conversion:
      • ¥1.8 billion = $22.2401 million
      • ¥2.6 billion = $32.1248 million
  19. 1 2 Lord of Vermilion: ¥4 billion [137]
    • Currency conversion: $50.443 million [116]
  20. 1 2 Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.8 billion [148]
    • Currency conversion: $47 million [116]
  21. 1 2 Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥2.8 billion [152]
    • Currency conversion: $34.87 million [116]
  22. 1 2 Beatmania:
    • ¥1 billion in May 1998 [110]
    • Yen-Dollar currency conversion: $12.4 million [116]
  23. Pac-Man series:
  24. Pac-Man series:
  25. Mario series:
  26. Asteroids series:
  27. Asteroids series:
  28. Defender series:
  29. Centipede series: [109] [123] Millipede : 9,990
  30. Centipede series: [123] Millipede : $20.669 million
  31. Galaxian series:
  32. StarHorse series:
    • Starhorse Progress – 120 in fiscal year ended March 2005 [104]
    • StarHorse2 – 38,614 up to 2009 [n 16]
  33. Starhorse series, 2009–2011:
    • Starhorse2 – $59.321 million [n 17]
    • StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins – $132.18 million [n 12]
  34. Big Buck series:
    • Big Buck Hunter series sales up until April 2007: 22,500 units, including 7,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units. [150]
    • Series sales after April 2007 until September 2009: additional 2,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units and 5,500 Big Buck Safari units. [149]
    • Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season sales from September 2009 to January 2010: 3,000 units [153]
  35. Bemani series, sales:
  36. Sega Network Mahjong MJ2:
    • April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984
    • April 2005 to June 2005: 502
  37. Sega Network Mahjong MJ4:
    • Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427
    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465
  38. Sega Network Mahjong MJ series:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ2 from April 2004 to June 2005: 5,486 units [n 36]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ3 from April 2005 to March 2006: 7,608 units [99]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 from April 2007 to March 2009: 12,892 [n 37]
  39. Sega Network Mahjong MJ series, 2009–2012:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4: $47 million in fiscal year 2010 [n 20]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ5: $34.87 million in fiscal year 2012 [n 21]
  40. Pole Position series US sales:
  41. Pole Position series US sales: [109] [123]
  42. Sangokushi Taisen:
    • As of March 2005: 421
    • April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521
  43. Sangokushi Taisen series:
    • Sales from January 2005 to September 2006: 5,153 units
      • Sangokushi Taisen from January 2005 to March 2006: 1,942 units [n 42]
      • Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2006: 3,211 units [101]
    • Sales from April 2007 to March 2008: 4,776
      • 166 body units of Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2007 [107]
      • 4,610 satellite units of Sangokushi Taisen from April 2007 to March 2008 [138]
  44. Sangokushi Taisen series, 2009–2011:
    • Sangokushi Taisen 3: $54.4 million [n 18]
    • Sengoku Taisen: $94.04 million [n 14]
  45. Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion
    • Currency conversion: $47.11 million [116]
  46. World Club Champion Football series, revenue:
    • Series revenues up until March 2009 – $552.3 million
      • 480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack. [114] A ¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each. [115] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion. [116] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 – $150.1 million [n 9]

Related Research Articles

Atari 2600 Video game console

The Atari 2600, originally branded as the Atari Video Computer System or Atari VCS for short until November 1982, is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games stored on ROM cartridges instead of dedicated hardware with games physically built into the unit. The 2600 was bundled with two joystick controllers, a conjoined pair of paddle controllers, and a game cartridge: initially Combat, and later Pac-Man.

Coleco Industries, Inc. was an American company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as The Connecticut Leather Company. It became a highly successful toy company in the 1980s, known for its mass-produced version of Cabbage Patch Kids dolls and its video game consoles, the Coleco Telstar dedicated consoles and ColecoVision. While the company disappeared in 1988 as a result of bankruptcy, the Coleco brand was revived in 2005, and remains active to this day.

<i>Pong</i> early video game

Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games. It is a table tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics. The game was originally manufactured by Atari, which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created Pong as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell. Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey; Magnavox later sued Atari for patent infringement. Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney were surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work and decided to manufacture the game.

History of video games aspect of history

The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academic computer scientists began designing simple games and simulations as part of their research or just for fun. At M.I.T. in the 1960s, professors and students played games such as 3D tic-tac-toe and Moon Landing. These games were played on computer such as the IBM 1560, and moves were made by means of punch cards. Video gaming did not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when video arcade games and gaming consoles using joysticks, buttons, and other controllers, along with graphics on computer screens and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since the 1980s, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern popular culture in most parts of the world. One of the early games was Spacewar!, which was developed by computer scientists. Early arcade video games developed from 1972 to 1978. During the 1970s, the first generation of home consoles emerged, including the popular game Pong and various "clones". The 1970s was also the era of mainframe computer games. The golden age of arcade video games was from 1978 to 1982. Video arcades with large, graphics-decorated coin-operated machines were common at malls and popular, affordable home consoles such as the Atari 2600 and Intellivision enabled people to play games on their home TVs. During the 1980s, gaming computers, early online gaming and handheld LCD games emerged; this era was affected by the video game crash of 1983. From 1976 to 1992, the second generation of video consoles emerged.

A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

The video game crash of 1983 was a large-scale recession in the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985, primarily in America. The crash was attributed to several factors, including market saturation in the number of game consoles and available games, and waning interest in console games in favor of personal computers. Revenues peaked at around $3.2 billion in 1983, then fell to around $100 million by 1985. The crash was a serious event which abruptly ended what is retrospectively considered the second generation of console video gaming in North America.

<i>Pac-Man</i> 1980 video game made by Namco Ltd.

Pac-Man is a maze arcade game developed and released by Namco in 1980. Originally known in Japan as Puck Man, it would be changed to Pac-Man for international releases. Outside Japan, the game was published by Midway Games, part of their licensing agreement with Namco America. The player controls the titular character, as he must eat all the dots inside an enclosed maze while avoiding four colored ghosts. Eating large flashing "Power Pellets" will cause the ghosts to turn blue and reverse direction, allowing Pac-Man to eat them for bonus points. It was the first game to run on the Namco Pac-Man arcade board.

<i>Space Invaders</i> 1978 video game

Space Invaders is a 1978 arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado. It was manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and licensed in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Within the shooter genre, Space Invaders was the first fixed shooter and set the template for the shoot 'em up genre. The goal is to defeat wave after wave of descending aliens with a horizontally moving laser to earn as many points as possible.

<i>Zaxxon</i> arcade video game

Zaxxon (ザクソン) is a 1982 isometric shooter arcade game, developed and released by Sega, in which the player pilots a ship through heavily defended space fortresses. Some sources claim that Japanese electronics company Ikegami Tsushinki also worked on the development of the game.

The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.

1983 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Mario Bros., Pole Position II and Spy Hunter.

<i>Dig Dug</i> 1982 arcade game

Dig Dug is a maze arcade game developed and released by Namco in 1982. The player controls the titular character, who must eliminate all of the enemies on the screen by pumping them up with air until they explode or causing rocks to fall on them. The game was published by Atari in North America and Europe. It ran on the Namco Galaga arcade hardware.

The golden age of arcade video games was the era when arcade video games entered pop culture and became a dominant cultural force. The exact time period is disputed, but key moments include the release of Space Invaders in 1978 and the vector-based Asteroids in 1979—moments made possible by the increase in power and decrease in cost of computing technology. This led to the rise of both video game arcades and video games in other media, such as songs, cartoons, and movies like 1982's TRON. Other iconic games from this era include Pac-Man, Defender, Galaga, Donkey Kong, and Centipede.

1993 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Star Fox, Virtua Fighter and Ridge Racer.

1982 was the peak year of arcade and console games during the Golden age of arcade video games. Troubles at Atari, Inc. late in the year triggered the North American video game crash of 1983. Many games were released that would spawn franchises, or at least sequels, including Dig Dug, Pole Position, Mr. Do!, Pitfall!, Q*bert, and Xevious. Additional consoles add to a crowded market. The new Commodore 64 goes on to eventually dominate the 8-bit home computer market.

Fueled by the previous year's release of the colorful and appealing Pac-Man, the audience for arcade games in 1981 became much wider. Pac-Man influenced maze games began appearing in arcades and on home systems. Nintendo broke from their mediocre early releases with Donkey Kong which defined the platform genre.

1976 has several new titles such as Road Race, Night Driver and Heavyweight Champ.

Atari, Inc. Defunct American video game and home computer company

Atari, Inc. was an American video game developer and home computer company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney. Primarily responsible for the formation of the video arcade and modern video game industries, the company was closed and its assets split in 1984 as a direct result of the Video game crash of 1983.

The second decade in the industry's history was decade of highs and lows for video games. The decade began amidst a boom in the arcade business with giants like Atari still dominating the market since the late-1970s. Another, the rising influence of the home computer, and a lack of quality in the games themselves lead to an implosion of the North American video game market that nearly destroyed the industry. It took home consoles years to recover from the crash, but Nintendo filled in the void with its Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), reviving interest in consoles. Up until this point, most investors believed video games to be a fad that has since passed. In the remaining years of the decade, Sega ignites a console war with Nintendo, developers that have been affected by the crash experiment with the superior graphics of the PC, and Nintendo also releases the Game Boy, which would become the best-selling handheld gaming device for the next two-decades.

A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles, in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles.

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    • United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr. and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3 . [78]
  92. 1 2 Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 352. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4. In 1982, Universal Sales made arcade history with a game called Mr Do! Instead of selling dedicated Mr Do! machines, Universal sold the game as a kit. The kit came with a customized control panel, a computer board with Mr Do! read-only memory (ROM) chips, stickers that could be placed on the side of stand-up arcade machines for art, and a plastic marquee. It was the first game ever sold as a conversion only. According to former Universal Sales western regional sales manager Joe Morici, the company sold approximately 30,000 copies of the game in the United States alone.
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  174. Initial D series:
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    • Initial D Arcade Stage Ver. 3: 673 units from April 2004 to March 2005 [104]
    • Initial D Arcade Stage 4 : 3,904 units from April 2006 to September 2007 [n 6]