Home video game console

Last updated
WPVG icon 2016.svg
Part of a series on:
Video games

A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles, in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles.

Video game electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an increasingly important part of the entertainment industry, and whether they are also a form of art is a matter of dispute.

Gamer person who plays video games

A gamer is a person who plays interactive games, especially video games, tabletop role-playing games, and skill-based card games, and who plays for usually long periods of time. In some countries, such as the UK and Australia, the term "gaming" can also refer to legalized gambling, which can take both traditional tabletop and digital forms. There are many different gamer communities around the world. Since the advent of the Internet, many communities take the form of Internet forums or YouTube or Twitch virtual communities, as well as in-person social clubs.

A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

Contents

History

Timeline overview

Below is a timeline of each generation with the top three home video consoles of each generation based on worldwide sales. For a complete list of home video consoles released in each generation please see the respective article of each generation.

Legend
     – Unit with the highest sales of its generation.
     – Unit with the second highest sales of its generation.
     – Unit with the third highest sales of its generation.
     – Manufacturer released a home video console during this generation but did not sell the most units.
   – Manufacturer didn't release a home video game console during this generation.
 Hash-transbg.svg  – Indicates the current generation consoles on the market.
ManufacturerGenerationRef(s)
First
(1972–1980)
Second
(1976–1992)
Third
(1983–2003)
Fourth
(1987–2004)
Fifth
(1993–2005)
Sixth
(1998–2013)
Seventh
(2005–2017)
Eighth
(2012–present)
Atari Home Pong
(150,000)
Atari 2600
(30 million) [note 1]
Atari 7800
(1 million) [note 2]
Atari Jaguar
(250,000)
[note 3]
Coleco Telstar
(1 million)
ColecoVision
(2+ million)
[note 4]
Nintendo Color TV-Game series
(3 million)
NES
(61.91 million)
Super NES
(49.1 million)
Nintendo 64
(32.93 million)
GameCube
(21.74 million)
Wii
(101.63 million)
Nintendo Switch Hash-transbg.svg
(34.74 million) [note 5]
[note 6]
Magnavox/
Philips
Odyssey
(330,000)
Odyssey²
(2 million)
Videopac + G7400
(N/A)
CD-i
(570,000)
[note 7]
Mattel Intellivision
(3 million)
HyperScan
(N/A)
[note 8]
Sega Master System
(10–13 million)
Sega Genesis
(33.75 million)
Sega Saturn
(9.26 million)
Dreamcast
(9.13 million)
[note 9]
NEC TurboGrafx-16
(10 million)
PC-FX
(100,000)
[note 10]
Sony PlayStation
(102.49 million)
PlayStation 2
( > 155 million)
PlayStation 3
( > 87.4 million)
PlayStation 4 Hash-transbg.svg
(96.8 million)
[note 11]
Microsoft Xbox
( > 24 million)
Xbox 360
( > 84 million)
Xbox One Hash-transbg.svg
(est. 41 million)
[note 12]

>Final sales are greater than the reported figure. See notes.

First generation

The Magnavox Odyssey was the first video game console, released in 1972. Magnavox-Odyssey-Console-Set.jpg
The Magnavox Odyssey was the first video game console, released in 1972.

Although the first video games appeared in the 1950s, [51] they were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s while working for Sanders Associates he created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufactures ultimately leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates and Magnavox. [52]

Analog television original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio; in an analog television broadcast, the brightness, colors and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal

Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness, colors and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal.

Ralph H. Baer German-American inventor and engineer

Ralph Henry Baer was a German inventor, game developer, and engineer.

Sanders Associates

Sanders Associates was a defense contractor in Nashua, New Hampshire, United States, from 1951 until it was sold in 1986. It is now part of BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions, a subsidiary of BAE Systems. It concentrated on developing and manufacturing electronic systems, notably aircraft self-protection systems, and tactical surveillance and intelligence systems. Other business areas included microwave, missile and space electronics; infrared imaging; and automated mission planning systems, with both military and commercial applications.

In 1972 Magnavox released the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow gamers to turn on and off certain components of the console (the Odyssey lacked a Central processing unit) to create slightly different games like tennis, volleyball, hockey, and chase. Magnavox replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox all served the same function as the switches and allowed gamers to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games.

Magnavox American Electronics Company

Magnavox is an American electronics company founded in the United States. Since 1974 it is a subsidiary of Dutch electronics corporation Philips.

Magnavox Odyssey First commercial home video game console

The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console. It was developed by a small team led by Ralph H. Baer at Sanders Associates and released by Magnavox in the United States in September 1972 and overseas the following year. The Odyssey consists of a white, black, and brown box which connects to a television set, and two rectangular controllers attached by wires. It is capable of displaying three square dots on the screen in monochrome black and white, with differing behavior for the dots depending on the game played, and with no sound capabilities. Players place plastic overlays on the screen to create visuals, and the one or two players for each game control their dots with the three knobs and one button on the controller in accordance with the rules given for the game. The Odyssey console came packaged with dice, paper money, and other board game paraphernalia to go along with the games, and a peripheral controller—the first video game light gun—was sold separately.

Central processing unit Central component of any computer system which executes input/output, arithmetical, and logical operations

A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.

The Odyssey only initially sold about 100,000 units, [53] making it moderately successful, and it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games, that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, Magnavox, bowing to the popularity of Pong, cancelled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, and a third game—Smash. Almost simultaneously released with Atari's own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey with no board game pieces or extra cartridges.

<i>Pong</i> early video game

Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games. It is a table tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics. The game was originally manufactured by Atari, which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created Pong as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell. Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey; Magnavox later sued Atari for patent infringement. Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney were surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work and decided to manufacture the game.

In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing exactly the same games.

General Instrument (GI) was an American electronics manufacturer based in Horsham, Pennsylvania, specializing in semiconductors and cable television equipment. The company was active until 1997, when it split into General Semiconductor, CommScope and NextLevel Systems.

Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles only playing the games that came with the console. These video game consoles were often just called video games, because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari, Magnavox, and newcomer Coleco pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games.

Second generation

The Atari 2600 became the most popular game console of the second generation. Atari-2600-Wood-4Sw-Set.jpg
The Atari 2600 became the most popular game console of the second generation.

Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System (VES) in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches (the Odyssey) or the console itself was empty (Coleco Telstar) and the cartridge contained all of the game components. The VES, however, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions.

RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600 (originally branded as the Atari Video Computer System), respectively. Both Bally (with their Home Library Computer in 1977) and Magnavox (with the Odyssey² in 1978) also brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, it was not until Atari released a conversion of the golden age arcade hit Space Invaders in 1980 for the Atari 2600 that the home console industry took off. Many consumers bought an Atari console so they could play Space Invaders at home. Space Invaders' unprecedented success started the trend of console manufacturers trying to get exclusive rights to arcade titles and the trend of advertisements for game consoles claiming to bring the arcade experience home.

Throughout the early 1980s, other companies released video game consoles of their own. Many of the video game systems were technically superior to the Atari 2600, and marketed as improvements over the Atari 2600, but Atari dominated the console market in the early 1980s. However, a severe crash occurred in 1983 in the video game business.

Third generation

The NES made video games popular again after the 1983 crash. NES-Console-Set.jpg
The NES made video games popular again after the 1983 crash.

In 1983, Nintendo released the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. The Famicom supported high-resolution sprites, larger color palettes, and tiled backgrounds. This allowed Famicom games to be longer and have more detailed graphics. Nintendo began attempts to bring their Famicom to the U.S. after the video game market had crashed. In the U.S., video games were seen as a fad that had already passed. To distinguish its product from older game consoles, Nintendo released their Famicom as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which used a front-loading cartridge port similar to a VCR, included a plastic "robot" (R.O.B.), and was initially advertised as a toy.

The NES was the highest selling console in the history of North America and revitalized the video game market. Mario of Super Mario Bros. became a global icon starting with his NES games. Nintendo took an unusual stance with third-party developers for its console. Nintendo contractually restricted third-party developers to three NES titles per year and forbade them from developing for other video game consoles. The practice ensured Nintendo's market dominance and prevented the flood of trash titles that had helped kill the Atari, but was ruled illegal late in the console's life cycle.

Sega's Master System was intended to compete with the NES, but never gained any significant market share in the US or Japan and was barely profitable. It fared notably better in PAL territories. In Europe and South America, the Master System competed with the NES and saw new game releases even after Sega's next-generation Mega Drive was released. In Brazil where strict importation laws and rampant piracy kept out competitors, the Master System outsold the NES by a massive margin and remained popular into the '90s. [54]

Jack Tramiel, after buying Atari, downsizing its staff, and settling its legal disputes, attempted to bring Atari back into the home console market. Atari released a smaller, sleeker, cheaper version of their popular Atari 2600. They also released the Atari 7800, a console technologically comparable with the NES and backwards compatible with the 2600. Finally Atari repackaged its 8-bit XE home computer as the XEGS game console. The new consoles helped Atari claw its way out of debt, but failed to gain much market share from Nintendo. Atari's lack of funds meant that its consoles saw fewer releases, lower production values (both the manuals and the game labels were frequently black and white), and limited distribution.

JapanNorth AmericaEurope
Family Computer/Nintendo Entertainment System 198319851986
Sega Mark III/Master System 198519861987
Atari 7800 none
Atari XEGS 1987

Fourth generation

The Super Famicom, the Japanese version of the Super NES. Nintendo-Super-Famicom-Set-FL.jpg
The Super Famicom, the Japanese version of the Super NES.

NEC brought the first fourth-generation console to market with their PC Engine (later sold as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America) when Hudson Soft approached them with an advanced graphics chip. Hudson had previously approached Nintendo, only to be rebuffed by a company still raking in the profits of the NES. The TurboGrafx used the unusual HuCard format to store games. The small size of these proprietary cards allowed NEC to re-release the console as a handheld game console. The PC Engine enjoyed brisk sales in Japan, but its North American counterpart, the TurboGrafx, lagged behind the competition. The console never saw an official release in Europe, but clones and North American imports were available in some markets starting in 1990.

NEC advertised their console as "16-bit" to highlight its advances over the NES. This started the trend of all subsequent fourth generations consoles being advertised as 16 bit. Many people still refer to this generation as the 16-bit generation, and often refer to the third generation as "8-bit".

Sega scaled down and adapted their Sega System 16 (used to power arcade hits like Altered Beast and Shinobi) into the Mega Drive (or Genesis) and released it with a near arcade-perfect port of Altered Beast. Sega's console met lukewarm sales in Japan, but skyrocketed to first place in PAL markets, and made major inroads in North America. Propelled by its effective "Genesis does what Nintendon't" marketing campaign, Sega capitalized on the Genesis's technological superiority over the NES, faithful ports of popular arcade games, and competitive pricing.

Arcade gaming company, SNK developed the high end Neo Geo MVS arcade system which used interchangeable cartridges similar to home consoles. Building on the success of the MVS, SNK repackaged the NeoGeo as the Neo Geo AES home console. Though technologically superior to the other fourth-generation consoles, the AES and its games were prohibitively expensive, which kept sales low and prevented it from expanding outside its niche market and into serious competition with Nintendo and Sega. The AES did, however, amass a dedicated cult following, allowing it to see new releases into the 2000s.

The fourth generation graphics chips allowed these consoles to reproduce the art styles that were becoming popular in arcades and on home computers. These games often featured lavish background scenery, huge characters, broader color palettes, and increased emphasis on dithering and texture. Games written specifically for the NES, like Megaman, Shatterhand, and Super Mario Bros. 3 were able to work cleverly within its limitations. Ports of the increasingly detailed arcade and home computer games came up with various solutions. For example, when Capcom released Strider in the arcade they created an entirely separate Strider game for the NES that only incorporated themes and characters from the arcade.

In 1990 Nintendo finally brought their Super Famicom to market and brought it to the US as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) a year later. Its release marginalized the TurboGrafx and the Neo Geo, but came late enough for Sega to sell several million consoles in North America and gain a strong foothold. The same year the SNES was released Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog, which spiked Genesis sales, similar to Space Invaders on the Atari. Also, by 1992 the first fully licensed NFL Football game was released: NFL Sports Talk Football '93, which was available only on the Genesis. This impact on Genesis sales, and the overall interest of realistic sports games, would start the trend of licensed sports games being viewed as necessary for the success of a console in the US.

While Nintendo enjoyed dominance in Japan, and Sega in Europe, the competition between the two was particularly fierce and close in North America. Ultimately, the SNES outsold the Genesis, but only after Sega discontinued the Genesis to focus on the next generation of consoles.

One trait that remains peculiar to the fourth generation is the huge number of exclusive games. Both Sega and Nintendo were very successful and their consoles developed massive libraries of games. Both consoles had to be programmed in assembly to get the most out of them. A game optimized for the Genesis could take advantage of its faster CPU and sound chip. A game optimized for the SNES could take advantage of its graphics and its flexible, clean sound chip. Some game series, like Castlevania, saw separate system exclusive releases rather than an attempt to port one game to disparate platforms.

When compact disc (CD) technology became available midway through the fourth generation, each company attempted to integrate it into their existing consoles in different ways. NEC and Sega released CD add-ons to their consoles in the form of the TurboGrafx-CD and Sega CD, but both were only moderately successful. NEC also released the TurboDuo which combined the TurboGrafx-16 and the TurboGrafx-CD add-on (along with the RAM and BIOS upgrade from the Super System Card) into one unit. SNK released a third version of the Neo-Geo, the Neo Geo CD, allowing the company to release its games on a cheaper medium than the AES's expensive cartridges, but it reached the market after Nintendo and Sega had already sold tens of millions of consoles each. Nintendo partnered with Sony to work on a CD addon for the SNES, but the deal fell apart when they realized how much control Sony wanted. Sony would use their work with Nintendo as the basis for their PlayStation game console. While CDs became an increasingly visible part of the market, CD-reading technology was still expensive in the 90s, limiting NEC's and Sega's add-ons' sales.

JapanNorth AmericaEurope
PC Engine/TurboGrafx-16 198719891990
Mega Drive/Genesis 1988
Neo Geo 19901991
Super Famicom/Super NES 199019911992
LaserActive 1993none

Fifth generation

The original PlayStation became the most popular system of the fifth generation consoles, eventually selling over 100 million systems. PSX-Console-wController.jpg
The original PlayStation became the most popular system of the fifth generation consoles, eventually selling over 100 million systems.

The first fifth-generation consoles were the 3DO and the Atari Jaguar. Although both consoles were more powerful than the fourth generation systems, neither would become serious threats to Sega or Nintendo. The 3DO initially generated a great deal of hype in part because of a licensing scheme where 3DO licensed the manufacturing of its console out to third parties, similar to VCR or DVD players. Unfortunately, that very structure meant that unlike its competitors who could sell the console at a loss, all 3DO manufacturers had to sell for profit. The cheapest 3DO was more expensive than the Super NES and Genesis combined.

Atari cancelled their line of home computers, their Atari Portfolio, the Stacy laptop, and their handheld Atari Lynx when they released the Jaguar. It was an all or nothing gamble that ran the company into the ground. The Jaguar had three processors and no C libraries to help developers cope with it. Atari was ineffective at courting third parties and many of their first party games were poorly received. While games like Tempest 2000, Rayman, and Alien vs Predator showed what the console was capable of, the vast majority of releases underwhelmed. Many of the Jaguar's games used mainly the slowest (but most familiar) of the console's processors, resulting in titles that could easily have been released on the SNES or Genesis.

To compete with emerging next gen consoles, Nintendo released Donkey Kong Country which could display a wide range of tones (something common in fifth-generation games) by limiting the number of hues onscreen, and Star Fox which used an extra chip inside of the cartridge to display polygon graphics. Sega followed suit, releasing Vectorman and Virtua Racing (the latter of which used the Sega Virtua Processor). Sega also released the 32X, an add-on for the Genesis, while their Sega Saturn was still in development, and announced that they would replace the Genesis with the Neptune, a combination 32X and Genesis, and sell it as a budget console alongside their upcoming Saturn. Despite public statements from Sega claiming that they would continue to support the Genesis/32X throughout the next generation, Sega Enterprises quietly killed the Neptune project and forced Sega of America to abandon the 32X. The 32X's brief and confusing existence damaged public perception of the coming Saturn and Sega as a whole.

While the fourth generation had seen a handful of acclaimed titles on NEC's PC Engine CD-ROM² and Sega's Mega CD add-ons, it wasn't until the fifth generation that a CD-based consoles and games began to seriously compete with cartridges. CDs were significantly cheaper to manufacture and distribute than cartridges were, and gave developers room to add cinematic cut-scenes, pre-recorded soundtracks, and voice acting that made more serious storytelling possible.

NEC had been developing a successor to the PC Engine as early as 1990, and presented a prototype, dubbed the "Iron Man," to developers in 1992, but shelved the project as the PC Engine managed to extend the console's market viability in Japan into the mid-90s. When sales started to dry up, NEC rushed its old project to the market. The PC-FX, a CD-based, 32-bit console, had highly advanced, detailed 2D graphics capabilities, and better full-motion video than any other system on the market. It was, however, incapable of handling 3D graphics, forfeiting its chances at seriously competing with Sony and Sega. The console was limited to a niche market of dating sims and visual novels in Japan, and never saw release in Western markets.

After the abortive 32X, Sega entered the fifth generation with the Saturn. Sega released several highly regarded titles for the Saturn, but a series of bad decisions alienated many developers and retailers. While the Saturn was technologically advanced, it was also complex, difficult, and unintuitive to write games for. In particular, programming 3D graphics that could compete with those on Nintendo and Sony's consoles proved exceptionally difficult for third-party developers. Because the Saturn used quadrilaterals, rather than standard triangles, as its basic polygon, cross platform games had to be completely rewritten to see a Saturn port. The Saturn was also a victim of internal politics at Sega. While the Saturn sold comparably well in Japan, Sega's branches in North America and Europe refused to license localization of many popular Japanese titles, holding they were ill-suited to Western markets. First-party hits like Sakura Taisen never saw Western releases, while several third-party titles released on both PlayStation and Saturn in Japan, like Grandia and Castlevania: Symphony of the Night , were released in North America and Europe as PlayStation exclusives.

Born from a failed attempt to create a console with Nintendo, Sony's PlayStation would not only dominate its generation, but become the first console to sell over 100 million units by expanding the video game market. Sony actively courted third parties and provided them with convenient c libraries to write their games. Sony had built the console from the start as a 3D, disc-based system, and emphasized its 3d graphics that would come to be viewed as the future of gaming. The PlayStation's CD technology won over several developers who had been releasing titles for Nintendo and Sega's fourth generation consoles, such as Konami, Namco, Capcom, and Square. CDs were far cheaper to manufacture and distribute than cartridges were, meaning developers could release larger batches of games at higher profit margins; Nintendo's console, on the other hand, used cartridges, unwittingly keeping third-party developers away. The PlayStation's internal architecture was simpler and more intuitive to program for, giving the console an edge over Sega's Saturn.

Nintendo was the last to release a fifth generation console with their Nintendo 64, and when they finally released their console it came with only two launch titles. Partly to curb piracy and partly as a result of Nintendo's failed disc projects with Sony and Phillips, Nintendo used cartridges for their console. The higher cost of cartridges drove many third party developers to the PlayStation. The Nintendo 64 could handle 3D polygons better than any console released before it, but its games often lacked the cut-scenes, soundtracks, and voice-overs that became standard on PlayStation discs. Nintendo released several highly acclaimed titles, such as Super Mario 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, and the Nintendo 64 was able to sell tens of millions of units on the strength of first-party titles alone, but its constant struggles against Sony would make the Nintendo 64 the last home console to use cartridges as a medium for game distribution.

JapanNorth AmericaEurope
FM Towns Marty 1993none
Atari Jaguar 199419931994
3DO Interactive Multiplayer
PC-FX none
32X 1994
Sega Saturn 1995
PlayStation
Nintendo 64 19961997

Sixth generation

With more than 155 million units sold, the PlayStation 2 is the best selling videogame console in history. PS2-Fat-Console-Set.jpg
With more than 155 million units sold, the PlayStation 2 is the best selling videogame console in history.

The sixth generation saw a move towards PC-like architectures in gaming consoles, as well as a shift towards using DVDs for game media. This brought games that were both longer and more visually appealing. Furthermore, this generation also saw experimentation with online console gaming and implementing both flash and hard drive storage for game data.

Sega's Dreamcast was released in Japan on November 27, 1998, in North America on September 9, 1999, in Europe on October 14, 1999 and in Australia on November 30, 1999. It was the company's last video game console, and was the first of the generation's consoles to be discontinued. Sega implemented a special type of optical media called the GD-ROM. These discs were created in order to prevent software piracy, which had been more easily done with consoles of the previous generation; however, this format was soon cracked as well. It also sported a 33.6Kb or 56k modem which could be used to access the internet or play some of the games, like Phantasy Star Online, online, making it the first console with built-in internet connectivity. The Dreamcast was discontinued in March 2001, and Sega transitioned to software developing/publishing only.

Sony's PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, in North America on October 26, 2000, in Europe on November 24, 2000 and in Australia on November 30, 2000. It was the follow-up to its highly successful PlayStation, and was also the first home game console to be able to play DVDs. As was done with the original PlayStation in 2000, Sony redesigned the console in 2004 into a smaller version. As of November 21, 2011 over 140 million PlayStation 2 units have been sold. [55] [56] This makes it the best selling home console of all time to date, and now the best-selling video game console to date.

Nintendo's GameCube was released in Japan on September 15, 2001, in North America on November 18, 2001, in Europe on May 3, 2002 and in Australia on May 17, 2002. It was Nintendo's fourth home video game console and the first console by the company to use optical media instead of cartridges. The Nintendo GameCube did not play standard 12 cm DVDs, instead it employed smaller 8 cm optical discs. With the release of the Game Boy Player, all Game Boy, Game Boy Color, and Game Boy Advance cartridges could be played on the platform. The Nintendo GameCube was discontinued in 2007 with the release of Wii.

Microsoft released its first games console, the Xbox in North America on November 15, 2001, in Japan on February 22, 2002, and in Europe and Australia on March 14, 2002. It was the first console to employ a hard drive right out of the box to save games, the first to include an Ethernet port for broadband internet, and the beginning of Microsoft's online Xbox LIVE service. Microsoft was able to attract many PC developers by using the NT kernel and DirectX from their Windows operating system. Though criticized for its bulky size and the awkwardness of its original controller, the Xbox eventually gained popularity, especially in the US, where it outsold the GameCube to secure second place, due in part to the success of the Halo franchise.

JapanNorth AmericaEurope
Dreamcast 19981999
PlayStation 2 2000
Nintendo GameCube 20012002
Xbox 20022001

Seventh generation

Wii has sold more than 100 million units, becoming the most popular console of the seventh generation. Wii-Console.png
Wii has sold more than 100 million units, becoming the most popular console of the seventh generation.

The features introduced in this generation include the support of new disc formats: Blu-ray Disc, utilized by the PlayStation 3, and HD DVD supported by the Xbox 360 via an optional $200 external accessory addition, that was later discontinued as the format war closed. Another new technology is the use of motion as input, and IR tracking (as implemented on the Wii). Also, all seventh generation consoles support wireless controllers.

Microsoft kicked off the seventh generation with the release of the Xbox 360 on November 22, 2005 in the United States, December 2, 2005 in Europe, December 10, 2005 in Japan and March 23, 2006 in Australia. It featured market-leading processing power until the Sony PlayStation 3 was released one year later. While the original Xbox 360 "Core" did not include an internal HDD, most Xbox 360 models since have included at least the option to have one. The Xbox 360 optical drive is a DVD9 reader, allowing DVD movies to be played. No Blu-ray drive was included, making big games like Battlefield and Grand Theft Auto V require two or more DVDs to play. Up to four controllers can be connected to the console wirelessly on the standard 2.4 GHz spectrum. There are 4 discontinued versions of the Xbox 360: the "Arcade," the "Pro," and the "Elite," and the newer "S" or 'slim' model. The currently shipping "E" version of the Xbox 360 includes 3 configurations: a 4 GB internal SSD version which acts like a USB hard drive, a 250 GB HDD version, and a branded 320 GB HDD version. The Xbox 360 is backward compatible with about half the games of the original Xbox library. In 2010, Microsoft released Kinect, allowing for motion-controlled games.

Sony's PlayStation 3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe and Australia on March 23, 2007. All PlayStation 3s come with a hard drive and are able to play Blu-ray Disc games and Blu-ray Disc movies out of the box. The PlayStation 3 was the first video game console to support HDMI output out of the box, using full 1080p resolution. Up to seven controllers can connect to the console using Bluetooth. There are 6 discontinued versions of the PS3: a 20 GB HDD version (discontinued in North America and Japan, and was never released in PAL territories), a 40 GB HDD version (discontinued), a 60 GB HDD version (discontinued in North America, Japan and PAL territories), 80 GB HDD version (only in some NTSC territories and PAL territories), a "slim" 120 GB HDD version (discontinued), and a "slim" 250 GB version (discontinued). The two current shipping versions of the PlayStation 3 are: a "slim" 160 GB HDD version and a "slim" 320 GB HDD version. The hard drive can be replaced with any standard 2.5" Serial ATA drive and the system has support for removable media storage, such as Memory Stick, Memory Stick Pro, Memory Stick Duo, Memory Stick PRO Duo, USB, SD, MiniSD, and CompactFlash (CF) digital media, but only the PlayStation versions up to 80 GB support this. The slim PlayStation 3 consoles (120 GB and up) had removable storage discontinued. [57] All models are backward compatible with the original PlayStation's software library, and the launch models, since discontinued, are also backward compatible with PlayStation 2 games. As a cost-cutting measure, later models removed the Emotion Engine, making them incompatible with PS2 discs. In 2010, Sony released PlayStation Move, allowing for motion-controlled games. With recent software updates, the PlayStation 3 can play 3D Blu-ray movies and 3D games.

Nintendo's Wii was released in North America on November 19, 2006, in Japan on December 2, 2006, in Australia on December 7, 2006 and in Europe on December 8, 2006. It is bundled with Wii Sports in all regions except for Japan. Unlike the other systems of the seventh generation, the Wii does not support an internal hard drive, but instead uses 512 MB of internal Flash memory and includes support for removable SD card storage. It also has a maximum resolution output of 480p, making it the only seventh generation console not able to output high-definition graphics. Along with its lower price, the Wii is notable for its unique controller, the Wii Remote, which resembles a TV remote. The system uses a "sensor bar" that emits infrared light that is detected by an infrared camera in the Wii Remote to determine orientation relative to the source of the light. All models, other than the Wii Family Edition and the Wii Mini, are backwards compatible with Nintendo GameCube games and support up to four Nintendo GameCube controllers and two memory cards. It also includes the Virtual Console, which allows the purchase and downloading of games from older systems, including those of former competitors. In 2009, Nintendo introduced the 'Wii MotionPlus' expansion, which uses the same technology as the console previously used, but with enhanced motion tracking and sensing to improve gameplay quality. The Wii has four colors: white, blue, black, and red. Current models include Wii Sports, Wii Sports Resort, and Wii Motion Plus.

JapanNorth AmericaEurope
Xbox 360 2005
PlayStation 3 20062007
Wii 2006

Eighth generation

The PlayStation 4 console with its controller PS4-Console-wDS4.jpg
The PlayStation 4 console with its controller
The Xbox One, the controller and the Kinect sensor Microsoft-Xbox-One-Console-Set-wKinect.jpg
The Xbox One, the controller and the Kinect sensor

Aside from the usual hardware enhancements, consoles of the eighth generation focus on further integration with other media and increased connectivity. [58] The Wii U introduced a controller/tablet hybrid whose features include the possibility of augmented reality in gaming. [59] The PlayStation 4 is Sony's eighth generation console, featuring a "share" button to stream video game content between devices, released on November 15, 2013. Microsoft released their next generation console, the Xbox One, on November 22, 2013. [60]

Game systems in the eighth generation also faced increasing competition from mobile device platforms such as Apple's iOS and Google's Android operating systems. Smartphone ownership was estimated to reach roughly a quarter of the world's population by the end of 2014. [61] The proliferation of low-cost games for these devices, such as Angry Birds with over 2 billion downloads worldwide, [62] presents a new challenge to classic video game systems. Microconsoles, cheaper stand-alone devices designed to play games from previously established platforms, also increased options for consumers. Many of these projects were spurred on by the use of new crowdfunding techniques through sites such as Kickstarter. Notable competitors include the GamePop, OUYA, and GameStick Android-based systems, the PlayStation Vita TV, and the forthcoming Steam Machine. [63]

Despite the increased competition, the sales for major console manufacturers featured strong starts. The PlayStation 4 sold 1 million consoles within 24 hours in 2 countries, whilst the Xbox One sold 1 million consoles within 24 hours in 13 countries. [64] As of April 2014, 7 million PlayStation 4 consoles have been sold worldwide, [65] and 5 million Xbox One units have shipped, [66] both outpacing sales of their seventh generation systems. In May, Nintendo announced that it had sold only 2.8 million Wii U consoles, falling far short of their forecasts. [67]

In 2016, both Microsoft and Sony announced hardware refreshes of their respective consoles, which all aim to futureproof their platforms and provide improved support for 4K ultra high-definition content and virtual reality. [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] Nintendo discontinued production of the Wii U in January 2017, [73] and released a new "hybrid" console, the Nintendo Switch, in March 2017. The Switch can be used as either a handheld tablet or docked for use on televisions. [74]

JapanNorth AmericaEurope
Wii U 2012
PlayStation 4 20142013
Xbox One
Nintendo Switch 2017

See also

Notes

  1. The Atari 2600 sold 30 million units during its life-cycle. Atari also released a second home console during the second generation known as the Atari 5200 which sold 1 million units.
  2. The Atari 7800 sold 1 million units. Atari also released the Atari XEGS during the third generation which sold 100,000 units.
  3. Home Pong sold 150,000 units. [1] [2] Atari 2600 sold 30 million [3] , Atari 5200 and Atari 7800 sold 1 million units each [4] [5] Atari XEGS sold 100,000 units [6] , and the Atari Jaguar sold 250,000 units. [7]
    • Telestar: Coleco launched Telstar in 1976 and sold a million. Production and delivery issues, and dedicated consoles being replaced by electronic handheld games dramatically reduced sales in 1977. Over a million Telstars were scrapped in 1978, and it cost Coleco $22.3 million that year [8] —almost bankrupting the company. [9]
    • ColecoVision:The ColecoVision reached 2 million units sold by the spring of 1984. Console quarterly sales dramatically decreased at this time, but it continued to sell modestly [10] [8] with most inventory gone by October 1985. [11]
  4. As of March 31, 2019 the Nintendo Switch has sold 34.74 million units. [12] Nintendo also released the Wii U during the eighth generation which sold 13.56 million units during its lifecycle. [12]
  5. Color TV-Game series sold 3 million units. [13] NES, Super NES, Nintendo 64, GameCube and Wii sales figures. [14] Wii U and Switch sales figures. [12]
  6. Magnavox Odyssey [15] , Magnavox Odyssey² [16] Philips CD-i [17]
  7. Intellivision sold 3 million units. [18]
    • Master System: 10–13 million, not including recent Brazil sales figures. [19] [20] Screen Digest wrote in a 1995 publication that the Master System's active installed user base in Western Europe peaked at 6.25 million in 1993. Those countries that peaked are France at 1.6 million, Germany at 700 thousand, the Netherlands at 200 thousand, Spain at 550 thousand, the United Kingdom at 1.35 million, and other Western European countries at 1.4 million. However, Belgium peaked in 1991 with 600 thousand, and Italy in 1992 with 400 thousand. Thus it is estimated approximately 6.8 million units were purchased in this part of Europe. [21] 1 million were sold in Japan as of 1986. [22] 2 million were sold in the United States. [23] 8 million were sold by Tectoy in Brazil as of 2016. [24]
    • Sega Genesis: 30.75 million sold by Sega worldwide as of March 1996, [25] [26] not including third-party sales. In addition, Tec Toy sold 3 million in Brazil, [27] [28] and Majesco Entertainment projected it would sell 1.5 million in the United States. [29]
    • Sega Saturn: 9.26 million units sold. [26]
    • Dreamcast: 9.13 million units sold. [26] [30] [31] [32]
  8. The TurboGrafx-16 was designed by Hudson and manufactured and marketed by NEC. [33] The TurboGrafx-16 managed to sell 10 million units. [34] The PC-FX sold less than 100,000 after a year on sale. [35]
  9. PlayStation: Sony corporate data reports 102.49 million units sold as of March 31, 2007. [36] Sony stopped divulging individual platform sales starting with 2012 fiscal reports, [37] [38] and continues to sporadically. [39] PlayStation 2: 155 million units sold as of March 31, 2012. [40] It was discontinued worldwide on January 4, 2013. [41] PlayStation 3: Sony corporate data reports 87.4 million sold as of March 31, 2017. [40] PS3 shipments to Japanese retailers, the last country Sony was selling units to, ceased by May. [42] PlayStation 4: Sony corporate data reports 96.8 million units sold as of March 31, 2019. [40]
  10. Xbox: More than 24 million units sold as of May 10, 2006. [43] Microsoft announced in October 2015 that individual platform sales in their fiscal reports will no longer be disclosed. The company shifted focus to the amount of active users on Xbox Live as its "primary metric of success". [44] Active Xbox Live subscribers reached 59 million by March 2018. [45] Xbox 360: Sold 84 million as of June 2014. [46] Production ended in 2016. [47] Xbox One: Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella unveiled at a December 3, 2014 shareholder presentation that 10 million units were sold. [48] Research firm IHS Markit estimated 39.1 million units were sold by the end of March 2018. [49] Niko Partners analyst Daniel Ahmad estimated 41 million units were sold by the end of 2018. [50]

Related Research Articles

Nintendo 64 1996 video game console

The Nintendo 64 (officially abbreviated as N64, model number: NUS, stylized as NINTENDO64) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America and Brazil, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, and September 1997 in France. It was the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until the Nintendo Switch in 2017. The Nintendo 64 was discontinued in mid-2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube, in 2001.

PlayStation (console) Fifth-generation and first home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment in 1992

The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, on 9 September 1995 in North America, on 29 September 1995 in Europe, and on 15 November 1995 in Australia, and was the first of the PlayStation lineup of video game consoles. As a fifth generation console, the PlayStation primarily competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn.

History of video games aspect of history

The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academic computer scientists began designing simple games and simulations as part of their research or just for fun. At M.I.T. in the 1960s, professors and students played games such as 3D tic-tac-toe and Moon Landing. These games were played on computer such as the IBM 1560, and moves were made by means of punch cards. Video gaming did not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when video arcade games and gaming consoles using joysticks, buttons, and other controllers, along with graphics on computer screens and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since the 1980s, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern popular culture in most parts of the world. One of the early games was Spacewar!, which was developed by computer scientists. Early arcade video games developed from 1972 to 1978. During the 1970s, the first generation of home consoles emerged, including the popular game Pong and various "clones". The 1970s was also the era of mainframe computer games. The golden age of arcade video games was from 1978 to 1982. Video arcades with large, graphics-decorated coin-operated machines were common at malls and popular, affordable home consoles such as the Atari 2600 and Intellivision enabled people to play games on their home TVs. During the 1980s, gaming computers, early online gaming and handheld LCD games emerged; this era was affected by the video game crash of 1983. From 1976 to 1992, the second generation of video consoles emerged.

The video game crash of 1983 was a large-scale recession in the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985, primarily in America. The crash was attributed to several factors, including market saturation in the number of game consoles and available games, and waning interest in console games in favor of personal computers. Revenues peaked at around $3.2 billion in 1983, then fell to around $100 million by 1985. The crash was a serious event which abruptly ended what is retrospectively considered the second generation of console video gaming in North America.

Master System Video game console

The Sega Master System (SMS) is a third-generation 8-bit home video game console manufactured by Sega. It was originally a remodeled export version of the Sega Mark III, the third iteration of the SG-1000 series of consoles, which was released in Japan in 1985 and featured enhanced graphical capabilities over its predecessors. The Master System launched in North America in 1986, followed by Europe in 1987, and Brazil in 1989. A Japanese version of the Master System was also launched in 1987, which features a few enhancements over the export models : a built-in FM audio chip, a rapid-fire switch, and a dedicated port for the 3D glasses. A cost-reduced model known as the Master System II was released in 1990 in North America and Europe.

This is a list of all video game lists on Wikipedia, sorted by varying classifications.

The fifth-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming consoles dating from approximately October 1993 to May 2002. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the PlayStation (PS), followed by the Nintendo 64 (N64), and then the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation also had a redesigned version, the PSOne, which was launched in July 2000.

Homebrew (video games)

Homebrew is a term frequently applied to video games or other software produced by consumers to target proprietary hardware platforms that are not typically user-programmable or that use proprietary storage methods. This can include games developed with official development kits, such as Net Yaroze, Linux for PlayStation 2 or Microsoft XNA. A game written by a non-professional developer for a system intended to be consumer-programmable, like the Commodore 64, is simply called hobbyist.

A dedicated console is a video game console that is limited to one or more built-in video game or games, and is not equipped for additional games that are distributed via ROM cartridges, discs, downloads or other digital media. Dedicated consoles were very popular in the first generation of video game consoles until they were gradually replaced by second-generation video game consoles that used ROM cartridges.

In the history of video games, the second-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld video game consoles available from 1976 to 1992. Notable platforms of the second generation include the Fairchild Channel F, Atari 2600, Intellivision, Odyssey², and ColecoVision. The generation began in November 1976 with the release of the Fairchild Channel F. This was followed by the Atari 2600 in 1977, Magnavox Odyssey² in 1978, Intellivision in 1980 and then the Emerson Arcadia 2001, ColecoVision, Atari 5200, and Vectrex, all in 1982. By the end of the era, there were over 15 different consoles. It coincided with, and was partly fueled by, the golden age of arcade video games. This peak era of popularity and innovation for the medium resulted in many games for second generation home consoles being ports of arcade games. Space Invaders, the first arcade game to be ported, was released in 1980 for the Atari 2600. Coleco packaged Nintendo's Donkey Kong with the ColecoVision when it was released on August 1982.

In the history of video games, the first-generation era refers to the computer game and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available from 1972 to 1983. Notable consoles of the first generation included the Odyssey series released from 1972 to 1978, the Atari Home Pong released in 1975, the Coleco Telstar series released from 1976 to 1978 and the Color TV-Game series released from 1977 to 1980. The generation ended with the Computer TV-Game in 1980 but many manufacturers had left the market prior to this due to the video game crash of 1977 and the start of the second generation.

The history of Nintendo traces back to 1889, when it was founded to produce handmade hanafuda. Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. It eventually became one of the most prominent figures in today's video game industry, being the world's largest video game company by revenue.

ROM cartridge

A ROM cartridge, usually referred to simply as a cartridge or cart, is a removable memory card containing ROM designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer, video game console or, to a lesser extent, electronic musical instruments. ROM cartridges can be used to load software such as video games or other application programs.

Nintendo video game consoles Wikimedia list article

The Japanese multinational consumer electronics company Nintendo has developed seven home video game consoles and multiple portable consoles for use with external media, as well as dedicated consoles and other hardware for their consoles. As of September 30, 2015, Nintendo has sold over 722.22 million hardware units.

References

  1. Ellis, David (2004). "Dedicated Consoles". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. pp. 33–36. ISBN   0-375-72038-3.
  2. Kent, Steven (2001). "Strange Bedfellows". Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  3. "AtGames to Launch Atari Flashback 4 to Celebrate Atari's 40th Anniversary!" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
  4. Schrage, Michael (May 22, 1984). "Atari Introduces Game In Attempt for Survival" . The Washington Post : C3. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved July 29, 2009. The company has stopped producing its 5200 SuperSystem games player, more than 1 million of which were sold.
  5. Axlon To Develop New Video Games For Atari (Press Release), Atari (June 1, 1988)
  6. "Editorial: Ever-Changing Atari Marketplace". Atarimagazines.com. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  7. Orlando, Greg (May 15, 2007). "Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming". Wired News . Condé Nast Publications. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved March 23, 2008.
  8. 1 2 Kleinfield, N. R. (July 21, 1985). "Coleco Moves Out Of The Cabbage Patch". The New York Times . p. F4. Retrieved January 13, 2014. Coleco is now debating whether to withdraw from electronics altogether. Colecovision still sells, but it is a shadow of its former self.
  9. Mehegan, David (May 8, 1988). "Putting Coleco Industries Back Together". The Boston Globe . p. A1. ISSN   0743-1791. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2014. When the game [Telstar] crashed hard, earnings fell 50 percent in 1977 and the company lost $22 million in 1978, barely skirting bankruptcy after Handel -- then chief financial officer -- found new credit and mollified angry creditors after months of tough negotiation.
  10. "Coleco Industries sales report" (Press release). PR Newswire. April 17, 1984. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 'First quarter sales of ColecoVision were substantial, although much less that[ sic ] those for the year ago quarter,' Greenberg said in a prepared statement. He said the company has sold 2 million ColecoVision games since its introduction in 1982.
  11. "Coleco's Net In Sharp Rise". The New York Times . Associated Press. October 19, 1985. p. 45. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 13, 2014. Thursday, Coleco said the entire inventory of its troubled Adam personal computer has been sold, along with much of its Colecovision inventory. The company's chairman, Arnold Greenberg, said Coleco expects no more charges against earnings from the two discontinued products.
  12. 1 2 3 "Dedicated Video Game Sales Units". Nintendo. January 31, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  13. Sheff, David; Eddy, Andy (1999), Game Over: How Nintendo Conquered the World , GamePress, p.  27, ISBN   978-0-9669617-0-6, Nintendo entered the home market in Japan with the dramatic unveiling of Color TV Game 6, which played six versions of light tennis. It was followed by a more powerful sequel, Color TV Game 15. A million units of each were sold. The engineering team also came up with systems that played a more complex game, called "Blockbuster," as well as a racing game. Half a million units of these were sold.
  14. "Historical Data: Consolidated Sales Transition by Region" (xlsx). Nintendo. April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  15. "Magnavox Odyssey, the first video game system". Pong-Story. June 27, 1972. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  16. "Top 25 Video Game Consoles of All Time (Magnavox Odyssey 2)". IGN. Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  17. Snow, Blake (July 30, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro . p. 2. Archived from the original on May 8, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  18. "Intellivision: Intelligent Television". GameSpy. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  19. Buchanan, Levi (March 20, 2009). "Genesis vs. SNES: By the Numbers". IGN. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Nintendo moved 49.1 million Super NES consoles over the course of the generation and beyond, far surpassing the Genesis, which sold a still impressive 29 million units. [...] The Master System sold an anemic 13 million to the NES count of 62 million.
  20. Forster, Winnie (2005). The Encyclopedia of Game.Machines: Consoles, Handhelds, and Home Computers 1972–2005. Magdalena Gniatczynska. p. 139. ISBN   3-00-015359-4.
  21. "Sega Consoles: Active installed base estimates". Screen Digest. March 1995: 60. (cf. here , here , and here )
  22. Nihon Kōgyō Shinbunsha (1986). "Amusement". Business Japan. Nihon Kogyo Shimbun. 31 (7–12): 89. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  23. Sheff & Eddy 1999, p.  349: "Atari sold a handful of its 5200s and 7800s, and Sega sold a total of 2 million Master Systems."
  24. Azevedo, Théo (May 12, 2016). "Console em produção há mais tempo, Master System já vendeu 8 mi no Brasil" (in Portuguese). Universo Online . Retrieved May 13, 2016. Comercializado no Brasil desde setembro de 1989, o saudoso Master System já vendeu mais de 8 milhões de unidades no país, segundo a Tectoy.
  25. "Yearly market report". Famitsu Weekly (in Japanese) (392): 8. June 21, 1996.
  26. 1 2 3 Ernkvist, Mirko (August 21, 2012). Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy (eds.). The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN   978-1-136-25824-4 . Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  27. Azevedo, Théo (July 30, 2012). "Vinte anos depois, Master System e Mega Drive vendem 150 mil unidades por ano no Brasil" (in Portuguese). UOL . Retrieved October 18, 2012. Base instalada: 5 milhões de Master System; 3 milhões de Mega Drive
  28. Sponsel, Sebastian (November 16, 2015). "Interview: Stefano Arnhold (Tectoy)". Sega-16. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  29. "Sega farms out Genesis". Consumer Electronics. March 2, 1998. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
  30. "Sega Corporation Annual Report 2001" (PDF). Sega Corporation. August 1, 2001. p. 14. Retrieved November 2, 2015. A total of 3.39 million hardware units and 23.87 million software units were sold worldwide during fiscal 2001, for respective totals of 8.20 million units and 51.63 million units since Dreamcast was first brought to market.
  31. "Revisions to Annual Results Forecasts" (PDF). Sega Corporation. October 23, 2001. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-26. Retrieved November 2, 2015. Regarding sales of Dreamcast hardware from inventory resulting from the withdrawal from Dreamcast production [...] the Company exceeded initial targets with domestic sales of 130,000 units and U.S. sales of 530,000 units for the first half. Consequently, at the end of the half, Dreamcast inventories totaled 40,000 units domestically and 230,000 units for the United States, and we anticipate being able to sell all remaining units by the holiday season as initially planned.
  32. "Sega Corporation Annual Report 2002" (PDF). Sega Corporation. July 1, 2002. p. 6. Retrieved November 2, 2015. The year ended March 31, 2002 was a turning point for Sega. We exited the hardware business, ceasing production of Dreamcast and selling through the remaining inventory.
  33. Nutt, Christian. "Stalled engine: The TurboGrafx-16 turns 25". Gamasutra . Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  34. Phillips, Tom (April 11, 2012). "SNES celebrates 20th birthday in UK". Eurogamer . Archived from the original on April 13, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
  35. Life, Nintendo (2015-05-09). "Feature: What NEC And Hudson Did Next: The Disasterous Story Of The PC-FX". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  36. "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  37. "Business Development: Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  38. "Business Development: Unit Sales of Hardware(FY2013-)". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  39. Makuch, Eddie (February 6, 2014). "PS4 helps Sony's game division rise, but PS3 sales see "significant decrease"". GameSpot . Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  40. 1 2 3 "SIE Business Development". Sony Computer Entertainment. April 26, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  41. Stuart, Keith (January 4, 2013). "PlayStation 2 manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian . Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  42. Ackerman, Dan (May 30, 2017). "At long last, end of the line for the Sony PlayStation 3". CNET . Archived from the original on March 12, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  43. "Gamers Catch Their Breath as Xbox 360 and Xbox Live Reinvent Next-Generation Gaming". Xbox.com. May 10, 2006. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
  44. Futter, Mike (October 22, 2015). "[Update] Microsoft Will Focus Primarily On Xbox Live Usership, Not Console Shipments". Game Informer . Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  45. Crecente, Brian (May 3, 2018). "Microsoft Explains Why it Isn't Releasing Xbox One Sales Numbers Anymore". Variety . Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  46. Makuch, Eddie (June 9, 2014). "E3 2014: $399 Xbox One Out Now, Xbox 360 Sales Rise to 84 million". GameSpot . Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  47. Porter, Matt (April 20, 2016). "Xbox 360 Production Has Ended". IGN . Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  48. "Microsoft Annual Meeting of Shareholders". Microsoft. December 3, 2014. Archived from the original on November 30, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2015. Finally, our gaming business is thriving with the Xbox One hitting 10 million units sold. I am thrilled to welcome Mojang and Minecraft community to Microsoft.
  49. "E3: Xbox One chief teases Halo Infinite video game". BBC. June 10, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  50. Sirani, Jordan (April 17, 2019). "Top 15 Best-Selling Video Game Consoles of All Time". IGN. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  51. "The First Video Game". Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
  52. Baer, Ralph H. (2005). Videogames: In The Beginning. Rolenta Press. pp. 52–59. ISBN   0-9643848-1-7.
  53. "How Video Games Invaded the Home TV Set". Ralph H. Baer Consultants. Retrieved 2014-10-15.
  54. "Master System Console in Brazil". April 29, 2013. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  55. "Hirai targets 150 million PS3 sales". GamesIndustry.biz. 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
  56. "Hirai wants PS3 to beat PS2". Eurogamer . 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
  57. "What are the types of removable storage media is supported by the PlayStation 3 computer entertainment system?". Sony. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
  58. "Next Gen Consoles: Too much connectivity – Blog by flavi0 – IGN". IGN.
  59. "Why you should wait on a Wii U (review) – GamesBeat – Games – by Rus McLaughlin". VentureBeat.
  60. "Next Gen Xbox Reveal Confirmed for May 21". Den of Geek!. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
  61. "Smartphone Users Worldwide Will Total 1.75 Billion in 2014". emarketer.com.
  62. "New Two due". GamesRadar+.
  63. "Valve says no Steam Machines until 2015, fingers crossed". theregister.co.uk.
  64. "Sony sells 1 million PlayStation 4 units in first 24 hours". Reuters. November 17, 2013.
  65. "PS4 Sales Surpass 7 Million Globally". PlayStation.Blog.
  66. Thier, Dave (17 April 2014). "Microsoft Breaks Silence On Xbox One Sales...Sort Of". Forbes.
  67. "World". NST Online. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31.
  68. "Sony's new PlayStation 4 Pro can't play 4K Blu-rays". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  69. "Sony announces PlayStation 4 Pro with 4K HDR gaming for $399". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  70. "The PlayStation 4 Pro vs. the original PS4: What's changed?". Engadget. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  71. Souppouris, Aaron (June 14, 2016). "It's never been harder to buy an Xbox One". Engadget . Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  72. Parfitt, Ben (June 15, 2016). "4K won't be mandatory for Xbox Scorpio games". MCV . Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  73. Ashcraft, Brian (January 31, 2017). "Wii U Production Has Officially Ended For Japan [Update]". Kotaku. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  74. "Want to Buy the Nintendo Switch In India? You Need to Read This First". Gadgets 360. January 20, 2017. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.

Further reading