PlayStation (console)

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Playstation logo colour.svg
PlayStation logo wordmark 1994to2009.svg
Top: The "coloured" PlayStation logo
Middle: The original model with the DualShock controller
Bottom: The smaller and redesigned PS one unit
Developer Sony Computer Entertainment
Manufacturer Sony
Product family PlayStation
Type Home video game console
Generation Fifth generation
Release datePlayStation
  • JP: 3 December 1994 (3 December 1994) [1]
  • NA: 9 September 1995 (9 September 1995) [2]
  • EU: 29 September 1995 (29 September 1995) [3]
  • AU: 15 November 1995 (15 November 1995) [4]
PS one
  • JP: 7 July 2000 (7 July 2000)
  • NA: 19 September 2000 (19 September 2000)
  • EU: 29 September 2000 (29 September 2000)
Discontinued23 March 2006 [5] [6]
Units sold102.49 million [5]
Media CD-ROM
CPU R3000 @ 33.8688 MHz
Memory2 MB RAM, 1 MB VRAM
Storage Memory card
Sound16-bit, 24 channel ADPCM
Controller input PlayStation Controller, Dual Analog Controller, DualShock
Connectivity PlayStation Link Cable
Best-selling game Gran Turismo , 10.85 million shipped [7] [8]
Successor PlayStation 2

The PlayStation [note 1] (officially abbreviated to PS, and commonly known as the PS1 or its codename, PSX) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The console was released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, [1] 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, and 15 November 1995 in Australia. The console was the first of the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles. It primarily competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles.

A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles, in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles.

1994 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Super Metroid, Donkey Kong Country and Sonic & Knuckles.

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.


The PlayStation is the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. [9] In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2.

PlayStation 2 sixth-generation and second home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment

The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the original PlayStation console and is the second iteration in the PlayStation lineup of consoles. It was released in 2000 and competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox in the sixth generation of video game consoles.

The PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in late 2006 to early 2007 shortly after it was officially discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 11 years earlier. Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over 11 years after it had been released, and less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. [6]

Backward compatibility a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing. Backward compatibility is sometimes also called downward compatibility.

The DualShock is a line of gamepads with vibration-feedback and analog controls developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment for the PlayStation family of systems. The DualShock was introduced in Japan in late 1997 and launched in the North American market in May 1998. First introduced as a secondary peripheral for the original PlayStation, an updated version of the PlayStation console included the controller. Sony subsequently phased out the digital controller that was originally included with the console, as well as the Sony Dual Analog Controller. As of 2008, over 28 million DualShock controllers have been sold under the brand's name, excluding bundled controllers.

PlayStation 3 seventh-generation and third home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, and is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles. It was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, and March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed mainly against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles.

On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic, to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console. The new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released on the original console, and was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994. [10]

PlayStation Classic Dedicated video game console

The PlayStation Classic is a dedicated video game console by Sony Interactive Entertainment that emulates games originally released on its 1994 PlayStation console. It was announced in September 2018 at the Tokyo Game Show, and released on December 3, 2018, the 24th anniversary of the release of the original. The console has been compared to competitor Nintendo's prior releases of the NES and Super NES Classic Edition mini consoles.



An original PlayStation Controller (top). This model was later replaced by the Dual Analog in 1997, and then the DualShock (bottom) that same year.

The inception of what would become the released PlayStation dates back to 1986 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. [11] Nintendo had already produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, and wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Famicom. [12] [13] Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". [14] A contract was signed, and work began. [12] Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would later be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", [15] was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities. [16]

Nintendo Japanese video game company

Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, and Pokémon.

Family Computer Disk System add-on for the NES video game console

The Family Computer Disk System is a peripheral for Nintendo's Family Computer home video game console, released only in Japan on February 21, 1986. It uses proprietary floppy disks called "Disk Cards" for data storage. Through its entire production span, 1986–2003, 4.44 million units were sold. Its name is sometimes shortened as the Famicom Disk System or simply the Disk System, and abbreviated as the FDS or FCD.

CD-ROM pre-pressed compact disc

A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.e. it is a type of read-only memory.

Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was originally working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge (while still employed by Sony). [17] It was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip, and in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, and it was not until Nintendo cancelled the project that Sony decided to develop its own console. [18]

Sony also planned to develop a Super NES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super NES cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design. This was also to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market. [19] [20]

The product, dubbed the "Play Station" was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show (CES). [21] However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realised that the earlier agreement essentially handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was totally unacceptable and he secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. [21] Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, and Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips' global headquarters in the Netherlands and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines. [22]

After the collapse of the joint-Nintendo project, Sony briefly considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. The Sega CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that’s a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware. They don’t know how to make software either. Why would we want to do this?". [23] This prompted Sony into halting their research, but ultimately the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the Super Famicom. [23] As a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was originally christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. [22] The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed. However, it is theorised that only 200 or so of these machines were ever produced. [24]

PlayStation Memory Card. PSX-Memory-Card.jpg
PlayStation Memory Card.

By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, and the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and software. As part of this process the SNES cartridge port was dropped and the space between the names "Play Station" was removed becoming "PlayStation", thereby ending Nintendo's involvement with the project. [22] According to a Sony engineer, all work on the console from the time of the partnership with Nintendo was eventually scrapped, and the PlayStation design was restarted from scratch. [25] Sony's North American division, known as Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA), [26] originally planned to market the new console under the alternative branding "PSX" following the negative feedback regarding "PlayStation" in focus group studies. Early advertising prior to the console's launch in North America referenced PSX, but the term was scrapped before launch. [27] [28]

According to SCE's producer Ryoji Akagawa and chairman Shigeo Maruyama, there was uncertainty over whether the console should primarily focus on 2D sprite graphics or 3D polygon graphics. It was only after witnessing the success of Sega's Virtua Fighter in Japanese arcades that "the direction of the PlayStation became instantly clear" and 3D polygon graphics became the console's primary focus. [29]

Unlike Sega, Sony had no arcade division from which to draw console-selling ports, or any in-house development to speak of. To solve this problem, Sony acquired studios such as Psygnosis and signed exclusivity deals with hot arcade publishers Namco and Williams Entertainment. [30]

Industry hype for the console spread quickly, and in early 1994 GamePro reported that "many video game companies [feel] that in the near future, the video game platforms to contend with will be from Nintendo, Sega... and Sony." [emphasis in original] [31]


Sony released the PlayStation in Japan on 3 December 1994, [32] North America on 9 September 1995, [2] Europe on 29 September 1995, [3] and Oceania on 15 November 1995. [4] In Japan, the console was immediately successful, selling over 2 million units after six months on the market. [33] In the US, the console sold 800,000 units by the end of 1995, giving the PlayStation a commanding lead over the other fifth generation consoles, [note 2] [34] though the Super NES and Sega Genesis from the fourth still outsold it. [35] At a price of US$299, [2] the console enjoyed a very successful launch, with titles of almost every genre, including Battle Arena Toshinden, Warhawk , Air Combat, Philosoma , Ridge Racer and Rayman . This was despite not including a pack-in game, like many other gaming consoles of the time had. [36] In the months following launch, Sony reported strong software sales, with an attach rate of 4:1. [37]

The PlayStation was praised by multiple groups. For example, Bill Gates, then Microsoft chairman, preferred Sony's console to the competition, saying "Our game designer likes the Sony machine." [38] [ verification needed ] Microsoft would later compete with Sony with its Xbox console. In a special Game Machine Cross Review in May 1995, Famicom Tsūshin would score the PlayStation console a 19 out of 40. [39] The staff of Next Generation reviewed the PlayStation a few weeks after its North American launch, where they commented that, while the CPU is "fairly average", the supplementary custom hardware, such as the GPU and sound processor, is stunningly powerful. They praised the PlayStation’s focus on 3D, and complemented on the comfort of its controller and the convenience of its memory cards. Giving the system 4 1/2 out of 5 stars, they concluded, "To succeed in this extremely cut-throat market, you need a combination of great hardware, great games, and great marketing. Whether by skill, luck, or just deep pockets, Sony has scored three out of three in the first salvo of this war." [32]

The console was marketed with advertising slogans such as, "Live in your world. Play in ours," stylised as, "LIVE IN Y PlayStationCircle.svg UR W PlayStationX.svg RLD. PL PlayStationTriangle.svg Y IN PlayStationSquare.svg URS,"[ citation needed ] and "You Are Not Ready" or "U R NOT E." [40] Regarding the second one, Sony's CCO Lee Clow explained that "it's the ultimate challenge. Gamers love to respond to that tag line and say 'Bullshit. Let me show you how ready I am.'" [41]

Market success

The PlayStation's success was partially due to Sony's approach to third party developers. While Sega and Nintendo took an isolationist approach, focusing primarily on first party development while generally ignoring the concerns of third party developers, Sony streamlined game production by providing a range of online programming libraries that were constantly updated. They also organised third party technical support teams, and in some cases gave direct development support to third parties. [42] At the close of 1996, approximately 400 games were being developed for the PlayStation, compared to approximately 200 and 60 games being developed for the Saturn and the Nintendo 64 respectively. [43]

While the Sega Saturn was marketed towards 18 to 34 year-olds, the PlayStation was marketed roughly, but not exclusively, towards 12 to 24 year-olds. [44] Both Sony and Sega reasoned that because younger players typically look up to older, more experienced players, advertising targeted at teens and adults would draw them in too. Additionally, Sony found that adults react best to advertising geared towards teenagers; according to Lee Clow, "One of the first things we resolved early on was that everyone is 17 when they play video games. The young people look up to the best gamer who is usually a little older and more practiced and talented. Then there are people who start working and grow up, but when they go into their room and sit down with their video games, they're regressing and becoming 17 again." [45] Initially, PlayStation demographics were skewed towards adults, but the audience broadened after the first price drop. [46]

In 1996, Sony expanded their CD production facilities in Springfield, Oregon, due to the high demand for PlayStation games. This increased their monthly output from 4 million discs to 6.5 million discs. [47] This was necessary because PlayStation sales were running at twice the rate of Saturn sales, and dramatically increased their lead when both the PlayStation and Saturn dropped in price to $199 in May; this was largely because some retailers (such as KB Toys) did not stock the Saturn. [48] The PlayStation also outsold the Saturn at a similar ratio in Europe during 1996, [49] with an accumulated 2.2 million consoles sold in the region by the end of the year. [50] Despite the launch of the Nintendo 64, PlayStation hardware and software sales figures only continued to increase. [51]

However, the PlayStation took longer to achieve dominance in Japan. Sony Computer Entertainment president Teruhisa Tokunaka stated that, even after the PlayStation and Saturn had been on the market for nearly two years, the competition between them was still "very close", and that neither console had lead in sales for any meaningful length of time. [46]


In addition to playing games, select PlayStation models are equipped to play audio CDs; further, Asian model SCPH-5903 can also play Video CDs. [52] Like most CD players, the PlayStation can play songs in a programmed order, shuffle the playback order of the disc and repeat one song or the entire disc. Later PlayStation models utilise a music visualisation function called SoundScope. [53] This function, as well as a memory card manager, is accessed by starting the console without either inserting a game or closing the CD tray, thereby accessing a GUI for the PlayStation BIOS. [19] [54]

The GUI for the PS one and PlayStation differ depending on the firmware version: the original PlayStation GUI had a dark blue background with rainbow graffiti used as buttons, while the early PAL PlayStation and PS one GUI had a grey blocked background with 2 icons in the middle (these were different on each version). [55] If the CD lid is closed with a game inside at any time while in the menu, the game will start. [53] [54]

Software library

As of 30 June 2007, 7,918 software titles had been released worldwide for the PlayStation (counting games released in multiple regions as separate titles). [56] As of 31 March 2007, the cumulative software shipment was at 962 million units. [57] FIFA Football 2005 was the last game released for the system in the United States. However, several reprinted and remastered editions were released in later years. On 26 July 2007, Konami released Metal Gear Solid: The Essential Collection, which contained Metal Gear Solid in the original PlayStation format. In 2011, Capcom released the Resident Evil 15th Anniversary Collection, and in 2012, Square Enix released the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary Ultimate Box in Japan containing all of the Final Fantasy titles, a majority of which were in the original PlayStation format. [58] [59]

Initially, in the United States, PlayStation games were packaged in long cardboard boxes, similar to non-Japanese 3DO and Saturn games. Sony later switched to the jewel case format typically used for audio CDs and Japanese video games, as this format took up less retailer shelf space (which was at a premium due to the large number of PlayStation games being released), and focus testing showed that most consumers preferred this format. [60]

Regional variants

The OK and Cancel buttons in most of the Japanese PlayStation games are reversed in their North American and European releases. In Japan, the PlayStationCircle.svg button (maru, right) is used as OK, while the PlayStationX.svg button (batsu, wrong) is used as Cancel. North American and European releases have the PlayStationX.svg button or the PlayStationCircle.svg buttons as OK, while either the PlayStationSquare.svg or the PlayStationTriangle.svg button are used as Cancel (some titles, like Xenogears, use the PlayStationCircle.svg button for cancelling actions and selections, along with the PlayStation 2 system browser and the XrossMedia Bar on the PlayStation 3 and the PSP). [22] [ not in citation given ] However, a few games, such as Square's Vagrant Story , Final Fantasy VII (which uses the PlayStationX.svg button as cancel) and Final Fantasy Tactics , Namco's Ridge Racer Type 4 , and Konami's Metal Gear Solid , use the Japanese button layout worldwide. Other games, like the Japanese version of Gran Turismo, use controls that are similar to North American games. These Japanese button layouts also apply to future PlayStation consoles. This is because in the early years Sony America (SCEA), [61] Sony Europe (SCEE), and Sony Japan (SCEJ) had different development and testing documents (TRCs) for their respective territories. [62]


In regard to the PlayStation’s hardware, its designer Ken Kutaragi stated, "The technology came from an original idea to create a synthesizer for graphics, something that takes a basic graphic and then adds various effects to it quickly and easily." [63]

The PlayStation utilises a proprietary video compression unit called MDEC, which is integrated into the CPU, allowing for the presentation of full motion video at a higher quality than other consoles of its generation. [64]

Hardware problems

With the early PlayStation units, particularly early 1000 models, many gamers experience skipping full-motion video or physical "ticking" noises coming from their units. The problem seemingly comes from poorly placed vents leading to overheating in some environments. This causes the plastic mouldings inside the console to warp slightly and create knock-on effects with the laser assembly. The solution is to sit the console on a surface which dissipates heat efficiently in a well vented area or raise the unit up slightly from its resting surface. [65] Sony representatives also recommended unplugging the PlayStation when it is not in use, as the system draws in a small amount of power (and therefore heat) even when turned off. [66]

Comparison of old and new pick-ups PlayStation Pickup.jpg
Comparison of old and new pick-ups

The first batch of PlayStations use a KSM-440AAM laser unit, whose case and movable parts are all built out of plastic. Over time, the plastic lens sled rail wears out—usually unevenly—due to friction. The placement of the laser unit close to the power supply accelerates wear, due to the additional heat, which makes the plastic more vulnerable to friction. Eventually, one side of the lens sled will become so worn that the laser can tilt, no longer pointing directly at the CD; after this, games will no longer load, due to data read errors. One common fix is turning the PlayStation upside down, which makes the lens sled rest on the unworn top rails. Sony eventually fixed the problem by making the sled out of die-cast metal and placing the laser unit further away from the power supply on later PlayStation models. [65] [67]

The PlayStation does not produce a proper signal on several older models of televisions (due to an engineering oversight) causing the display to flicker or bounce around the screen. Sony decided not to change the console design, since only a small percentage of PlayStation owners used such televisions, and instead gave consumers the option of sending their PlayStation unit to a Sony service centre to have an official modchip installed, allowing it to play on older televisions. [68]

Copy protection

Prior to the PlayStation, reproducing copyrighted material for game consoles was restricted to either enthusiasts with exceptional technical ability, or people who had access to CD manufacturers. However, due to the increased availability of cheap CD burners at this time, Sony modified the shape of the first portion of the data track on PlayStation formatted discs: A normal data track follows a smooth spiral path around a disc, whereas the modified portion follows a wavy spiral path. [69] As a result, any discs that did not contain this modification, such as CD-R copies or standard pirated discs, would not boot on the console. [70] [71] This modified portion of the data path is also used to encode the disc "region"; for example, a disc distributed in the NTSC-U/C region would encode the letters "SCEA"; in Europe, "SCEE"; in Japan, "SCEI". This served as copy protection as well as region-locking.

The installation of an unofficial modchip allowed the PlayStation to play CD-R copies of games. It also allowed the console to play games from any region, as the modchip could inject the data for any region into the system. Since there was a multitude of electronic parts on the market, by the end of the system's life cycle, anyone with minimal soldering experience could perform these modifications. This created a wave of games developed without official approval using free, official tools, such as the Net Yaroze, as well as unofficial tools, and the reproduction of original discs. [70] With the introduction of such devices the console became very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers alike, as well as those who wished to protect the lifespan of their lawful, original discs. [72] In 1996 Sony filed lawsuits against many companies which advertised such modchips and pirated games, under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. [73]

Some companies (notably Datel) eventually produced discs that booted on unmodified retail units while using special equipment. [74]


Instead of a D-pad, which is used for directional movement in nearly every other console then on the market, the PlayStation controller uses four directional buttons. [75]


Peripherals released for the PlayStation include memory cards, [76] the PlayStation Mouse, [77] the PlayStation Analog Joystick, [78] the PlayStation Link Cable, [76] the Multiplayer Adapter (a four-player multitap), [76] the Memory Drive (a disk drive for 3.5 inch floppy disks), [79] the GunCon (a light gun), and the Glasstron (a monoscopic head-mounted display). [80]

Technical specifications

The GPU CXD8561CQ (SCPH-9000 version) CXD8561CQ 02.JPG
The GPU CXD8561CQ (SCPH-9000 version)


A comparison of the SCPH-1001 (bottom), SCPH-5001 (middle) and SCPH-9001 (top) models. The SCPH-900x revision saw the removal of the Parallel I/O port while the RCA jacks were removed in the SCPH-500x revision. PlayStation-Model-Backs.jpg
A comparison of the SCPH-1001 (bottom), SCPH-5001 (middle) and SCPH-9001 (top) models. The SCPH-900x revision saw the removal of the Parallel I/O port while the RCA jacks were removed in the SCPH-500x revision.

The PlayStation went through a number of variants during its production run. From an external perspective, the most notable change between variants was the reduction in the number of connectors. The RCA jacks were removed in the first revision, and the Parallel I/O port was removed in the final revision. [87]

Sony marketed a development kit for hobbyists and developers also known as the Net Yaroze, which launched in June 1996 in Japan [88] and in 1997 in other countries. Sold only through an ordering service, the development console came with the necessary documentation and software to program PlayStation games and applications. [89]

PS one

On 7 July 2000, Sony released the PS one, [90] a smaller, redesigned version of the original PlayStation. [90] [91] It was the highest-selling console through the end of the year, outselling all other consoles - including Sony's own PlayStation 2. [91] A total of 28.15 million PS one units had been sold by the time it was discontinued in March 2006. [5] [6] A version of the PS one included a 5-inch (130 mm) LCD screen, referred to as the "Combo pack". [92]

PlayStation Classic

On 19 September 2018, Sony announced the PlayStation Classic. It was released on 3 December 2018. It featured 20 pre-installed video games such as Tekken 3, Final Fantasy VII, Jumping Flash, Wild Arms and Ridge Racer Type 4. It also features two replicas of the wired PlayStation controllers without analog sticks. It also features an HDMI output. The maximum resolution is 720p. It is 45% smaller than the original console.


Sony's successor to the PlayStation is the PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with its predecessor in that it can play almost every original PlayStation game.

The third generation of the PlayStation, the PlayStation 3, was launched on 11 November 2006 in Japan, 17 November 2006 in North America, and 23 March 2007 in Europe. The backward compatibility of the PlayStation 3 differs by model. The newer PlayStation 3 models, like the Slim, are only backwards compatible with original PlayStation games; however, the older 60 GB model (the first PS3 model released) will play PlayStation and PlayStation 2 games through either having the Emotion Engine or Reality Synthesizer and emulating one or the other. [93] [94] While PlayStation 3 games are not region-locked, PlayStation and PlayStation 2 games are only playable on PlayStation 3 consoles from the same region.

A third successor, the PlayStation 4, was announced by Sony on 20 February 2013 and was released in the US on 15 November, Europe on 29 November 2013, and Japan and Asia on 22 February 2014. [95] However, it is backwards compatible with select PS3 Games through a download service dubbed PlayStation Now. [96] [97]

The PlayStation Portable, or PSP, is a handheld game console first released in late 2004. The PSP is capable of playing PlayStation games downloaded via Sony's online store, and can also play any PlayStation game by using the PlayStation 3's remote play feature while the disc is in the PlayStation 3. [98] [99] [100]

The successor to the PSP, the PlayStation Vita, was introduced as a part of the 8th generation of video game consoles, and is backwards compatible with original PSP as well as original PlayStation games downloaded from the PlayStation Store. [101] [102]


Sony Computer Entertainment was an upstart in the video game industry in late 1994, as the early 1990s were dominated by Nintendo and Sega. Nintendo had been the clear leader in the video game industry since the introduction of the NES in 1985 and the Nintendo 64 was initially expected to maintain this position for Nintendo. The PlayStation's target audience included 15- to 17-year-olds who were not the primary focus of Nintendo, and 18- to 29-year-olds, [103] who represented the first generation to grow up playing video games. By the late 1990s, Sony became a highly regarded console brand due to the PlayStation, with a significant lead over second-place Nintendo, while Sega was relegated to a distant third. [104]

The PlayStation's lead in installed base and developer support paved the way for the success of the next-generation PlayStation 2, [104] which overcame an early launch from the Sega Dreamcast and then fended off competition from the Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube. [105] [106] [107]

CD format

The success of the PlayStation is widely believed to have influenced the demise of the cartridge-based home console. While not the first system to utilise an optical disc format, it is the first highly successful one, and ended up going head-to-head with the last major home console for over two decades to rely on proprietary cartridges—the Nintendo 64. [106] Sony Computer Entertainment president Teruhisa Tokunaka remarked in 1996:

Choosing CD-ROM is one of the most important decisions that we made. As I'm sure you understand, PlayStation could just as easily have worked with masked ROM [cartridges]. The 3D engine and everything - the whole PlayStation format - is independent of the media. But for various reasons (including the economies for the consumer, the ease of the manufacturing, inventory control for the trade, and also the software publishers) we deduced that CD-ROM would be the best media for PlayStation. [46]

Nintendo was very public about its scepticism toward using CD's and DVDs to store games, citing longer load times and durability issues. [108] [ not in citation given ] It was widely speculated that the company was even more concerned with the proprietary cartridge format's ability to help enforce copy protection, given its substantial reliance on licensing and exclusive titles for its revenue. [109] Piracy was rampant on the PlayStation due to the relative ease of the installation of a modchip allowing the PlayStation to play games region free or recorded on a regular CD-R making the console very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers. [54]

The increasing complexity of games (in content, graphics, and sound) pushed cartridges to their storage limits and this gradually turned off some third-party developers. Part of the CD format's appeal to publishers was that they could be produced at a significantly lower cost and offered more production flexibility to meet demand. [106] As a result, some third-party developers switched to the PlayStation, such as Squaresoft, whose Final Fantasy VII , and Enix (later merged with Squaresoft create Square Enix), whose Dragon Quest VII titles were initially pre-planned for the N64; [110] while some who remained released fewer games to the Nintendo 64 (Konami, releasing only thirteen N64 games but over fifty on the PlayStation). While new games were coming out rapidly for the PlayStation, new Nintendo 64 game releases were less frequent and that system's biggest successes were developed by either Nintendo itself or by second-parties, such as Rare. [109] The lower production costs also allowed publishers an additional source of profit: budget-priced reissues of titles which had already recouped their development costs. [46]

See also


  1. PlayStation(プレイステーションPureisutēshon)
  2. Technically there is one exception to this. The 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, though consistently outsold by the PlayStation during this period, had more cumulative sales at the end of 1995, chiefly due to its having been on the market for nearly two years longer than the PlayStation. [32]

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The Philips CD-i is an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Dutch company Philips, who supported it from December 1991 to late 1998. It was created to provide more functionality than an audio CD player or game console, but at a lower price than a personal computer with a CD-ROM drive. The cost savings were due to the lack of a floppy drive, keyboard, mouse, and monitor, and less operating system software. "CD-i" also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard used by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by Philips and Sony.

Sega CD add-on for the Sega Genesis video game console

The Sega CD, released as the Mega-CD in most regions outside North America and Brazil, is a CD-ROM accessory for the Sega Genesis video game console designed and produced by Sega as part of the fourth generation of video game consoles. It was released on December 12, 1991 in Japan, October 15, 1992 in North America, and 1993 in Europe. The Sega CD lets the user play CD-based games and adds hardware functionality such as a faster central processing unit and graphic enhancements. It can also play audio CDs and CD+G discs.

A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

3DO Interactive Multiplayer video game console

The 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, often called the 3DO, is a home video game console platform developed by The 3DO Company. Conceived by entrepreneur and Electronic Arts founder Trip Hawkins, the 3DO was not a console manufactured by the company itself, but a series of specifications, originally designed by Dave Needle and R. J. Mical of New Technologies Group, that could be licensed by third parties. Panasonic produced the first models in 1993, and further renditions of the hardware were released in 1994 by GoldStar and in 1995 by Sanyo.

The fifth-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles and video game handhelds from approximately 1993 to 2002. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the PlayStation by a wide margin, followed by the Nintendo 64 and then the Sega Saturn. For handhelds, this era was characterized by significant fragmentation, because the first handheld of the generation, the Genesis Nomad, had a lifespan of just two years, and the Virtual Boy had a lifespan of less than one. Both were discontinued before the other handhelds made their debut. The Neo Geo Pocket was released in 1998, but was dropped by SNK in favor of the fully backwards compatible Neo Geo Pocket Color just a year later. Nintendo's Game Boy Color was the winner in handhelds by a large margin. There were also two updated versions of the original Game Boy: Game Boy Light and Game Boy Pocket.

Ken Kutaragi Japanese businessman

Ken Kutaragi is the former Chairman and Group CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment (SCEI), the video game division of Sony Corporation, and current president and CEO of Cyber AI Entertainment. He is known as "The Father of the PlayStation", and its successors and spinoffs, including the PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable, the PlayStation 3, and the PlayStation 4.

Sony Interactive Entertainment American video game subsidiary of Sony

Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. (SIE) is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company that is a wholly owned subsidiary of Japanese conglomerate Sony.

<i>Pitfall: The Mayan Adventure</i> 1994 video game

Pitfall: The Mayan Adventure is a 1994 video game developed and published by Activision. A sequel to Activision's 1982 Pitfall! for the Atari 2600, the player controls Pitfall Harry, Jr., son of the protagonist of the original game, as he attempts to rescue his father from a Mayan jungle setting.

Paragon Publishing

Paragon Publishing Ltd was a magazine publisher in the UK, which published computer games and other entertainment titles from 1991 to 2003.

Video game console emulator program that reproduces video game consoles behavior

A video game console emulator is a type of emulator that allows a computing device to emulate a video game console's hardware and play its games on the emulating platform. More often than not, emulators carry additional features that surpass the limitations of the original hardware, such as broader controller compatibility, timescale control, greater performance, clearer quality, easier access to memory modifications, one-click cheat codes, and unlocking of gameplay features. Emulators are also a useful tool in the development process of homebrew demos and the creation of new games for older, discontinued, or more rare consoles.

PlayStation Controller

The PlayStation Controller is the first gamepad released by Sony Computer Entertainment for its PlayStation video game console. The original version was released alongside the PlayStation on December 3, 1994.

<i>PlayStation Underground</i>

PlayStation Underground is a now-defunct American video game magazine, originally published by Sony Computer Entertainment America. The magazine focused on the PlayStation fanbase, including gaming on the original Sony PlayStation and the PlayStation 2, and was promoted as a "PlayStation fan club". Unlike its paper-based counterpart the Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine, PlayStation Underground came in the form of CD-ROMs which could be played on the PlayStation and PlayStation 2 consoles. Subscribers were also given access to a members-only website. The magazine released its first issue on March 26, 1997 and its final issue in 2001. The magazine released a total of seventeen issues during its active years. The magazine was eventually merged with Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine in 2001 when it was discontinued.

Online console gaming involves connecting a console to a network over the Internet for services. Through this connection, it provides users the ability to play games with other users online, in addition to other online services.

Super NES CD-ROM unreleased video game media format and peripheral for the SNES

The Super NES CD-ROM System, also known as the Super Famicom CD-ROM Adapter, is an unreleased video game peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The add-on built upon the functionality of the cartridge-based SNES by adding support for a CD-ROM-based format known as Super Disc.

Electronic Entertainment Expo 1995 event

The Electronic Entertainment Expo 1995, commonly known as E3 1995, was the first Electronic Entertainment Expo held. The event took place at the Los Angeles Convention Center from May 11-13, 1995, with 50,000 total attendees. Highlights of the 1995 show include Sony's announcement of the PlayStation's release date and pricing, Sega's surprise launch of the Sega Saturn, and Nintendo's showcase of the Virtual Boy console.

History of Sega

The history of Sega, a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher, spans from 1960 to the present day, with roots back to Standard Games in 1940 and Service Games of Japan in the 1950s. The formation of the company is traced back to the founding of Nihon Goraku Bussan, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. following acquisition of Rosen Enterprises. Sega began developing coin-operated games in 1966 with Periscope. In 1969 Gulf and Western Industries bought Sega, which continued its successful arcade-game business.


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