|Also known as|
|Developer||Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Type||Home video game console|
|Lifespan||1994–2006 (12 years)|
|Introductory price|| ¥39,800, US$299, |
£299, F1,490, DM599
|Discontinued||WW: 23 March 2006|
|Units sold||102.49 million|
|CPU||R3000 @ 33.8688 MHz|
|Memory||2 MB RAM, 1 MB VRAM|
|Sound||16-bit, 24 channel ADPCM|
|Controller input||PlayStation Controller, Dual Analog Controller, DualShock|
|Connectivity||PlayStation Link Cable|
|Best-selling game||Gran Turismo , 10.85 million shipped|
The PlayStation(PS, commonly known as the PS1 or its codename PSX) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, and 15 November 1995 in Australia, and was the first of the PlayStation lineup of video game consoles. As a fifth generation console, the PlayStation primarily competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn.
Development of the console began after a failed venture with Nintendo to create a CD-ROM for their Super Famicom in the early 1990s. Game production for the console was designed to be streamlined and inclusive, inticing the support of many third-party developers. In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2.
The PlayStation signalled Sony's rise to power in the video game industry. Its release elicited both critical acclaim and impressive sales: it eventually became the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship over 100 million units, doing so in under a decade. The PlayStation's use of compact discs (CDs) heralded the game industry's transition from cartridges. Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over eleven years after it had been released, and less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. Over 7,918 games were released for the console over its lifespan, with cumulative sales of 962 million units.
The PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who managed one of the company's hardware engineering divisions and was later dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation".Kutaragi's interest in working with video games stemmed from seeing his daughter play games on Nintendo's Famicom video game console. The inception of what became the released PlayStation dates back to 1988 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. Nintendo had already produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, and wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES).
Kutaragi convinced Nintendo on using his SPC-700 sound processor for use in the SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities.Although Kutaragi was nearly sacked by Sony because he was originally working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge, Sony president Norio Ohga recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip and decided to keep him as a protégé. Since Sony was already being contracted to produce the SPC-700 sound processor for the SNES, Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, and work began.
Sony was keen to obtain a foothold in the rapidly expanding video game market. Having been the primary manufacturer of the ill-fated MSX home computer format, Sony had wanted to use its experience in consumer electronics to produce its own video game hardware.Although the initial agreement between Nintendo and Sony was for producing a CD-ROM add-on, Sony had also planned to develop a SNES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both SNES cartridges and a new CD format named the "Super Disc", which Sony would design. Under the agreement, Sony would retain sole international rights to every Super Disc title sold, giving the company a large degree of control despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market. Furthermore, Sony would also be the sole benefactor of licensing related to music and film software that it had been aggressively pursuing as a secondary application.
The product, under the name "Play Station", was to be announced at the 1991 Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas.Already wary of Sony's increasing leverage at this point, Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi deemed the original 1988 contract unacceptable as he realised the earlier agreement essentially handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Wanting to protect Nintendo's existing licensing structure, Yamauchi secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo–Sony SNES CD attachment. Also unbeknownst to Sony, Yamauchi sent Nintendo of America president Minoru Arakawa (his son-in-law) and chairman Howard Lincoln to Amsterdam to form a more favourable contract with Dutch conglomerate Philips, Sony's rival. This contract would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on all Philips-produced machines. As described by David Sheff in his book Game Over , "[The Philips deal] was meant to do two things at once: give Nintendo back its stranglehold on software and gracefully fuck Sony."
At 9 am on the day of the CES, instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and publicly revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, and Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work they and Sony had accomplished.
Incensed by Nintendo's renouncement, Ohga and Kutaragi decided that Sony foray into the market by developing its own console.Sony briefly considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. Sega's CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that's a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware. They don't know how to make software either. Why would we want to do this?". This prompted Sony into halting their research, but ultimately the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the SNES.
Despite the tumultuous events at the 1991 CES, negotiations between Nintendo and Sony were still ongoing, culminating in another deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, on the condition that Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, and the machine in question would continue to use the audio chip Kutaragi designed. It is theorised that only two hundred of these prototype machines were created, and software for the system was being developed.By May 1992 however, Kutaragi was adamant that such a deal would never work and decided to cut all ties with Nintendo. According to a Sony engineer, all work on the console from the time of the partnership with Nintendo was eventually scrapped, and the PlayStation design was restarted from scratch.
To determine the fate of the PlayStation project, Ohga chaired a meeting the following month, consisting of Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a proprietary CD-ROM-based system he had been working on which involved playing video games with immersive 3D graphics. Ohga decided to retain the project after being reminded by Kutaragi of the humiliation he suffered from Nintendo.Nevertheless, due to strong opposition from a majority present at the meeting as well as widespread internal opposition to the project by the older generation of Sony executives whom saw Nintendo and Sega as "toy" manufacturers, Ohga shifted Kutaragi and his team from Sony's main headquarters to Sony Music, a completely separate financial entity, so as to retain the project and maintain relationships with Philips for the MMCD development project (which helped lead to the creation of the DVD).
The involvement of Sony Music proved crucial to the PlayStation's early development as the process of manufacturing games on CD-ROM format was similar to that used for audio CDs, to which Sony's music division had considerable experience with. While at Sony Music, Kutaragi worked with CEO Shigeo Maruyama and Akira Sato, both of whom would later become vice presidents of the division that ran the PlayStation business.Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) was then jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. By the beginning of 1994, Sony had publicly announced that it was entering the game console market with the PlayStation. According to Maruyama, there was uncertainty over whether the console should primarily focus on 2D sprite graphics or 3D polygon graphics. It was only after witnessing the success of Sega's Virtua Fighter in Japanese arcades that the direction of the PlayStation became "instantly clear" and 3D polygon graphics became the console's primary focus.
Wishing to distance the project from the failed enterprise with Nintendo, Sony initially branded the PlayStation as the "PlayStation X" (PSX).Sony's North American division, known as Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA), originally planned to market the new console under the alternative branding "PSX" following the negative feedback regarding "PlayStation" in focus group studies. Early advertising prior to the console's launch in North America referenced PSX, but the term was scrapped before launch. The console was not marketed with Sony's name in contrast to Nintendo's consoles; according to Phil Harrison, much of Sony's upper management feared that the "Sony" brand would be tarnished by connecting it with the console which they considered to be a "toy".
Since Sony had no experience in game development, the company turned to third-party game developers. Recently released consoles like the Atari Jaguar and 3DO suffered underwhelming sales due to a lack of developer support, prompting Sony to redouble their efforts in gaining the endorsement of arcade-savvy developers.With initial support from Namco, Konami, and Williams Entertainment, as well as 250 other development teams in Japan alone, the company secured the launch of influential new games such as Ridge Racer and Mortal Kombat 3 .
Despite securing the support of various Japanese studios, Sony had no developers working directly for them by the time they were developing the PlayStation. This changed in 1993 when Sony bought the Liverpudlian company Psygnosis (later renamed SCE Liverpool) for US$48 million, therefore securing their first in-house development team. While the purchase was controversial at the time, the acquisition meant that Sony could boost its launch title repertoire in time for the PlayStation's release in Europe and North America. Ian Hetherington, Psygnosis' co-founder, was disappointed after receiving early builds of the PlayStation and later recalled that the console "was not fit for purpose" until his team got involved with it. Hetherington frequently clashed with Sony executives over broader ideas; at one point it was suggested that a television variant of the console be produced. In the months leading up to the PlayStation's launch, Psygnosis had around 500 full-time staff working on various games as well as assisting with software development. Hetherington said that at the time of the console's first Christmas season Psygnosis had produced around 70% of its launch catalogue.
The purchase of Psygnosis also marked another turning point for the PlayStation as they played a vital role in creating the console's development kits. While Sony had provided MIPS R4000-based Sony NEWS workstations for PlayStation development, Psygnosis employees disliked the thought of developing on these expensive workstations and asked Bristol-based SN Systems to create an alternative PC-based development system.Andy Beveridge and Martin Day, owners of SN Systems, had previous experience with supplying development hardware for other consoles such as the Mega Drive, Atari ST and the SNES. When Psygnosis arranged an audience for SN Systems with Sony's Japanese executives at the January 1994 CES in Las Vegas, Beveridge and Day presented their prototype of the condensed development kit, which could run on an ordinary personal computer with two extension boards. Impressed, Sony decided to abandon their plans for a workstation-based development system in favour of SN Systems', thus securing a cheaper and more efficient method for designing software. An order of over 600 systems followed, and the company supplied Sony with additional software such as an assembler, linker, and a debugger.
Sony strived to make game production as streamlined and inclusive as possible – an ethos which contrasted with the relatively isolated approach of rivals Sega and Nintendo. Phil Harrison, the then-representative director of Sony Computer Entertainment in Europe, believed that Sony's emphasis on developer assistance reduced most time-consuming aspects of development. As well as providing programming libraries, SCE headquarters in London, California and Tokyo housed technical support teams that could work closely with third-party developers if needed.Peter Molyneux, who owned Bullfrog Productions at the time, admired Sony's open-handed approach to software developers and lauded their decision to use PCs as a development platform, remarking that "[it was] like being released from jail in terms of the freedom you have".
The PlayStation's architecture and interconnectability with PCs gave a boon to many software developers. The use of the programming language C proved useful during the early stages of development as it safeguarded future compatibility of the machine should developers decide to make further hardware revisions. Sony used the free software GNU C compiler, also known as GCC, to guarantee short debugging times as it was already familiar to many programmers.Despite the inherent flexibility, some developers found themselves restricted due to the console's lack of RAM. While working on beta builds of the PlayStation, Molyneux observed that its MIPS processor was not "quite as bullish" compared to that of a fast PC and said that it took his team two weeks to port their PC code to the PlayStation development kits and another fortnight to achieve a four-fold speed increase. An engineer from Ocean Software, one of Europe's largest game developers at the time, thought that organising RAM was a challenging aspect given the 3.5 megabyte restriction. Kutaragi said that while it would have been easy to double the amount of RAM for the PlayStation, the development team refrained from doing so to keep the retail cost down.
Kutaragi saw the biggest challenge in developing the system to be balancing the conflicting goals of high performance, low cost, and being easy to program for, and felt he and his team were successful in this regard.
Sony released the PlayStation in Japan on 3 December 1994, a week after the release of its rival Sega Saturn, at a price of ¥39,800. Sales in Japan began with a "stunning" success with long queues in shops. It sold 100,000 units on the first day and then two million units after six months on the market. Mostly fueled by the success of Virtua Fighter , the Saturn had initially outsold the PlayStation in the first few weeks of launch. By the end of 1994, 300,000 PlayStation units were sold in Japan compared to 500,000 Saturn units. After a while, a grey market emerged for PlayStations, which were shipped from Japan to North America and Europe, with some buyers of such consoles paying large amounts of money in the range of £700.
Before the release in North America, Sega and Sony presented their consoles at the first Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) in Los Angeles on 11 May 1995. At their keynote presentation, Sega of America CEO Tom Kalinske revealed that its Saturn console would be released at a price of $399. Immediately afterwards came Sony's turn: Olaf Olafsson, the head of the Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA), summoned Steve Race, the head of development, to the conference stage, who said "$299" and left the audience with a round of applause.The attention to the Sony conference was further bolstered by the surprise appearance of Michael Jackson and the showcase of highly anticipated games for the console: Wipeout , Ridge Racer and Tekken . In addition, Sony announced that there would be no bundled games with the console as previously expected.
Although the Saturn had released early in the United States to gain an advantage over the PlayStation,the surprise launch upset many retailers who were not informed in time, harming sales. Some retailers such as KB Toys responded by dropping the Saturn entirely. The PlayStation went on sale in North America on 9 September 1995 at the undercutting price of $299. Within two days of its release the PlayStation sold more units than the Saturn had in the first five months following its surprise launch, with almost all of the initial shipment of 100,000 units being sold in advance, and shops across the country reporedly running out of consoles and accessories. The well-received Ridge Racer contributed to the PlayStation's early success, with some critics considering it superior to Sega's arcade counterpart Daytona USA . There were over 100,000 pre-orders placed and 17 games available on the market by the time of its American launch, in comparison to the Saturn's six launch titles.
The PlayStation released in Europe on 29 September 1995and in Australia on 15 November 1995. By November it had already outsold the Saturn by a factor of three in the United Kingdom, where Sony had allocated a £20 million marketing budget during the Christmas season compared to Sega's £4 million. Sony had found early success in the United Kingdom by securing listings with independant shop owners as well as prominent High Street chains such as Comet and Argos. Within its first year, the PlayStation secured over 20% of the entire American video game market. From September to the end of 1995 – sales of the console in the United States amounted to 800,000 units, giving the PlayStation a commanding lead over the other fifth generation consoles, though the SNES and Mega Drive from the fourth generation outsold it that year. At the same time, according to the president of SCEA, the attach rate of sold games and consoles was four to one. At the close of 1996, sales in Europe totalled 2.2 million, of which 700,000 was represented in the UK market. Approximately 400 games were being developed for the PlayStation, compared to approximately 200 and 60 games being developed for the Saturn and the Nintendo 64 respectively.
The PlayStation was backed by a successful marketing campaign, allowing Sony to gain an early foothold in Europe and North America.While the Sega Saturn was marketed towards 18- to 34-year-olds, the PlayStation was marketed roughly, but not exclusively, towards 12- to 24-year-olds. Both Sony and Sega reasoned that because younger players typically look up to older, more experienced players, advertising targeted at teens and adults would draw them in too. Additionally, Sony found that adults react best to advertising geared towards teenagers; according to Lee Clow, "One of the first things we resolved early on was that everyone is 17 when they play video games. The young people look up to the best gamer who is usually a little older and more practiced and talented. Then there are people who start working and grow up, but when they go into their room and sit down with their video games, they're regressing and becoming 17 again." Initially, PlayStation demographics were skewed towards adults, but the audience broadened after the first price drop.
Lee Hutchinson of Ars Technica attributed PlayStation's success to third party developers:
The launch games had a lot to do with this, and the Playstation's extra time in the oven meant that it began life with more North American-friendly titles than Sega had managed. Battle Arena Toshindin was a huge seller, as was NBA Jam Tournament Edition ; I also remember selling tons of copies of Ridge Racer.
The console was marketed with advertising slogans such as, "Live in your world. Play in ours", stylised as "LIVE IN Y
In 1996, Sony expanded their CD production facilities due to the high demand for PlayStation games. This increased their monthly output from 4 million discs to 6.5 million discs. This was necessary because PlayStation sales were running at twice the rate of Saturn sales, and dramatically increased their lead when both the PlayStation and Saturn dropped in price to $199 in May; this was largely because some retailers (such as KB Toys) did not stock the Saturn. The PlayStation also outsold the Saturn at a similar ratio in Europe during 1996, with an accumulated 2.2 million consoles sold in the region by the end of the year. Sales figures for PlayStation hardware and software only increased following the launch of the Nintendo 64. Sony Computer Entertainment president Teruhisa Tokunaka speculated that the Nintendo 64 launch had actually helped PlayStation sales by raising public awareness of the gaming market through Nintendo's added marketing efforts.
However, the PlayStation took longer to achieve dominance in Japan. Tokunaka stated that, even after the PlayStation and Saturn had been on the market for nearly two years, the competition between them was still "very close", and that neither console had led in sales for any meaningful length of time.
A total of 7,918 software titles had been released worldwide for the PlayStation; 4,944 in Japan, 1,335 in North America and 1,639 in Europe. million units. FIFA Football 2005 was the last game released for the system in the United States. However, several reprinted and remastered editions were released in later years. On 26 July 2007, Konami released Metal Gear Solid: The Essential Collection, which contained Metal Gear Solid in the original PlayStation format. In 2011, Capcom released the Resident Evil 15th Anniversary Collection, and in 2012, Square Enix released the Final Fantasy 25th Anniversary Ultimate Box in Japan containing all of the Final Fantasy titles, a majority of which were in the original PlayStation format.After its discontinuation in 2006, the cumulative software shipment was at 962
Initially, in the United States, PlayStation games were packaged in long cardboard boxes, similar to non-Japanese 3DO and Saturn games. Sony later switched to the jewel case format typically used for audio CDs and Japanese video games, as this format took up less retailer shelf space (which was at a premium due to the large number of PlayStation games being released), and focus testing showed that most consumers preferred this format.
The PlayStation's premier games included critically acclaimed titles such as Final Fantasy 7 , Crash Bandicoot , and Tekken , all of which spawned numerous sequels.
The main microprocessor is a 32-bit LSI R3000 CPU with a clock rate of 33.86MHz and 30 MIPS. kHz and MIDI sequencing. The system features 2 MB of main RAM, with an additional 1 MB being allocated to video memory. The PlayStation has a maximum colour depth of 16.7 million true colours with 32 levels of transparency and unlimited colour look-up tables. Its video output, initially provided by a parallel I/O cable (and later a serial I/O used for the PlayStation Link Cable) displays resolutions from 256×224 to 640×480 pixels.The CPU relies heavily on the VLSI chip to provide the necessary speed to render complex 3D graphics. Sony's custom 16-bit sound chip supports ADPCM sources with up to 24 sound channels and offers a sampling rate of up to 44.1
The PlayStation utilises a proprietary video compression unit called MDEC, which is integrated into the CPU, allowing for the presentation of full motion video at a higher quality than other consoles of its generation.Unusual for the time, the PlayStation lacks a dedicated 2D graphics processor; 2D elements are instead calculated as polygons by the Geometry Transfer Engine (GTE) so that they can be processed and displayed on screen by the GPU. Whilst running, the GPU can also generate a total of 4,000 sprites and 180,000 polygons per second, in addition to 360,000 per second flat-shaded.
Sony took extra liberties to safeguard both its hardware and software against piracy by implementing regional lockout. Prior to the PlayStation, reproducing copyrighted material for game consoles was restricted to either enthusiasts with exceptional technical ability, or people who had access to CD manufacturing. However, due to the increased availability of cheap CD burners, Sony modified the shape of the first portion of the data track on PlayStation formatted discs: A normal data track follows a smooth spiral path around a disc, whereas the modified portion follows a wavy spiral path.As a result, any discs that did not contain this modification, such as CD-R copies or standard pirated discs, would not boot on the console.
The PlayStation's controller was released in three different iterations over the console's lifespan. The first controller, named the PlayStation controller, was released alongside the PlayStation in December 1994. It features four individual directional buttons (as opposed to a conventional D-pad), a pair of shoulder buttons on both sides, Start and Select buttons in the centre, and four face buttons consisting of simple geometric shapes: a green triangle, red circle, blue cross, and a pink square (
Sony's first analogue gamepad, the PlayStation Analog Joystick (often erroneously referred to as the "Sony Flightstick"), was first released in Japan in April 1996. Featuring two parallel joysticks, it uses potentiometer technology previously used on consoles such as the Vectrex; instead of relying on binary eight-way switches, the controller detects minute angular changes through the entire range of motion. The stick also features a thumb-operated digital hat switch on the right joystick, corresponding to the traditional D-pad, and used for instances when simple digital movements were necessary. The Analog Joystick sold poorly in Japan, reportedly due to its high cost and cumbersome size.
The increasing popularity of 3D games prompted Sony to add analogue sticks in their controller design to give users more freedom over their movements in virtual 3D environments.The first official analogue controller, the Dual Analog Controller, was revealed to the public in a small glass booth at the 1996 PlayStation Expo in Japan, and eventually released in April 1997, coincident with the Japanese releases of analogue-capable titles Tobal 2 and Bushido Blade . In addition to the two new analogue sticks, the Dual Analog controller features an "Analog" button and LED beneath the "Start" and "Select" buttons which toggles analogue functionality on or off. The controller also features rumble support, however before its release in the United States Sony decided that haptic feedback would be removed from all overseas iterations. A Sony spokesman stated that the feature was removed for "manufacturing reasons", although rumours circulated that Nintendo had attempted to legally block the release of the controller outside Japan due to similarites with the Nintendo 64 controller's Rumble Pak. However, a Nintendo spokesman firmly denied that legal action was being taken and rather it was suggested that vibration feedback was dropped due to Sony wanting to keep the price of the controller down.
In late 1997 Sony introduced the DualShock controller. Its name derives from its use of two (dual) vibration motors (shock).Unlike its predecessor, its analogue sticks feature textured rubber grips, longer handles and slightly different shoulder buttons. It additionally introduces two new buttons mapped to clicking in the analogue sticks and has rumble feedback included as standard on all versions. The DualShock later replaced its predecessors as the default controller, also being forward compatible with the PlayStation 2, as they use the same connector and protocol.
Sony released a series of peripherals to add extra layers of functionality to the PlayStation. Such peripherals include memory cards,the PlayStation Mouse, the PlayStation Analog Joystick, the PlayStation Link Cable, the Multiplayer Adapter (a four-player multitap), the Memory Drive (a disk drive for 3.5-inch floppy disks), the GunCon (a light gun), and the Glasstron (a monoscopic head-mounted display).
Released late into the console's lifespan exclusively in Japan, the PocketStation is a memory card peripheral which acts as a miniature personal digital assistant. The device features a monochrome liquid crystal display (LCD), infrared communication capability, a real-time clock, built-in flash memory, and sound capability.Sharing similarities with the Dreamcast's VMU peripheral, the PocketStation was typically distributed with certain PlayStation games, enhancing them with added features. The PocketStation proved popular in Japan, immeadiatelly selling out all over the country. Sony planned to release the peripheral outside Japan but the release was cancelled despite engaging in promotional activity in Europe and North America.
In addition to playing games, select PlayStation models are equipped to play audio CDs; further, Asian model SCPH-5903 can also play Video CDs. Like most CD players, the PlayStation can play songs in a programmed order, shuffle the playback order of the disc and repeat one song or the entire disc. Later PlayStation models utilise a music visualisation function called SoundScope. This function, as well as a memory card manager, is accessed by starting the console without either inserting a game or closing the CD tray, thereby accessing a GUI for the PlayStation BIOS.
The GUI for the PS one and PlayStation differ depending on the firmware version: the original PlayStation GUI had a dark blue background with rainbow graffiti used as buttons, while the early PAL PlayStation and PS one GUI had a grey blocked background with 2 icons in the middle (these were different on each version).
With the early PlayStation units, particularly early 1000 models, many gamers experience skipping full-motion video or physical "ticking" noises coming from their units. The problem seemingly comes from poorly placed vents leading to overheating in some environments. This causes the plastic mouldings inside the console to warp slightly and create knock-on effects with the laser assembly. The solution is to sit the console on a surface which dissipates heat efficiently in a well vented area or raise the unit up slightly from its resting surface.Sony representatives also recommended unplugging the PlayStation when it is not in use, as the system draws in a small amount of power (and therefore heat) even when turned off.
The first batch of PlayStations use a KSM-440AAM laser unit, whose case and movable parts are all built out of plastic. Over time, the plastic lens sled rail wears out—usually unevenly—due to friction. The placement of the laser unit close to the power supply accelerates wear, due to the additional heat, which makes the plastic more vulnerable to friction. Eventually, one side of the lens sled will become so worn that the laser can tilt, no longer pointing directly at the CD; after this, games will no longer load, due to data read errors. One common fix is turning the PlayStation upside down, which makes the lens sled rest on the unworn top rails. Sony eventually fixed the problem by making the sled out of die-cast metal and placing the laser unit further away from the power supply on later PlayStation models.
The PlayStation does not produce a proper signal on several older models of televisions (due to an engineering oversight) causing the display to flicker or bounce around the screen. Sony decided not to change the console design, since only a small percentage of PlayStation owners used such televisions, and instead gave consumers the option of sending their PlayStation unit to a Sony service centre to have an official modchip installed, allowing it to play on older televisions.
The PlayStation went through a number of variants during its production run. From an external perspective, the most notable change between variants was the reduction in the number of connectors. The RCA jacks were removed in the first revision, and the Parallel I/O port was removed in the final revision.
Sony marketed a development kit for hobbyists and developers also known as the Net Yaroze, which launched in June 1996 in Japanand in 1997 in other countries. Sold only through an ordering service, the development console came with the necessary documentation and software to program PlayStation games and applications.
On 7 July 2000, Sony released the PS One (stylised as PS one), million PS one units had been sold by the time it was discontinued in March 2006. A version of the PS one included a 5-inch (130 mm) LCD screen, referred to as the "Combo pack".a smaller, redesigned version of the original PlayStation. It was the highest-selling console through the end of the year, outselling all other consoles – including Sony's own PlayStation 2. A total of 28.15
On 19 September 2018, Sony announced the PlayStation Classic. As a dedicated console, it features 20 pre-installed games that run off the open source emulator PCSX. GHz and a Power VR GE8300 graphics processing unit. It includes 16 GB of eMMC flash storage and 1 GB of DDR3 memory. The PlayStation Classic is 45% smaller than the original console.Such games include fan favourites like Tekken 3 , Final Fantasy VII , Jumping Flash , and Syhphon Filter . It also features two replicas of the wired PlayStation controllers without analogue sticks, a dedicated HDMI output, and a USB-Type A cable. Internally, the console utilises a MediaTek MT8167a Quad A35 system on a chip with four central processing cores clocked at @ 1.5
It was released worldwide on 3 December 2018, the 24th anniversary of the original. The console received mostly negative reviews from critics, with criticism directed at its weak game library, cumbersome user interface, and high price tag; though the console's design did attract some praise.
The PlayStation was well received at the time of its release. In a 1997 year-end review, a team of five Electronic Gaming Monthly editors gave the PlayStation scores of 9.5, 8.5, 9.0, 9.0, and 9.5 - for all five editors, the highest score they gave to any of the five consoles reviewed in the issue. They lauded the breadth and quality of the games library, saying it had vastly improved over previous years due to Sony dropping its ban on 2D games and RPGs and developers mastering the system's capabilities. They also complimented the low price point of the games, especially as compared to Nintendo 64 releases, and noted that it was the only console on the market that could be relied upon to deliver a solid stream of games for the coming year, primarily due to third party developers almost unanimously favoring it over its competitors.
Critics generally welcomed the new console. The staff of Next Generation reviewed the PlayStation a few weeks after its North American launch, where they commented that, while the CPU is "fairly average", the supplementary custom hardware, such as the GPU and sound processor, is stunningly powerful. They praised the PlayStation's focus on 3D, and complemented on the comfort of its controller and the convenience of its memory cards. Giving the system 41⁄2 out of 5 stars, they concluded, "To succeed in this extremely cut-throat market, you need a combination of great hardware, great games, and great marketing. Whether by skill, luck, or just deep pockets, Sony has scored three out of three in the first salvo of this war". In a special Game Machine Cross Review in May 1995, Famicom Tsūshin scored the PlayStation console a 19 out of 40.
Sony Computer Entertainment was an upstart in the video game industry in late 1994, as the early 1990s were dominated by Nintendo and Sega. Nintendo had been the clear leader in the video game industry since the introduction of the NES in 1985 and the Nintendo 64 was initially expected to maintain this position for Nintendo. The PlayStation's target audience included 15- to 17-year-olds who were not the primary focus of Nintendo, and 18- to 29-year-olds,who represented the first generation to grow up playing video games. By the late 1990s, Sony became a highly regarded console brand due to the PlayStation, with a significant lead over second-place Nintendo, while Sega was relegated to a distant third.
The PlayStation was the first console to sell over 100 million units worldwide,with Gran Turismo being the system's best-selling title with 10.85 million copies sold. Around 7,900 individual games were publsished for the console during its 11-year life span, the second-most amount of games ever produced for a console.
The next-generation PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The PlayStation's lead in installed base and developer support paved the way for the success of the PlayStation 2,which overcame the earlier launch of the Sega Dreamcast and then fended off competition from Microsoft's Xbox and Nintendo's GameCube.
Hundreds of PlayStation titles were re-released as PS one classics for purchase and download on PlayStation Portable, PlayStation 3 (PS3) and PlayStation Vita.The PS3 also maintained backwards compatibility with PlayStation discs.
On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console. The new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released for the original console, and was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994.
The success of the PlayStation is widely believed to have influenced the demise of the cartridge-based home console. While not the first system to utilise an optical disc format, it is the first highly successful one, and ended up going head-to-head with the last major home console for over two decades to rely on proprietary cartridges—the Nintendo 64.Sony Computer Entertainment president Teruhisa Tokunaka remarked in 1996:
Choosing CD-ROM is one of the most important decisions that we made. As I'm sure you understand, PlayStation could just as easily have worked with masked ROM [cartridges]. The 3D engine and everything – the whole PlayStation format – is independent of the media. But for various reasons (including the economies for the consumer, the ease of the manufacturing, inventory control for the trade, and also the software publishers) we deduced that CD-ROM would be the best media for PlayStation.
Nintendo was very public about its scepticism toward using CDs and DVDs to store games, citing longer load times and durability problems. [ failed verification ] It was widely speculated that the company was even more concerned with the proprietary cartridge format's ability to help enforce copy protection, given its substantial reliance on licensing and exclusive titles for its revenue. Piracy was rampant on the PlayStation due to the relative ease of the installation of a modchip allowing the PlayStation to play games region free or recorded on a regular CD-R making the console very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers.
The increasing complexity of games (in content, graphics, and sound) pushed cartridges to their storage limits and this gradually turned off some third-party developers. Part of the CD format's appeal to publishers was that they could be produced at a significantly lower cost and offered more production flexibility to meet demand.As a result, some third-party developers switched to the PlayStation, such as Squaresoft, whose Final Fantasy VII, and Enix (later merged with Squaresoft create Square Enix), whose Dragon Quest VII titles were initially pre-planned for the N64; while some who remained released fewer games to the Nintendo 64 (Konami, releasing only thirteen N64 games but over fifty on the PlayStation). While new games were coming out rapidly for the PlayStation, new Nintendo 64 game releases were less frequent and that system's biggest successes were developed by either Nintendo itself or by second-parties, such as Rare. The lower production costs also allowed publishers an additional source of profit: budget-priced reissues of titles which had already recouped their development costs.
A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls and speakers. Handheld game consoles are smaller than home video game consoles and contain the console, screen, speakers, and controls in one unit, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place.
The Nintendo 64 (officially abbreviated as N64, hardware model number pre-term: NUS, stylized as NINTENDO64) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America, and March 1997 in Europe and Australia. It was the last major home console to use the ROM cartridge as its primary storage format until the Switch in 2017. The Nintendo 64 was discontinued in 2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube.
The Sega Saturn is a home video game console developed by Sega and released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America, and July 8, 1995 in Europe. Part of the fifth generation of video game consoles, it was the successor to the successful Sega Genesis. The Saturn has a dual-CPU architecture and eight processors. Its games are in CD-ROM format, and its game library contains several ports of arcade games as well as original games.
The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academic computer scientists began designing simple games and simulations as part of their research or just for recreation. At M.I.T. in the 1960s, professors and students played games such as 3D tic-tac-toe and Moon Landing. These games were played on computers such as the IBM 1560, and moves were made by means of punch cards. Video gaming did not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when video arcade games and gaming consoles using joysticks, buttons, and other controllers, along with graphics on computer screens and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since the 1980s, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern popular culture in most parts of the world. One of the early games was Spacewar!, which was developed by computer scientists. Early arcade video games developed from 1972 to 1978. During the 1970s, the first generation of home consoles emerged, including the popular game Pong and various "clones". The 1970s was also the era of mainframe computer games. The golden age of arcade video games was from 1978 to 1982. Video arcades with large, graphics-decorated coin-operated machines were common at malls and popular, affordable home consoles such as the Atari 2600 and Intellivision enabled people to play games on their home TVs. During the 1980s, gaming computers, early online gaming and handheld LCD games emerged; this era was affected by the video game crash of 1983. From 1976 to 1992, the second generation of video consoles emerged.
The fifth-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming consoles dating from approximately October 4, 1993 to March 23, 2006. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the Sony PlayStation, followed by the Nintendo 64, and then the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation also had a redesigned version, the PSone, which was launched on July 7, 2000.
In the history of video games, the sixth-generation era refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming devices available at the turn of the 21st century, starting on November 27, 1998. Platforms in the sixth generation include consoles from four companies: the Sega Dreamcast (DC), Sony PlayStation 2 (PS2), Nintendo GameCube (GC), and Microsoft Xbox. This era began on November 27, 1998, with the Japanese release of the Dreamcast, which was joined by the PlayStation 2 on March 4, 2000, and the GameCube and Xbox on November 15, 2001. In April 2001, the Dreamcast was the first to be discontinued. The GameCube was next, in 2007, the Xbox on March 2, 2009, and the PlayStation 2 on January 4, 2013. Meanwhile, the seventh generation of consoles started on November 22, 2005 with the launch of the Xbox 360.
Ken Kutaragi is a Japanese engineering technologist and businessman. He is the former chairman and CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment (SCEI), the video game division of Sony Corporation, and current president and CEO of Cyber AI Entertainment. He is known as "The Father of the PlayStation", as he oversaw the development of the original console and its successors and spinoffs, including the PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable and the PlayStation 3. He departed Sony in 2007, before the PlayStation 4 was released.
A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles are generally less powerful and customizable than personal computers, designed to have advanced graphics abilities but limited memory and storage space to keep the units affordable. While initial consoles were dedicated units with only a few games fixed into the electronic circuits of the system, most consoles since support the use of swappable game media, either through game cartridges, optical discs, or through digital distribution to internal storage.
Battle Arena Toshinden is a weapons-based fighting game developed by Tamsoft and published by Takara and Sony Computer Entertainment in 1995-1996 for the PlayStation, Sega Saturn, Game Boy, and MS-DOS. It was one of the first fighting games to boast polygonal characters in a 3D environment, and features a sidestep maneuver which is credited for taking the genre into "true 3D." The Game Boy version of Battle Arena Toshiden despite sharing the same name as the console & PC counterparts is a different game. It is a 2D weapons based fighter & supports the Super Game Boy cartridge peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System/Super Famicom to allow the game to be played on a TV with colour palettes & borders.
The history of video game consoles, both home and handheld, had their origins in the 1970s. The concept of home consoles used to play games on a television set was founded by the 1972 Magnavox Odyssey, first conceived by Ralph H. Baer in 1966. Handheld consoles bore out from electro-mechanical games that had used mechanical controls and light-emitting diodes (LED) as visual indicators. Handheld electronic games had replaced the mechanical controls with electronic and digital components, and with the introduction of Liquid-crystal display (LCD) to create video-like screens with programmable pixels, systems like the Microvision and the Game & Watch became the first handheld video game consoles, and fully realized by the Game Boy system.
Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE) is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company wholly owned by Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The SIE Group is made up of two legal corporate entities: Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC (SIE LLC) based in San Mateo, California, United States, and Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc., based in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo-based SIE Inc. was originally founded as Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. in November 1993 to handle Sony's venture into video game development for the PlayStation systems. SIE LLC was established in San Mateo in April 2016, and is managed through Sony's American hub, Sony Corporation of America.
1995 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Mario's Picross, Chrono Trigger, Mega Man 7, Rayman, Twisted Metal, Star Wars: Dark Forces, Destruction Derby and Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island.
An analog stick, sometimes called a control stick or thumbstick, is an input device for a controller that is used for two-dimensional input. An analog stick is a variation of a joystick, consisting of a protrusion from the controller; input is based on the position of this protrusion in relation to the default "center" position. While digital sticks rely on single electrical connections for movement, analog sticks use continuous electrical activity running through potentiometers to measure the exact position of the stick within its full range of motion. The analog stick has greatly overtaken the D-pad in both prominence and usage in console video games.
Working Designs was an American video game publisher that specialized in the localization of Japanese role-playing video games, strategy video games and top-down shooters for various platforms. Though the company had published many 'cult hits', it was known best to fans as the long-time exclusive US publisher of the Lunar series. The company was one of the few game publishers that attempted to bridge the cultural gap between the Japanese and American video game industries during the 1990s with an eclectic selection of releases from various genres, and was also one of the earliest American publishers to make use of the CD-ROM format for full, spoken English dialogue in their products at a time when voice acting was not a common feature in most mainstream games.
A multitap is a video game console peripheral that increases the number of controller ports available to the player, allowing additional controllers to be used in play, similar to a USB hub or a power strip. A multitap often takes the form of a box with three or more controller ports which is then connected to a controller port on the console itself.
Puzzle Bobble 2 is a tile-matching video game by Taito. The first sequel to Puzzle Bobble, it was titled in Europe and North America as Bust-A-Move Again on the arcade and Bust-A-Move 2 Arcade Edition on the home consoles. Released into the arcades in 1995, PlayStation, Sega Saturn, Nintendo 64 and Windows conversions followed. The game was included in Taito Legends 2, but the US arcade version was included on the US PS2 version instead.
PlayStation is a Japanese video game brand that consists of five home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. The brand is produced by Sony Interactive Entertainment, a division of Sony, with the first console releasing as the PlayStation in Japan released in December 1994, and worldwide the following year.
The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released in Japan on March 4, 2000, in North America on October 26, 2000, in Europe on November 24, 2000, and Australia on November 24, 2000. It is the successor to the original PlayStation, as well as the second instalment in the PlayStation console line-up. A sixth-generation console, it competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube, and Microsoft's original Xbox.
Online console gaming involves connecting a console to a network over the Internet for services. Through this connection, it provides users the ability to play games with other users online, in addition to other online services.
The Super NES CD-ROM System, known as Super Famicom CD-ROM Adapter in Japan, is an unreleased video game peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The add-on built upon the functionality of the cartridge-based SNES by adding support for a CD-ROM-based format known as Super Disc.
This equates to the Saturn shifting an average number of 17,241 units a day and the PlayStation 15,789.
Although AM2 has managed to replicate the coin-op tolerably well, Saturn Daytona fails to capture the arcade experience that PlayStation Ridge Racer so convincingly delivers.