Square Enix's headquarters in Shinjuku Eastside Square, Tokyo
|Kabushiki gaisha Sukūea Enikkusu Hōrudingusu|
|Square Enix Co., Ltd.|
|Traded as||TYO: 9684|
|Founded||September 22, 1975|
|Headquarters||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan|
Number of employees
|Divisions||Business Division 1 through Business Division 11|
Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company known for its Final Fantasy , Dragon Quest , and Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others. Several of them have sold over 10 million copies worldwide, with the Final Fantasy franchise alone selling over 115 million. The Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company employs over 4300 employees worldwide.
A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.
A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that have been developed either internally by the publisher or externally by a video game developer. As with book publishers or publishers of DVD movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing, including market research and all aspects of advertising.
Final Fantasy is a Japanese science fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix. The franchise centers on a series of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games (RPGs/JRPGs). The first game in the series was released in 1987, with 14 other main-numbered entries being released since then. The franchise has since branched into other video game genres such as tactical role-playing, action role-playing, massively multiplayer online role-playing, racing, third-person shooter, fighting, and rhythm, as well as branching into other media, including CGI films, anime, manga, and novels.
The original Square Enix Co., Ltd. was formed as the result of a merger between Enix Corporation and Square Co., Ltd. in April 2003, with Enix as the surviving company. Each share of Square's common stock was exchanged for 0.85 shares of Enix's common stock. At the time, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees. As part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda was named its vice president, and the founder of Enix, Yasuhiro Fukushima, the largest shareholder of the combined corporation, became its honorary chairman.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow or downsize, and change the nature of their business or competitive position.
Enix Corporation was a Japanese video game publisher that produced video games, anime and manga. Enix is known for publishing the Dragon Quest series of role-playing video games.
Square Co., Ltd. was a Japanese video game company founded in September 1986 by Masafumi Miyamoto. It merged with Enix in 2003 to form Square Enix. The company also used SquareSoft as a brand name to refer to their games, and the term is occasionally used to refer to the company itself. In addition, "Square Soft, Inc" was the name of the company's American arm before the merger, after which it was renamed to "Square Enix, Inc".
In October 2008, Square Enix conducted a company split between its corporate business and video game operations. Square Enix re-branded itself as Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd., a holding company, while its internally domestic video game operations were formed as a new subsidiary called Square Enix Co., Ltd. During the 2014 fiscal year, the company made over ¥150 billion in revenue ( US$1.36 billion).
As per section 2(87) in relation to any other company ]] that owns other companies' outstanding stock. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies.
The yen is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling.
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars.
In addition to its flagship subsidiary, Square Enix Holdings owns the arcade gaming corporation Taito, known for games such as Space Invaders , Bubble Bobble , and Darius . Square Enix also owned British game publisher Eidos Interactive, which was absorbed into Square Enix Europe in order to publish Eidos Interactive titles such as Tomb Raider , Deus Ex and Hitman under the Square Enix brand.
An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost.
Taito Corporation is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, and an operator of video arcades. It is also a former publisher of home video games. Taito is wholly owned by Square Enix Holdings. Despite being a subsidiary to Square Enix Holdings, the parent company has kept the branding of Taito distinct from Square Enix.
Space Invaders is an arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978. It was manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and licensed in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Within the shooter genre, Space Invaders is one of the earliest shoot 'em ups and the first fixed shooter. The goal is to defeat wave after wave of descending aliens with a horizontally moving laser to earn as many points as possible.
Enix was founded on September 22, 1975, as Eidansha Boshu Service Center by Japanese architect-turned-entrepreneur Yasuhiro Fukushima.Enix focused on publishing games, often by companies who exclusively partnered with the company, and is perhaps most famous for publishing the Dragon Quest series of console games developed by Chunsoft. Key members of the developer's staff consisted of director Koichi Nakamura, writer Yuuji Horii, artist Akira Toriyama, and composer Koichi Sugiyama, among others. The first game in the Famicom-based RPG series was released in 1986, and would eventually sell 1.5 million copies in Japan, establishing Dragon Quest as the company's most profitable franchise. Despite the announcement that Enix's long-time competitor Square would develop exclusively for Sony PlayStation, Enix announced in January 1997 that it would release games for both Nintendo and Sony consoles. This caused a significant rise in stock for both Enix and Sony. By November 1999, Enix was listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange's 1st section, indicating it as a "large company".
An architect is a person who plans, designs and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.
Akira Toriyama is a Japanese manga artist, game artist and character designer. He first achieved mainstream recognition for his highly successful manga series Dr. Slump, before going on to create Dragon Ball—his best-known work—and acting as a character designer for several popular video games such as the Dragon Quest series, Chrono Trigger and Blue Dragon. Toriyama is regarded as one of the artists that changed the history of manga, as his works are highly influential and popular, particularly Dragon Ball, which many manga artists cite as a source of inspiration.
Koichi Sugiyama is a Japanese composer, conductor, and orchestrator. He is also a council member of the Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers, and Publishers (JASRAC), board member of the Japan Institute for National Fundamentals, and honorary chairman of the Japanese Backgammon Society. Sugiyama is best known for composing the music for the Dragon Quest video game series, which is published by Square Enix, along with several other Japanese anime, film, and television shows. A classically trained conductor, Sugiyama is considered a major inspiration for other Japanese game music composers, such as Nobuo Uematsu, and was once referred to as the "big boss of game music".
Square was started in October 1983 by Masafumi Miyamoto as a computer game software division of Den-Yu-Sha, a power line construction company owned by his father. While at the time game development was usually conducted by only one programmer, Miyamoto believed that it would be more efficient to have graphic designers, programmers and professional story writers working together on common projects.
Masafumi Miyamoto is the founder of Square. Miyamoto graduated from Waseda University in 1983, and joined his father's electric power conglomerate, Den-Yu-Sha as a programmer in their software division. After transforming the games division from a group of generalist programmers into specialists working together on a common project, the group was spun out into its own company in 1986. Miyamoto served as president of the company until 1991, though he remained a major shareholder in the company.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia and New Zealand, the network is known as the "National Grid".
In September 1986, the division was spun off into an independent company led by Miyamoto officially named Square Co., Ltd.After releasing several unsuccessful games for the Famicom, Square relocated to Ueno, Tokyo in 1987 and developed a role-playing video game titled Final Fantasy , which was inspired by Enix's success in the genre with the 1986 Dragon Quest . Final Fantasy was a success with over 400,000 copies sold, and it became Square's main franchise, spawning dozens of games in a series that continues to the present.
Buoyed by the success of their Final Fantasy franchise, Square developed many other widely known games such as Chrono Trigger , Chrono Cross , Secret of Mana , Legend of Mana , Xenogears , Brave Fencer Musashi , Parasite Eve , Saga Frontier , Romancing Saga , Vagrant Story , Kingdom Hearts (done in collaboration with Disney Interactive), and Super Mario RPG (done under the guidance of Shigeru Miyamoto).By late 1994 they had developed a reputation as a producer of high quality role-playing video games. Square was one of the many companies that had planned to develop and publish their games for the Nintendo 64, but with the cheaper costs associated with developing games on CD-based consoles such as the Sega Saturn and the Sony PlayStation, Square decided to develop titles for the latter system. Final Fantasy VII was one of these games, and it sold 9.8 million copies, making it the second-best-selling game for the PlayStation.
A merger between Square and Enix was in consideration since at least 2000; the financial failure in 2001 of Square's first movie, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within , made Enix reluctant to proceed while Square was losing money.With the company facing its second year of financial losses, Square approached Sony for a capital injection and on October 8, 2001, Sony Corp purchased 18.6% stake in Square. Following the success of both Final Fantasy X and Kingdom Hearts, the company's finances stabilized, and it recorded the highest operating margin in its history in fiscal year 2002. It was announced on November 25, 2002, that Square and Enix's previous plans to merge were to officially proceed, with the goal to mutually decrease development costs and to compete with foreign developers. As described by Yoichi Wada, Square's president and CEO: "Square has also fully recovered, meaning this merger is occurring at a time when both companies are at their height."
Some shareholders expressed concerns about the merger, notably Square's original founder and largest shareholder Miyamoto, who would find himself holding a significantly smaller percentage of the combined companies.Other criticism came from Takashi Oya of Deutsche Securities who expressed doubts about the benefits of such a merger: "Enix outsources game development and has few in-house creators, while Square does everything by itself. The combination of the two provides no negative factors but would bring little in the way of operational synergies." Miyamoto's concerns were eventually resolved by altering the exchange ratio of the merger so that each Square share would be exchanged for 0.85 Enix shares rather than 0.81 shares, and the merger was greenlit. The merger was set for April 1, 2003, on which date the newly merged entity Square Enix came into being. At the time of the merger, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees. As part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda became its vice president. The founder of Enix and the largest shareholder of the newly combined corporation, Yasuhiro Fukushima, was made its honorary chairman.
As a result of the merger, Enix was the surviving company and Square Co., Ltd. was dissolved.In July of that year, the Square Enix headquarters were moved to Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo, as part of the process of combining the two companies.
Since the merger in 2003, Square Enix has acquired a number of companies, as well as creating several subsidiary companies. To strengthen its wireless market, Square Enix acquired mobile application developer UIEvolution in March 2004, though it was sold in December 2007, and the company instead founded its own Square Enix MobileStudio in January 2008 to focus on mobile products.In January 2005 Square Enix founded Square Enix China, expanding their interests in the People's Republic of China.
In September of that year Square Enix bought the gaming developer and publisher Taito, renowned for their arcade hits such as Space Invaders and the Bubble Bobble series; Taito's home and portable console games divisions were merged into Square Enix itself by March 2010.In August 2008, Square Enix made plans for a similar expansion by way of a friendly takeover of video game developer Tecmo by purchasing shares at a 30 percent premium, but Tecmo rejected the proposed takeover.
Instead, in February 2009, Square Enix announced a takeover deal for Eidos plc, the holding company for Eidos Interactive, the UK-based publisher of the Tomb Raider , Hitman , Deus Ex , Thief and Legacy of Kain franchises, along with its multiple subsidiary development studios that developed the gamesThe acquisition of Eidos was completed in April 2009, and in November the publisher was merged with Square Enix's European publishing organization to form Square Enix Europe.
In March 2011 Square Enix founded another mobile development studio, Hippos Lab, followed by another in 2012, Square Enix Montréal.A third mobile studio was founded in Indonesia in June 2013, Smileworks, but was closed in January 2015. The latest subsidiary company to be created was Shinra Technologies, a cloud gaming company, but it was only in existence from September 2014 to January 2016. In 2015, Square created a new studio known as Tokyo RPG Factory to develop what was then dubbed Project Setsuna. On February 21, 2017, the formation of new studio Studio Istolia was announced. The studio, headed by Hideo Baba, would be working on the new RPG Project Prelude Rune .
On October 1, 2008, Square Enix transformed into a holding company and was renamed to Square Enix Holdings. At the same time the gaming, contents and publishing businesses were transferred to a spin-off named Square Enix, sharing the same corporate leadership and offices with the holding.The primary offices for Square Enix and Square Enix Holdings are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo.
After the merger in 2003, Square Enix's development department was organized into eight Square and two Enix Product Development Divisions(開発事業部kaihatsu jigyōbu), each focused on different groupings of games. The divisions were spread around different offices; for example, Product Development Division 5 had offices both in Osaka and Tokyo.
According to Yoichi Wada, the development department was reorganized away from the Product Development Division System by March 2007 into a project-based system. 1st Production Department(第1制作部dai-ichi seisakubu). The 1st Production Department was formed from the fall 2010 combination of Square Enix's Tokyo and Osaka development studios, with Shinji Hashimoto as its corporate executive.Until 2013, the teams in charge of the Final Fantasy and Kingdom Hearts series were still collectively referred to as the
During December 2013, Square Enix's development was restructured into 12 Business Divisions.The former Twitter account of the 1st Production Department is now used to distribute information on the games developed by Business Divisions 1 to 4. Yoshinori Kitase is the Head of Business Division 1, Hajime Tabata is the Head of Business Division 2, Shinji Hashimoto is the Head of Business Division 3, Ichiro Hazama is the Head of Business Division 4, Naoki Yoshida is the Head of Business Division 5, Yu Miyake is the Head of Business Division 6, Takamasa Shiba is the Head of Business Division 7, Kei Hirono and Tomohiro Hasegawa are the Heads of Business Division 8, Joji Yamanaka and Toshinori Mizumachi are the Heads of Business Division 9, Yuki Watanabe is the Head of Business Division 10 and Tomoya Asano is the Head of Business Division 11.
Square Enix announced on a financial results conference with their investors that their eleven Business Divisions would be consolidated into four in 2020.
The business model of Square Enix is centered on the idea of "polymorphic content", which consists of developing franchises on multiple potential hardware or media rather than being restricted by a single gaming platform.An early example of this strategy is Enix's Fullmetal Alchemist manga series, which has been adapted into two anime television series, two movies, and several novels and video games. Other polymorphic projects include Compilation of Final Fantasy VII , Code Age , World of Mana , Ivalice Alliance and as of 2016 the ongoing Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy series. According to Yoichi Wada, "It's very difficult to hit the jackpot, as it were. Once we've hit it, we have to get all the juice possible out of it". Similar to Sony's Greatest Hits program, Square Enix also re-releases their best selling games at a reduced price under a label designated "Ultimate Hits".
The standard game design model Square Enix employs is to establish the plot, characters and art of the game first.Battle systems, field maps and cutscenes are created next. According to Taku Murata, this process became the company's model for development after the success of Square's Final Fantasy VII in 1997. The team size for Final Fantasy XIII peaked at 180 artists, 30 programmers, and 36 game designers, but analysis and restructuring were done to outsource large-scale development in the future.
Square Enix's main concentration is on video gaming, and it is primarily known for its role-playing video game franchises.Of its properties, the Final Fantasy franchise, begun in 1987, is the best-selling, with a total worldwide sales of over 110 million units as of June 2014. The Dragon Quest franchise, begun in 1986, is also high-selling; it is considered one of the most popular game series in Japan and new installments regularly outsell other games at the times of their release, with a total worldwide sales of over 71 million units. More recently, the Kingdom Hearts series (developed in collaboration with Disney's Buena Vista Games beginning in 2002) has become popular, with over 20 million units sold as of March 2014. Other popular series developed by Square Enix include the SaGa series with nearly 10 million copies sold since 1989, the Mana series with over 6 million sales since 1991, and the Chrono series with over 5 million sold since 1995. In addition to their sales numbers, many Square Enix games have been highly reviewed; 27 Square Enix games were included in Famitsu magazine's 2006 "Top 100 Games Ever", with 7 in the top 10 and Final Fantasy X claiming the number 1 position. The company also won IGN's award for Best Developer of 2006 for the PlayStation 2.
Square and Enix initially targeted Nintendo home consoles with their games, but Square Enix currently develops games for a wide variety of systems.In the seventh generation of video game consoles, Square Enix released new installments from its major series across all three major systems, including Final Fantasy XIII on both the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, and Dragon Quest X on the Wii. Square Enix has also developed titles for handheld game consoles, including the Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, Nintendo 3DS and PlayStation Vita. In addition, they have published games for Microsoft Windows-based personal computers, and for various models of mobile phones and modern smartphones. Square Enix mobile phone games became available in 2004 on the Vodafone network in some European countries, including Germany, United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy.
Before its launch, Michihiro Sasaki, senior vice president of Square Enix, spoke about the PlayStation 3, saying "We don't want the PlayStation 3 to be the overwhelming loser, so we want to support them, but we don't want them to be the overwhelming winner either, so we can't support them too much."Square Enix continued to reiterate their devotion to multi-platform publishing in 2007, promising more support for the North American and European gaming markets where console pluralism is generally more prevalent than in Japan. Their interest in multi-platform development was made clear in 2008 when the previously PlayStation 3-exclusive game Final Fantasy XIII was announced for release on the Xbox 360.
In 2008, Square Enix released their first game for the iPod, Song Summoner: The Unsung Heroes .Square Enix made a new brand for younger children gaming that same year, known as Pure Dreams. Pure Dreams' first two games, Snoopy DS: Let's Go Meet Snoopy and His Friends! and Pingu's Wonderful Carnival were released that year. After acquiring Eidos in 2009, Square Enix combined it with its European publishing wing to create Square Enix Europe, which continues to publish Eidos franchises such as Tomb Raider (63 million sales), Hitman (15 million), Deus Ex (4 million), Thief (2.5 million) and Legacy of Kain (3.5 million). Square Enix has also served as the Japanese publisher for Ubisoft games since 2009.
Square Enix has developed two notable in-house game engines. In 2004, Square Enix began to work on a "common 3D format" that would allow the entire company to develop titles without being restricted to a specific platform: this led to the creation of a game engine named Crystal Tools, which is compatible with the PlayStation 3, the Xbox 360, Windows-based PCs and to some extent the Wii.It was first shown off at a tech demo shown off at E3 2005, and was later used for Final Fantasy XIII based on the demo's reception. Crystal Tools was also used for Final Fantasy Versus XIII before its re-branding as Final Fantasy XV and shift onto next-gen platforms. Refinement of the engine continued through the development of Final Fantasy XIII-2, and it underwent a major overhaul for Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII . No new titles have been announced for the engine, and it is believed that development of the engine has halted permanently in favor of the Square Enix Luminous Studio engine.
The second major in-house engine is Luminous Studio, intended for eighth-generation consoles, which was originally unveiled at E3 2012 through a tech demo titled Agni's Philosophy.The first major console title to be developed with Luminous Studio was Final Fantasy XV; the engine's development was done in tandem with the game, and the game's development helped the programming team optimize the engine.
In addition to Luminous Studio and custom engines made for individual games and platforms before and since, Square Enix often uses other companies' engines and programming languages for their video game properties. Epic Games' Unreal Engine 3 was used for games such as The Last Remnant and more recently Unreal Engine 4 has been used for projects including Dragon Quest XI and Kingdom Hearts 3. Unity has also been used internally for titles including I Am Setsuna, Lost Sphear and SaGa: Scarlet Grace. The Squirrel language had also been used for the WiiWare title Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: My Life as a King .
Before the merger, Enix published its first online game Cross Gate in Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan in 2001, and Square released Final Fantasy XI in Japan in 2002 for the PlayStation 2 and later the personal computer.With the huge success of Final Fantasy XI, the game was ported to the Xbox 360 two years later, and was the first MMORPG on the console. All versions of the game used PlayOnline, a cross-platform internet gaming platform and internet service developed by Square Enix. The platform was used as the online service for many games Square Enix developed and published throughout the decade. Due to the success of their MMORPG, Square Enix began a new project called Fantasy Earth: The Ring of Dominion . GamePot, a Japanese game portal, got the license to publish Fantasy Earth in Japan and it was released in Japan as "Fantasy Earth ZERO." In 2006, however, Square Enix dropped the Fantasy Earth Zero project, and sold it to GamePot. Square Enix released Concerto Gate , the sequel to Cross Gate, in 2007.
A next-gen MMORPG code named Rapture was developed by the Final Fantasy XI team using the company's Crystal Tools engine.It was unveiled at E3 2009 that the MMO, Final Fantasy XIV , for PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Windows, would be released on September 30, 2010. Dragon Quest X was announced in September 2011 as an MMORPG being developed for Nintendo's Wii and Wii U consoles, which released on August 2, 2012, and March 30, 2013, respectively. Like XIV, it used Crystal Tools.
Square Enix also made browser games and Facebook games, like Legend World, Chocobo's Crystal Tower and Knights of the Crystals, and online games for Yahoo! Japan, such as Monster x Dragon, Sengoku Ixa, Bravely Default: Praying Brage, Star Galaxy and Crystal Conquest.
On May 8, 2012, Square Enix announced a collaboration with Bigpoint Games to create a free-to-play cloud gaming platform that "throws players into 'limitless game worlds' directly through their web browser".The service was launched under the name CoreOnline in August 2012. Claiming "limited commercial take-up", the service was cancelled on November 29, 2013. Square Enix launched another online game service in Japan called Dive In on October 9, 2014, that allowed players to stream console games to their iOS or Android devices. The service was monetized by the amount of time players spent playing, with each game offered for free for thirty minutes. The service was cancelled on September 13, 2015.
With the merger of Taito businesses into Square Enix, the company gained possession of Taito's arcade infrastructure and facilities, and entered the arcade market in 2005.In 2010 Taito revealed NESiCAxLive, a cloud-based system of storing games and changing them through the internet instead of acquiring physical copies. This system was added to its many arcade gaming locations. The company continues to cater to the arcade audience in Japan with arcade-only titles, with game producers in 2015 stating that Square Enix as it has a loyal fan base that values the arcade gaming experience.
The company has made three forays into the film industry. The first, Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within (2001), was produced by Square subsidiary Square Pictures prior to the merger with Enix; Square Pictures is now a consolidated subsidiary of Square Enix.Its box-office failure caused Enix to delay the merger, which was already under consideration before the creation of the film, until Square became profitable once again. In 2005, Square Enix released Final Fantasy VII Advent Children , a CGI-animation movie based on the PlayStation game Final Fantasy VII , set two years after the events of the game. A Deus Ex film is currently in pre-production and as of 2014 is undergoing rewrites. In 2016 Square Enix revealed a new movie called Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV based in the world of Final Fantasy XV and a new web series released on YouTube and Crunchyroll entitled Brotherhood: Final Fantasy XV .
The company has a manga publishing division in Japan (originally from Enix) called Gangan Comics, which publishes content for the Japanese market only.In 2010, however, Square Enix launched a digital manga store for North American audiences via its Members services, which contains several notable series published in Gangan anthologies. Titles published by Gangan Comics include Fullmetal Alchemist , Soul Eater , and many others. Other titles include manga adaptations of various Square Enix games, like Dragon Quest , Kingdom Hearts and Star Ocean . Some of these titles have also been adapted into anime series. Fullmetal Alchemist is the most successful title of Square Enix's manga branch, with more than 64 million volumes sold worldwide. It is licensed in North America by Viz Media, while its two anime adaptations were licensed by Funimation Entertainment in the United States.
Square Enix has created merchandise for virtually all of their video game franchises, though many items are available only in Japan. Square Enix's former online gaming portal PlayOnline sold merchandise from game franchises including Parasite Eve , Vagrant Story , Chocobo Racing , Front Mission , Chrono Cross , and Final Fantasy .Mascots from game franchises are a popular focus for merchandise, such as the Chocobo from Final Fantasy, which has been seen as a rubber duck, a plush baby Chocobo, and on coffee mugs. Square Enix also designed a Chocobo character costume for the release of Chocobo Tales . The Slime character from Dragon Quest has also been frequently used in Square Enix merchandise, especially in Japan. On the Japanese Square Enix shopping website there is also a Slime-focused section called "Smile Slime". Slime merchandise includes plush toys, pencil cases, keychains, game controllers, a stylus, and several boardgames including one titled Dragon Quest Slime Racing. In Japan, pork filled steam buns shaped like slimes have been sold. For Dragon Quest's 25th anniversary, special items were sold including business cards, tote bags, and crystal figurines. Rabites from the Mana series have appeared in several pieces of Square Enix merchandise, including plush dolls, cushions, lighters, mouse pads, straps, telephone cards, and T-shirts. Square Enix has also made merchandise for series they do not own, including figures Mass Effect and Halo .
|Square Enix, Inc. (previously Square Soft Inc.)||March 1989||El Segundo, California, United States||American publishing and Japanese Intellectual Property localization. Founded as Square Soft, Inc. and merged in 2003 with sister subsidiaries Square USA and Square Electronic Arts to become Square Enix USA. Renamed to its current name in July 2004.|
|Gangan Comics||March 12, 1991||Tokyo, Japan||Manga and Magazine publishing division.|
|Square Enix Europe||December 1998||Blackfriars, London, United Kingdom||Flagship western subsidiary, European publishing, Tomb Raider series, Deus Ex series, Just Cause series.|
|Visual Works (previously Square Visual Works)||June 1999||Tokyo, Japan||CGI movie production division.|
|PlayOnline||January 28, 2000||Tokyo, Japan||Online gaming services division.|
|Square Enix (China) Co., Ltd.||February 28, 2005||Haidian District, Beijing, People's Republic of China||Chinese publishing. The successor to Square Enix Webstar Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.|
|Taito Corporation||September 28, 2005||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan||Square Enix Holdings arcade gaming subsidiary, Space Invaders series, Bubble Bobble series, Groove Coaster series.|
|Square Enix Mobile Studio||January 2008||Sapporo, Japan||Mobile games development and publishing division.|
|Square Enix Co., Ltd.||October 1, 2008||Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan||Flagship game development with Business Division 1 to 11 and publishing company, Final Fantasy series, Dragon Quest series, Kingdom Hearts series.|
|Beautiful Game Studios||April 22, 2009||London, United Kingdom||Square Enix Europe game development subsidiary, Championship Manager series.|
|Crystal Dynamics||April 22, 2009||Redwood City, California, United States||Square Enix Europe game development subsidiary.|
|Eidos Montréal||April 22, 2009||Montréal, Quebec, Canada||Square Enix Europe game development subsidiary.|
|Eidos Shanghai||April 22, 2009||Shanghai, People's Republic of China||Square Enix Europe subsidiary, Outsourcing support.|
|Hippos Lab||March 7, 2011||Tokyo, Japan||Square Enix Co., Ltd. Smartphone gaming subsidiary.|
|Square Enix Montréal||2012||Montréal, Quebec, Canada||Square Enix Europe Mobile game development subsidiary.|
|Tokyo RPG Factory||2015||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan||Square Enix Co., Ltd. game development subsidiary.|
|Square Enix Collective||2016||Blackfriars, London, United Kingdom||Service provider for indie developers.|
|Studio Istolia||February 21, 2017||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan||Square Enix Co., Ltd. game development subsidiary.|
|Luminous Productions||March 27, 2018||Tokyo, Japan||Square Enix Co., Ltd. game development subsidiary.|
|Name||Became subsidiary||Closed or sold||Location||Purpose||Ref.|
|Enix America Corporation Inc.||1990||November 1995||Redmond, Washington, United States||Enix's first American subsidiary.|
|Square USA, Inc (previously Square L.A., Inc.)||August 1995||April 1, 2003||Costa Mesa, California, United States||Square Co. Ltd's American research and development studio.|
|DigiCube||February 6, 1996||November 26, 2003||Tokyo, Japan||Square Co. Ltd. marketing and distribution subsidiary in Japan.|
|Square Electronic Arts||April 27, 1998||April 1, 2003||Costa Mesa, California, United States||Joint venture with Electronic Arts for American publishing.|
|Taito Soft Corporation (originally The Game Designers Studio)||June 22, 1999||March 11, 2010||Hirakawa-cho, 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan||Square Enix Co., Ltd. game development brand.|
|Enix America Inc.||1999||April 1, 2003||Seattle, King County, Washington, United States||A joint venture between Enix and Eidos Interactive to publish Enix games for Western markets.|
|Square Enix Webstar Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (previously Enix Webstar Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.)||2001||February 28, 2005||Beijing, China||Enix Chinese publishing division.|
|Eidos Hungary||2002 (Eidos Interactive)||April 19, 2010||Budapest, Hungary||Square Enix Europe game development subsidiary.|
|UIEvolution||March 2004||December 17, 2007||Bellevue, Washington, United States||Square Enix mobile software development division.|
|Taito Art Corporation||September 28, 2005||July 28, 2008||Tokyo, Japan||Travel and insurance agency division for Taito.|
|Taito Tech Co., Ltd.||September 28, 2005||July 28, 2008||Tokyo, Japan||Maintenance and transportation of amusement equipment for Taito.|
|Square Enix of Europe Holdings||December 4, 2008||April 26, 2016||London, England||Holding company for the group's operations in Europe|
|Eidos Interactive (originally SCi Games)||April 22, 2009||November 10, 2009||Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom||Western intellectual properties publishing subsidiary.|
|IO Interactive||April 22, 2009||June 16, 2017||Copenhagen, Denmark||Square Enix Europe game development subsidiary.|
|SPC‐NO.1 Co., Ltd||June 1, 2009||February 1, 2010||Tokyo, Japan||The parent shell company of ES1 Corporation that merged with Taito Corporation.|
|Smileworks||June 17, 2013||January 14, 2015||Jakarta, Indonesia||iOS, Android, Windows Phone and Nokia smartphones.|
|Shinra Technologies||September 18, 2014||January 2016||New York City, United States||Cloud services.|
Final Fantasy IV, known as Final Fantasy II for its initial North American release, is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Released in 1991, it is the fourth main installment of the Final Fantasy series. The game's story follows Cecil, a dark knight, as he tries to prevent the sorcerer Golbez from seizing powerful crystals and destroying the world. He is joined on this quest by a frequently changing group of allies. Final Fantasy IV introduced innovations that became staples of the Final Fantasy series and role-playing games in general. Its "Active Time Battle" system was used in five subsequent Final Fantasy games, and unlike prior games in the series, IV gave each character their own unchangeable character class.
The Chocobo is a fictional species from the Final Fantasy video game series made by Square and Square Enix. The creature is generally a flightless bird, though certain highly specialized breeds in some titles retain the ability to fly. It bears a resemblance to casuariiformes and ratites, capable of being ridden and otherwise used by player characters during gameplay. Chocobos first appeared in Final Fantasy II and have been featured in almost all subsequent Final Fantasy games, as well as making cameo appearances in numerous other games. A spin-off Chocobo series featuring chocobos has also been created.
Final Fantasy XI, also known as Final Fantasy XI Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), developed and published by Square as part of the Final Fantasy series. Designed and produced by Hiromichi Tanaka, it was released in Japan on May 16, 2002, for PlayStation 2 and Microsoft Windows-based personal computers in November of that year. The game was the first MMORPG to offer cross-platform play between PlayStation 2 and personal computer. It was also the Xbox 360's first MMORPG. All versions of the game require a monthly subscription to play.
PlayOnline is an online gaming service created by Square on January 28, 2000, and has been the launcher application and Internet service for many of the online PC, PlayStation 2 and Xbox 360 games the company publishes. Games hosted included Front Mission Online, Fantasy Earth: The Ring of Dominion, Tetra Master, and the Japanese releases of EverQuest II, Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII and JongHoLo. As of 2018, the PC version of Final Fantasy XI is the only remaining game supported by the service.
Final Fantasy is a media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi and owned by Square Enix that includes video games, motion pictures, and other merchandise. The series began in 1987 as an eponymous role-playing video game developed by Square, spawning a video game series that became the central focus of the franchise. The music of the Final Fantasy series refers to the soundtracks of the Final Fantasy series of video games, as well as the surrounding medley of soundtrack, arranged, and compilation albums. The series' music ranges from very light background music to emotionally intense interweavings of character and situation leitmotifs.
Final Fantasy Fables: Chocobo's Dungeon is a role-playing video game published by Square Enix for the Wii. It is an installment in the Chocobo series that focuses on Chocobo and his quest to free a town lost in time from eternal forgetfulness.
Dragon Quest & Final Fantasy in Itadaki Street Portable is a crossover party board video game in the long running Fortune Street series. The game is notable for its inclusion of characters from the Final Fantasy and Dragon Quest series of video games, being the second in the series to do so, the first being 2004's Dragon Quest & Final Fantasy in Itadaki Street Special for the PlayStation 2. Itadaki Street Portable was developed by Think Garage and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation Portable in Japan on May 25, 2006. As with other entries in the series prior to it, was not released in any other regions.
The Game Designers Studio, Inc. was a shell corporation founded in June 1999 by Square. The brand’s final iteration was known as Taito Soft Corporation, a 10-employee team designed for software development for consoles. The Game Designers Studio is associated with Taito Corporation for being the legal entity to assimilate Taito into the Square Enix group.
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road is a series of Japanese arcade games based on Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King. Players battle monsters and can win real-life cards with monster data imprinted on them. The first game, also titled Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road, was released in 2007 only in Japan, using the Taito Type X2 system. A sequel, Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road II Legends, was announced at the 2009 Jump Fiesta in Tokyo, and a third game in the series, Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road Victory, a port of the Legends game, was announced for the Wii in 2010. Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road Scanner was scheduled release for Arcade in 2016.
The Japanese video game developer and publisher Square Enix has been translating its games for North America since the late 1980s, and the PAL region and Asia since the late 1990s. It has not always released all of its games in all major regions, and continues to selectively release games even today depending on multiple factors such as the viability of platforms or the condition of the game itself. The process of localization has changed during that time from having a one-person team with a short time and tight memory capacities to having a team of translators preparing simultaneous launches in multiple languages.
Visual Works is a Japan-based CGI animation studio dedicated towards creating video game cut scenes and full-length feature films for Square Enix. Visual Works was founded as the CGI department for Square and was responsible for creating the pre-rendered CG openings for the company, starting with Final Fantasy VII in 1997.