Last updated
Mandarin Chinese, like many languages, can be romanized in a number of ways; above: Traditional and Simplified Chinese, and Hanyu Pinyin, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Wade-Giles and Yale. Gwoyu.svg
Mandarin Chinese, like many languages, can be romanized in a number of ways; above: Traditional and Simplified Chinese, and Hanyu Pinyin, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Wade-Giles and Yale.

In linguistics, romanization or romanisation is the conversion of text from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription , which records speech sounds with precision.



There are many consistent or standardized romanization systems. They can be classified by their characteristics. A particular system's characteristics may make it better-suited for various, sometimes contradictory applications, including document retrieval, linguistic analysis, easy readability, faithful representation of pronunciation.


If the romanization attempts to transliterate the original script, the guiding principle is a one-to-one mapping of characters in the source language into the target script, with less emphasis on how the result sounds when pronounced according to the reader's language. For example, the Nihon-shiki romanization of Japanese allows the informed reader to reconstruct the original Japanese kana syllables with 100% accuracy, but requires additional knowledge for correct pronunciation.



Most romanizations are intended to enable the casual reader who is unfamiliar with the original script to pronounce the source language reasonably accurately. Such romanizations follow the principle of phonemic transcription and attempt to render the significant sounds (phonemes) of the original as faithfully as possible in the target language. The popular Hepburn Romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers.


A phonetic conversion goes one step further and attempts to depict all phones in the source language, sacrificing legibility if necessary by using characters or conventions not found in the target script. In practice such a representation almost never tries to represent every possible allophone—especially those that occur naturally due to coarticulation effects—and instead limits itself to the most significant allophonic distinctions. The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most common system of phonetic transcription.


For most language pairs, building a usable romanization involves trade between the two extremes. Pure transcriptions are generally not possible, as the source language usually contains sounds and distinctions not found in the target language, but which must be shown for the romanized form to be comprehensible. Furthermore, due to diachronic and synchronic variance no written language represents any spoken language with perfect accuracy and the vocal interpretation of a script may vary by a great degree among languages. In modern times the chain of transcription is usually spoken foreign language, written foreign language, written native language, spoken (read) native language. Reducing the number of those processes, i.e. removing one or both steps of writing, usually leads to more accurate oral articulations. In general, outside a limited audience of scholars, romanizations tend to lean more towards transcription. As an example, consider the Japanese martial art 柔術: the Nihon-shiki romanization zyûzyutu may allow someone who knows Japanese to reconstruct the kana syllables じゅうじゅつ, but most native English speakers, or rather readers, would find it easier to guess the pronunciation from the Hepburn version, jūjutsu .

Romanization of specific writing systems


The Arabic alphabet is used to write Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Pashto and Sindhi as well as numerous other languages in the Muslim world, particularly African and Asian languages without alphabets of their own. Romanization standards include the following:


IPADMG (1969)ALA-LC (1997)BGN/PCGN (1958)EI (1960)EI (2012)UN (1967)UN (2012)Pronunciation
U+0627اʔ, [lower-alpha 1] ʾ, — [lower-alpha 2] ʼ, — [lower-alpha 2] ʾ_____
U+0628بbbB as in Bob
U+067EپppP as in pet
U+062AتttT as in tall
U+062Bثst͟hsS as in sand
U+062Cجǧjjd͟jjjJ as in jam
U+0686چčchchčchčCh as in Charlie
U+062Dحhḩ/ḥ [lower-alpha 3] hH as in holiday
U+062FدddD as in Dave
U+0630ذzd͟hzZ as in zero
U+0631رrrR as in rabbit
U+0632زzzZ as in zero
U+0698ژʒžzhzhz͟hžzhžS as in television

or G as in genre

U+0633سssS as in Sam
U+0634شʃšshshs͟hšshšSh as in sheep
U+0635صsş/ṣ [lower-alpha 3] şsS as in Sam
U+0636ضzżżzZ as in zero
U+0637طtţ/ṭ [lower-alpha 3] ţtt as in tank
U+0638ظzz̧/ẓ [lower-alpha 3] zZ as in zero
U+0639عʿʻʼ [lower-alpha 2] ʻʻʿʿ- as in uh-oh
U+063Aغɢ~ɣġghghg͟hghqsomewhat resembling French R
U+0641فffF as in Fred
U+0642قɢ~ɣqqsomewhat resembling French R
U+06A9کkkC as in card
U+06AFگɡgG as in go
U+0644لllL as in lamp
U+0645مmmM as in Michael
U+0646نnnN as in name
U+0648وv~w [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 4] vv, w [lower-alpha 5] vV as in vision
U+0647هh [lower-alpha 1] hhh [lower-alpha 6] hh [lower-alpha 6] h [lower-alpha 6] H as in hot
U+0629ة∅,th [lower-alpha 7] t [lower-alpha 8] h [lower-alpha 7]
U+06CCیj [lower-alpha 1] yY as in Yale
Vowels [lower-alpha 9]
UnicodeFinalMedialInitialIsolatedIPADMG (1969)ALA-LC (1997)BGN/PCGN (1958)EI (2012)UN (1967)UN (2012)Pronunciation
U+064EـَـَاَاَæaaaaaaA as in cat
U+064FـُـُاُاُoooouooO as in go
U+0648 U+064Fـوَـوَo [lower-alpha 10] ooouooO as in go
U+0650ـِـِاِاِeeieeeeE as in ten
U+064E U+0627ـَاـَاآآɑː~ɒːāāāāāāO as in hot
U+0622ـآـآآآɑː~ɒːā, ʾā [lower-alpha 11] ā, ʼā [lower-alpha 11] āāāāO as in hot
U+064E U+06CCـَیɑː~ɒːāááāáāO as in hot
U+06CC U+0670ـیٰɑː~ɒːāááāāāO as in hot
U+064F U+0648ـُوـُواُواُوuː, [lower-alpha 5] ūūūu, ō [lower-alpha 5] ūuU as in actual
U+0650 U+06CCـِیـِیـاِیـاِیiː, [lower-alpha 5] īīīi, ē [lower-alpha 5] īiY as in happy
U+064E U+0648ـَوـَواَواَوow~aw [lower-alpha 5] auawowow, aw [lower-alpha 5] owowO as in go
U+064E U+06CCـَیـَیـاَیـاَیej~aj [lower-alpha 5] aiayeyey, ay [lower-alpha 5] eyeyAy as in play
U+064E U+06CCـیِ–e,–je–e, –ye–i, –yi–e, –ye–e, –ye–e, –ye–e, –yeYe as in yes
U+06C0ـهٔ–je–ye–ʼi–ye–ye–ye–yeYe as in yes


  1. 1 2 3 4 Used as a vowel as well.
  2. 1 2 3 Hamza and ayn are not transliterated at the beginning of words.
  3. 1 2 3 4 The dot below may be used instead of cedilla.
  4. At the beginning of words the combination خو was pronounced /xw/ or /xʷ/ in Classical Persian. In modern varieties the glide /ʷ/ has been lost, though the spelling has not been changed. It may be still heard in Dari as a relict pronunciation. The combination /xʷa/ was changed to /xo/ (see below).
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 In Dari.
  6. 1 2 3 Not transliterated at the end of words.
  7. 1 2 In the combination یة at the end of words.
  8. When used instead of ت at the end of words.
  9. Diacritical signs ( harakat ) are rarely written.
  10. After خ from the earlier /xʷa/. Often transliterated as xwa or xva. For example, خور/xor/ "sun" was /xʷar/ in Classical Persian.
  11. 1 2 After vowels.



Georgian letter IPA National system
ISO 9984
Unofficial systemKartvelo translitNGR2
[lower-alpha 1] /eɪ/eyēēéej
/tʰ/tT [lower-alpha 2] or ttt / t̊
[lower-alpha 1] /i/,/j/jyyjĩ
/ʒ/zhzhžžJ, [lower-alpha 2] zh or jž
[lower-alpha 1] /w/wwŭ
/pʰ/pp or fpp / p̊
/kʰ/kq or kq or kk / k̊
/ʁ/ghghġg, gh or R [lower-alpha 2] g, gh or R [lower-alpha 2]
/qʼ/qqqy [lower-alpha 3] qq
/ʃ/shshššsh or S [lower-alpha 2] šx
/t͡ʃ(ʰ)/chchʼč̕čʻch or C [lower-alpha 2] č
/t͡s(ʰ)/tstsʼc or tscc
/d͡z/dzdzjżdz or Z [lower-alpha 2] ʒ
/t͡sʼ/tsʼtsccw, c or tsʃ
/t͡ʃʼ/chʼchččW, [lower-alpha 2] ch or tchʃ̌
/χ/khkhxxx or kh (rarely)x
[lower-alpha 1] /q/,/qʰ/
[lower-alpha 1] /oː/ōōȯ


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Archaic letters.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 These are influenced by aforementioned layout, and are preferred to avoid ambiguity, as an expressions: t, j, g, ch can mean two letters.
  3. Initially, the use of letter y for ყ is most probably due to their resemblance to each other.


There are romanization systems for both Modern and Ancient Greek.


The Hebrew alphabet is romanized using several standards:

Indic (Brahmic) scripts

The Brahmic family of abugidas is used for languages of the Indian subcontinent and south-east Asia. There is a long tradition in the west to study Sanskrit and other Indic texts in Latin transliteration. Various transliteration conventions have been used for Indic scripts since the time of Sir William Jones. [13]

Devanagari–nastaʿlīq (Hindustani)

Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language with extreme digraphia and diglossia resulting from the Hindi–Urdu controversy starting in the 1800s. Technically, Hindustani itself is recognized by neither the language community nor any governments. Two standardized registers, Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu, are recognized as official languages in India and Pakistan. However, in practice the situation is,

  • In Pakistan: Standard (Saaf or Khaalis) Urdu is the "high" variety, whereas Hindustani is the "low" variety used by the masses (called Urdu, written in nastaʿlīq script).
  • In India, both Standard (Shuddh) Hindi and Standard (Saaf or Khaalis) Urdu are the "H" varieties (written in devanagari and nastaʿlīq respectively), whereas Hindustani is the "L" variety used by the masses and written in either devanagari or nastaʿlīq (and called 'Hindi' or 'Urdu' respectively).

The digraphia renders any work in either script largely inaccessible to users of the other script, though otherwise Hindustani is a perfectly mutually intelligible language, essentially meaning that any kind of text-based open source collaboration is impossible among devanagari and nastaʿlīq readers.

Initiated in 2011, the Hamari Boli Initiative [15] is a full-scale open-source language planning initiative aimed at Hindustani script, style, status & lexical reform and modernization. One of primary stated objectives of Hamari Boli is to relieve Hindustani of the crippling devanagari–nastaʿlīq digraphia by way of romanization. [16]


Romanization of the Sinitic languages, particularly Mandarin, has proved a very difficult problem, although the issue is further complicated by political considerations. Because of this, many romanization tables contain Chinese characters plus one or more romanizations or Zhuyin.


Mainland China
  • Hanyu Pinyin (1958): In mainland China, Hanyu Pinyin has been used officially to romanize Mandarin for decades, primarily as a linguistic tool for teaching the standardized language. The system is also used in other Chinese-speaking areas such as Singapore and parts of Taiwan, and has been adopted by much of the international community as a standard for writing Chinese words and names in the Latin script. The value of Hanyu Pinyin in education in China lies in the fact that China, like any other populated area with comparable area and population, has numerous distinct dialects, though there is just one common written language and one common standardized spoken form. (These comments apply to romanization in general)
  • ISO 7098 (1991): Based on Hanyu Pinyin.
  1. Gwoyeu Romatzyh (GR, 1928–1986, in Taiwan 1945–1986; Taiwan used Japanese Romaji before 1945),
  2. Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II, 1986–2002),
  3. Tongyong Pinyin (2002–2008), [19] [20] and
  4. Hanyu Pinyin (since January 1, 2009). [21] [22]


Min Nan or Hokkien


Min Dong

Min Bei


Romanization (or, more generally, Roman letters) is called "rōmaji" in Japanese. The most common systems are:


While romanization has taken various and at times seemingly unstructured forms, some sets of rules do exist:

Several problems with MR led to the development of the newer systems:


Thai, spoken in Thailand and some areas of Laos, Burma and China, is written with its own script, probably descended from mixture of Tai–Laotian and Old Khmer, in the Brahmic family.


The Nuosu language, spoken in southern China, is written with its own script, the Yi script. The only existing romanisation system is YYPY (Yi Yu Pin Yin), which represents tone with letters attached to the end of syllables, as Nuosu forbids codas. It does not use diacritics, and as such due to the large phonemic inventory of Nuosu, it requires frequent use of digraphs, including for monophthong vowels.


In English language library catalogues, bibliographies, and most academic publications, the Library of Congress transliteration method is used worldwide.

In linguistics, scientific transliteration is used for both Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. This applies to Old Church Slavonic, as well as modern Slavic languages that use these alphabets.



A system based on scientific transliteration and ISO/R 9:1968 was considered official in Bulgaria since the 1970s. Since the late 1990s, Bulgarian authorities have switched to the so-called Streamlined System avoiding the use of diacritics and optimized for compatibility with English. This system became mandatory for public use with a law passed in 2009. [29] Where the old system uses <č,š,ž,št,c,j,ă>, the new system uses <ch,sh,zh,sht,ts,y,a>.

The new Bulgarian system was endorsed for official use also by UN in 2012, [30] and by BGN and PCGN in 2013. [31]




There is no single universally accepted system of writing Russian using the Latin script—in fact there are a huge number of such systems: some are adjusted for a particular target language (e.g. German or French), some are designed as a librarian's transliteration, some are prescribed for Russian travellers' passports; the transcription of some names is purely traditional.   All this has resulted in great reduplication of names.   E.g. the name of the Russian composer Tchaikovsky may also be written as Tchaykovsky, Tchajkovskij, Tchaikowski, Tschaikowski, Czajkowski, Čajkovskij, Čajkovski, Chajkovskij, Çaykovski, Chaykovsky, Chaykovskiy, Chaikovski, Tshaikovski, Tšaikovski, Tsjajkovskij etc. Systems include:

  • BGN/PCGN (1947): Transliteration system (United States Board on Geographic Names & Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use). [32]
  • GOST 16876-71 (1971): A now defunct Soviet transliteration standard. Replaced by GOST 7.79, which is an ISO 9 equivalent.
  • United Nations romanization system for geographical names (1987): Based on GOST 16876-71.
  • ISO 9 (1995): Transliteration. From the International Organization for Standardization.
  • ALA-LC (1997) [33]
  • "Volapuk" encoding (1990s): Slang term (it is not really Volapük) for a writing method that is not truly a transliteration, but used for similar goals (see article).
  • Conventional English transliteration is based to BGN/PCGN, but does not follow a particular standard. Described in detail at Romanization of Russian.
  • Streamlined System [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] for the romanization of Russian.
  • Comparative transliteration of Russian [39] in different languages (Western European, Arabic, Georgian, Braille, Morse)


The Latin script for Syriac was developed in the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, with some material published. [40]


The 2010 Ukrainian National system has been adopted by the UNGEGN in 2012 and by the BGN/PCGN in 2020. It is also very close to the modified (simplified) ALA-LC system, which has remained unchanged since 1941.

  • ALA-LC [41]
  • ISO 9
  • Ukrainian National transliteration [42]
  • Ukrainian National and BGN/PCGN systems, at the UN Working Group on Romanization Systems [43]
  • Thomas T. Pedersen's comparison of five systems [44]

Overview and summary

The chart below shows the most common phonemic transcription romanization used for several different alphabets. While it is sufficient for many casual users, there are multiple alternatives used for each alphabet, and many exceptions. For details, consult each of the language sections above. (Hangul characters are broken down into jamo components.)

RomanizedIPA Greek Cyrillic Amazigh Hebrew Arabic Persian Katakana Hangul Bopomofo
AaAАַ, ֲ, ָَ, اا, آ
AIaiי ַ
BbΜΠ, ΒБבּﺏ ﺑ ﺒ ﺐﺏ ﺑ
DdΝΤ, ΔДⴷ, ⴹד — ﺪ, ﺽ ﺿ ﻀ ﺾد
DHðΔדֿ — ﺬ
Ee/ɛΕ, ΑΙЭ, ֱ, י ֵֶ, ֵ, י ֶ
FfΦФפ (or its final form ף )ﻑ ﻓ ﻔ ﻒ
GɡΓΓ, ΓΚ, ΓГⴳ, ⴳⵯגگ
GHɣΓҒגֿ, עֿﻍ ﻏ ﻐ ﻎق غ
HhΗҺⵀ, ⵃח, הﻩ ﻫ ﻬ ﻪ, ﺡ ﺣ ﺤ ﺢه ح ﻫ
Ii/ɪΗ, Ι, Υ, ΕΙ, ΟΙИ, Іִ, י ִدِ
JʤTZ̈ДЖ, Џג׳ﺝ ﺟ ﺠ ﺞج
KkΚКⴽ, ⴽⵯכּﻙ ﻛ ﻜ ﻚک
KHxXХכ, חֿ (or its final form ך )ﺥ ﺧ ﺨ ﺦخ
LlΛЛלﻝ ﻟ ﻠ ﻞل
MmΜМמ (or its final form ם )ﻡ ﻣ ﻤ ﻢم
NnΝНנ (or its final form ן )ﻥ ﻧ ﻨ ﻦن
OoΟ, ΩО, ֳ, וֹֹُا
QqΘקﻕ ﻗ ﻘ ﻖغ ق
RrΡРⵔ, ⵕר — ﺮر
SsΣСⵙ, ⵚס, שׂﺱ ﺳ ﺴ ﺲ, ﺹ ﺻ ﺼ ﺺس ث ص
SHʃΣ̈Шשׁﺵ ﺷ ﺸ ﺶش
TtΤТⵜ, ⵟט, תּ, תﺕ ﺗ ﺘ ﺖ, ﻁ ﻃ ﻄ ﻂت ط
THθΘתֿﺙ ﺛ ﺜ ﺚ
TSʦΤΣЦצ (or its final form ץ )
UuΟΥ, ΥУ, וֻּدُ
WwΩו, וו — ﻮ
Xx/ksΞ, Χ
YjΥ, Ι, ΓΙЙ, Ы, Јיﻱ ﻳ ﻴ ﻲی
YEjeЕ, Є
ZzΖЗⵣ, ⵥז — ﺰ, ﻅ ﻇ ﻈ ﻆز ظ ذ ض

See also

Related Research Articles

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways, such as Greek ⟨α⟩⟨a⟩, Cyrillic ⟨д⟩⟨d⟩, Greek ⟨χ⟩ → the digraph ⟨ch⟩, Armenian ⟨ն⟩⟨n⟩ or Latin ⟨æ⟩⟨ae⟩.

Uyghur is a Turkic language with a long literary tradition spoken in Xinjiang, China by the Uyghurs. Today, the Uyghur Arabic alphabet is the official writing system used for Uyghur in Xinjiang, whereas other alphabets like the Uyghur Latin and Uyghur Cyrillic alphabets are still in use outside China, especially in Central Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanization of Russian</span> Romanization of the Russian alphabet

The romanization of the Russian language, aside from its primary use for including Russian names and words in text written in a Latin alphabet, is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN). In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their keyboard layout, such as for English QWERTY keyboards, and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic.

ISO 15919 is one of a series of international standards for romanization by the International Organization for Standardization. It was published in 2001 and uses diacritics to map the much larger set of consonants and vowels in Brahmic and Nastaliq scripts to the Latin script.

The romanization of Ukrainian, or Latinization of Ukrainian, is the representation of the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration and transcription.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanization of Hebrew</span> Transcription of Hebrew into the Latin alphabet

The Hebrew language uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words.

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanization of Bulgarian</span> Transliteration of Bulgarian text

Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanization of Arabic</span> Representation of Arabic in Latin script

The romanization of Arabic is the systematic rendering of written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script. Romanized Arabic is used for various purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used instead of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ukrainian Latin alphabet</span> Latin script versions of the Ukrainian alphabet

The Ukrainian Latin alphabet is the form of the Latin script used for writing, transliteration and retransliteration of Ukrainian.

The romanization of Khmer is a representation of the Khmer (Cambodian) language using letters of the Latin alphabet. This is most commonly done with Khmer proper nouns, such as names of people and geographical names, as in a gazetteer.

Scientific transliteration, variously called academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly transliteration, is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This system is most often seen in linguistics publications on Slavic languages.

Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet.

BGN/PCGN romanization system for Russian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Russian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet as used in the English language.

The American Library Association and Library of Congress Romanization Tables for Russian, or the Library of Congress system, are a set of rules for the romanization of Russian-language text from Cyrillic script to Latin script.

The romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in Macedonian from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by North Macedonia's authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanization of Persian</span> Representation of the Persian language with the Latin script

Romanization or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

There are various systems of romanization of the Armenian alphabet.

The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping, Geographical Names Committee and former Script Reform Committee of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanizations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters. These systems may be referred to as SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions or SASM/GNC romanizations.

Romanization of the Burmese alphabet is representation of the Burmese language or Burmese names in the Latin alphabet.


  1. "Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft". Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  2. "Standards, Training, Testing, Assessment and Certification". BSI Group . Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  3. "Arabic" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  4. "Qalam: A Convention for Morphological rabic-Latin-Arabic Transliteration". Archived from the original (TXT) on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  5. "Buckwalter Arabic Transliteration". Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  6. Beesley, Ken (2010-11-22). "The Buckwalter Transliteration". Xerox Research Centre Europe. Archived from the original on 2002-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  7. "Arabic" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  8. "Greek" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  9. "The TLG® Beta Code Manual 2004" (PDF). Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. University of California, Irvine. June 23, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2006.
  10. Lefort, Francois; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A. "Transliteration scheme ISO 843". University of Crete. Archived from the original on December 10, 2004.
  11. "Hebrew" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  12. "Hebrew and Yiddish" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  13. Gabriel Pradīpaka. "Sanskrit 3: comparing transliteration systems". Archived from the original on 2004-03-15. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  14. "Hindi" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  15. "What is HamariBoli?". HamariBoli. 2011-06-15. Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  16. The News International - Dec 29, 2011 Archived June 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine – "Hamari Boli (our language) is perhaps one of the very first serious undertakings to explore, develop and encourage the growth of Roman script in the use of Urdu/Hindi language."
  17. "Chinese" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  18. "New Chinese Romanization Guidelines". Library of Congress. 1998-11-03. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  19. "Tongyong Pinyin the new system for romanization". Taipei Times. 2002-07-11.
  20. "Taiwan Authority Concerned Passes Tongyong Pinyin Scheme". People's Daily Online. 2002-07-12.
  21. "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times. 2008-09-18.
  22. "Gov't to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 2008-09-18. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19.
  23. "Japanese" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2014-09-28.
  24. "Korean" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  25. "A superficial comparison between the two". Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  26. "Korean Romanization Reference". Archived from the original on February 14, 2006.
  27. "Thai" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  28. "Belarusian" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  29. State Gazette # 19, Sofia, 13 March 2009. (in Bulgarian)
  30. "UN Romanization of Bulgarian for Geographical Names (1977)". Retrieved 2015-06-27.
  31. "Romanization System for Bulgarian, BGN/PCGN 1952 System" (PDF). National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 19, 2007.
  32. "Cyrillic Translations". Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  33. "Russian" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  34. Dimiter Dobrev. "Транслитерация" [Transliteration]. (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  35. Basic and Optimized Archived 2016-04-12 at the Wayback Machine Romanization of Russian. 2006–2016.
  36. L. Ivanov. "Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic". Contrastive Linguistics. XLII (2017) No. 2. pp. 66-73. ISSN   0204-8701
  37. Interscript. Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic (Basic Streamlined System).
  38. Interscript. Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic (Optimized Streamlined System).
  39. "Транслитерация русского алфавита" [Transliteration of the Russian alphabet]. (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  40. S.P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)
  41. "Ukrainian" (PDF). Library of Congress . Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  42. "Додаток до рішення № 9". Archived from the original on March 7, 2005.
  43. "Ukrainian" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  44. "Ukrainian" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-07-02.
About romanization
Romanization online