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**Roman numerals** are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:^{ [1] }

A **numeral system** is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.

In historiography, **ancient Rome** is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

The **Late Middle Ages** or **Late Medieval Period** was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period.

- Description
- A "base 10" system
- Variant forms
- Origin of the system
- Etruscan numerals
- Early Roman numerals
- Use in the Middle Ages and Renaissance
- Modern use
- Specific disciplines
- Modern use in continental Europe
- Special values
- Zero
- Fractions
- Large numbers
- Unicode
- See also
- References
- Notes
- Citations
- Sources
- Further reading
- External links

The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Arabic numerals; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day.

The **Roman Empire** was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, North Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and its city of Rome as sole capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided into a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when it sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople following the capture of Ravenna by the barbarians of Odoacer and the subsequent deposition of Romulus Augustus. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to Germanic kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

**Arabic numerals** are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The term often implies a decimal number written using these digits, which is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today, and is also called **Hindu–Arabic numerals**. However the term can mean the digits themselves, such as in the statement "octal numbers are written using Arabic numerals."

One place they are often seen is on clock faces. For instance, on the clock of Big Ben (designed in 1852), the hours from 1 to 12 are written as:

A **clock face**, or **dial**, is the part of an analog clock that displays the time through the use of a fixed-numbered dial or dials and moving hands. In its most basic form, recognized throughout the world, the periphery of the dial is numbered 1 through 12 indicating the hours in a 12-hour cycle, and a short *hour hand* makes two revolutions in a day. A long *minute hand* makes one revolution every hour. The face may also include a *second hand*, which makes one revolution per minute. The term is less commonly used for the time display on digital clocks and watches.

**Big Ben** is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was originally the **Clock Tower**, but it was renamed **Elizabeth Tower** in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

**I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII**

The notations IV and IX can be read as "one less than five" (4) and "one less than ten" (9), although there is a strong tradition favouring representation of "4" as "IIII" on Roman numeral clocks.^{ [2] }

Other common uses include year numbers on monuments and buildings and copyright dates on the title screens of movies and television programs. MCM, signifying "a thousand, and a hundred less than another thousand", means 1900, so 1912 is written MCMXII. For this century, MM indicates 2000. Thus the current year is MMXIX (2019).

There is not, and never has been, an "official", "binding", or universally accepted standard for Roman numerals.^{ [lower-alpha 1] } Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained somewhat inconsistent in medieval times and later.^{ [4] } The "rules" of the system as it is now applied have been established only by general usage over the centuries.

Roman numerals are essentially a decimal or "base 10" number system. Powers of ten – thousands, hundreds, tens and units – are written separately, from left to right, in that order. In the absence of "place keeping" zeros, different symbols are used for each power of ten, but a common pattern is used for each of them.

The underlying form of this pattern employs the symbols I and V (representing 1 and 5) as simple tally marks, to build the numbers from 1 to 9. Each marker for 1 (I) adds a unit value up to 5 (V), and is then added to (V) to make the numbers from 6 to 9. Finally the unit symbol for the next power completes a "finger count" sequence:

**I, II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X**.

At some early time the Romans started to use the abbreviated forms IV ("one less than 5") for IIII and IX ("one less than 10") for VIIII - a convention that has been widely, although not universally, used ever since.^{ [lower-alpha 2] } This convention is called "subtractive" notation,^{ [5] } as opposed to the purely "additive" notation of IIII and VIIII.^{ [6] } Thus the numbers from 1 to 10 are generally written as

**I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X**.^{ [7] }

The multiples of 10, from 10 to 100, are written according to the same pattern, with X, L, and C taking the place of I, V, and X

**X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC, C**.

Note that 40 is usually written XL ("10 less than 50") rather than XXXX, and 90 as XC ("10 less than 100") rather than LXXXX.

Similarly, the multiples of 100, 100 to 1000, are written as

**C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM, M**.

where CD is to be read as "100 less than 500" (that is, 400), and CM as "100 less than 1000" (that is, 900).

Since the system has no standard symbols for 5,000 and 10,000, the full pattern cannot be extended to the multiples of 1000 – restricting the "thousands" range of "normal" Roman numerals to 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000:

**M, MM, MMM.**

A number containing several decimal places is represented, as in the Arabic system, by writing its power-of-ten parts — thousands, hundreds, tens and units — in sequence, from left to right, in descending order of value. For example:

- 39 = 30 + 9 = XXX + IX =
**XXXIX**. - 246 = 200 + 40 + 6 = CC + XL + VI =
**CCXLVI**. - 789 = 700 + 80 + 9 = DCC + LXXX + IX =
**DCCLXXXIX**. - 2,421 = 2000 + 400 + 20 + 1 = MM + CD + XX + I =
**MMCDXXI**.

Any missing place (represented by a zero in the Arabic equivalent) is omitted, as in Latin (and English) speech:

- 160 = 100 + 60 = C + LX =
**CLX** - 207 = 200 + 7 = CC + VII =
**CCVII** - 1,009 = 1,000 + 9 = M + IX =
**MIX** - 1,066 = 1,000 + 60 + 6 = M + LX + VI =
**MLXVI**^{ [8] }^{ [9] }

Roman numerals for large numbers are nowadays seen mainly in the form of year numbers, as in these examples:

- 1776 = 1,000 + 700 + 70 + 6 = M + DCC + LXX + VI =
**MDCCLXXVI**(the date written on the book held by the Statue of Liberty).^{ [10] }^{[ unreliable source? ]} - 1954 = 1,000 + 900 + 50 + 4 = M + CM + L + IV =
**MCMLIV**(as in the trailer for the movie*The Last Time I Saw Paris*)^{ [3] } - 2014 = 2,000 + 10 + 4 = MM + X + IV =
**MMXIV**(the year of the games of the XXII (22nd) Olympic Winter Games (in Sochi) - The current year (2019) is
**MMXIX**.

The largest number that can be represented in this notation is 3,999 (3,000 + 900 + 90 + 9 = MMM + CM + XC + IX = **MMMCMXCIX**).^{ [lower-alpha 3] }

Forms exist that vary in one way or another from the general "standard" described above.

While subtractive notation for multiples of 4 (IV, XL and CD) has been the *usual* form since Roman times, additive notation (IIII, XXXX,^{ [11] } and CCCC^{ [11] }) continued to be used, including in compound numbers like XXIIII,^{ [12] }LXXIIII,^{ [13] } and CCCCLXXXX.^{ [14] } The additive forms for 9, 90, and 900 (VIIII,^{ [11] }LXXXX,^{ [15] } and DCCCC^{ [16] }) have also been used, although less frequently.

The two conventions could be mixed in the same document or inscription, even in the same numeral. On the numbered gates to the Colosseum, for instance, IIII is systematically used instead of IV, but subtractive notation is used for other digits; so that gate 44 is labelled XLIIII.^{ [17] } Isaac Asimov speculates that the use of IV, as the initial letters of "IVPITER" (a classical Latin spelling of the name of the Roman god Jupiter) may have been felt to have been impious in this context.^{ [18] }

Modern clock faces that use Roman numerals still usually employ IIII for four o'clock but IX for nine o'clock, a practice that goes back to very early clocks such as the Wells Cathedral clock of the late 14th century.^{ [19] }^{ [20] }^{ [21] } However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster tower, "Big Ben", uses a subtractive IV for 4 o'clock.^{ [20] }

Several monumental inscriptions created in the early 20th century use variant forms for "1900" (usually written MCM). These vary from MDCCCCX - a classical use of additive notation for MCMX (1910), as seen on Admiralty Arch, London, to the more unusual, if not unique MDCDIII for MCMIII (1903), on the north entrance to the Saint Louis Art Museum.^{ [22] }

Sometimes 5 and 50 have been written IIIII and XXXXX instead of V and L, and there are instances such as IIIIII and XXXXXX rather than VI or LX.^{ [23] }^{ [24] }

The irregular use of subtractive notation, such as IIIXX for 17,^{ [25] }IIXX for 18,^{ [26] }IIIC for 97,^{ [27] }IIC for 98,^{ [28] }^{ [29] } and IC for 99^{ [30] } were occasionally used in more modern times. A possible explanation is that the word for 18 in Latin was *duodeviginti*, literally "two from twenty". Similarly, the words for 98 and 99 were *duodecentum* (two from hundred) and *undecentum* (one from hundred), respectively.^{ [31] } These ways of saying 18, 98 and 99 have been attributed to influence from the Etruscans, who would say *ciem zaθrum* (three from twenty) for 17, *eslem zaθrum* (two from twenty) for 18 and *θunem zaθrum* (one from twenty) for 19.^{ [32] } However, the explanation does not seem to apply to IIIXX and IIIC, since the Latin words for 17 and 97 were *septendecim* (seven ten) and *nonaginta septem* (ninety seven), respectively.

Another example of irregular subtractive notation is the use of XIIX for 18. It was used by officers of the XVIII Roman Legion to write their number.^{ [33] }^{ [34] } The notation appears prominently on the cenotaph of their senior centurion Marcus Caelius (c. 45 BC – AD 9). There does not seem to be a linguistic explanation for this use, although it is one stroke shorter than XVIII.

While the subtractive and additive notations seem to have been used interchangeably through history, some other Roman numerals have been occasionally observed that do not fit either system. Some of these variants do not seem to have been used outside specific contexts, and may have been regarded as errors even by contemporaries.

- IIXX was how people associated with the XXII Roman Legion used to write their number. The practice may have been due to a common way to say "twenty-second" in Latin, namely
*duo et vice*(*n*)*sima*(literally "two and twentieth") rather than the "regular"*vice*(*n*)*sima secunda*(twentieth second).^{ [35] }Apparently, at least one ancient stonecutter mistakenly thought that the IIXX of "22nd Legion" stood for 18, and "corrected" it to XVIII.^{ [35] }

- There are some examples of year numbers after 1000 written as two Roman numerals 1-99, e.g. 1613 as XVIXIII, corresponding to the common reading "sixteen thirteen" of such year numbers in English, or 1519 as XV
^{C}XIX as in French*quinze-cent-dix-neuf*(fifteen-hundred and nineteen), and similar readings in other languages.^{ [37] } - In some French texts from the 15th century and later one finds constructions like IIII
^{XX}XIX for 99, reflecting the French reading of that number as*quatre-vingt-dix-neuf*(four-score and nineteen).^{ [37] }Similarly, in some English documents one finds, for example, 77 written as "iii^{xx}xvii" (which could be read "three-score and seventeen").^{ [38] } - Another medieval accounting text from 1301 renders numbers like 13,573 as "XIII. M. V. C. III. XX. XIII, that is, "(13 × 1000) + (5 × 100) + (3 × 20) + 13".
^{ [39] } - Other numerals that do not fit the usual patterns — such as VXL for 45, instead of the usual XLV — may be due to scribal errors, or the writer's lack of familiarity with the system, rather than being genuine variant usage.

The system as we use today is closely associated with the city of Rome and the Empire that it created. However, due to the scarcity of surviving examples, the origins of the system are obscure and there are several competing theories, largely conjectural.

Rome was founded sometime between 850 and 750 BC. At the time, the region was inhabited by diverse populations of which the Etruscans were the most advanced. The ancient Romans themselves admitted that the basis of much of their civilization was Etruscan. Rome itself was located next to the southern edge of the Etruscan domain, which covered a large part of north-central Italy.

The Roman numerals, in particular, are directly derived from the Etruscan number symbols: "𐌠", "𐌡", "𐌢", "𐌣", and "𐌟" for 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 (They had more symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number). As in the basic Roman system, the Etruscans wrote the symbols that added to the desired number, from higher to lower value. Thus the number 87, for example, would be written 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1 + 1 = 𐌣𐌢𐌢𐌢𐌡𐌠𐌠 (this would appear as 𐌠𐌠𐌡𐌢𐌢𐌢𐌣 since Etruscan was written from right to left.)^{ [40] }

The symbols "𐌠" and "𐌡" resembled letters of the Etruscan alphabet, but "𐌢", "𐌣", and "𐌟" did not. The Etruscans used the subtractive notation, too, but not like the Romans. They wrote 17, 18, and 19 as "𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌢𐌢", "𐌠𐌠𐌢𐌢", and 𐌠𐌢𐌢, mirroring the way they spoke those numbers ("three from twenty", etc.); and similarly for 27, 28, 29, 37, 38, etc. However they did not write "𐌠𐌡" for 4 (or "𐌢𐌣" for 40), and wrote "𐌡𐌠𐌠", "𐌡𐌠𐌠𐌠" and "𐌡𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌠" for 7, 8, and 9, respectively.^{ [40] }

The early Roman numerals for 1, 10, and 100 were the Etruscan ones: "I", "X", and "Ж". The symbols for 5 and 50 changed from Ʌ and "𐌣" to V and ↆ at some point. The latter had flattened to ⊥ (an inverted T) by the time of Augustus, and soon afterwards became identified with the graphically similar letter L.^{ [41] }

The symbol for 100 was written variously as >I< or ƆIC, was then abbreviated to Ɔ or C, with C (which matched a Latin letter) finally winning out. It may have helped that C is the initial of *centum*, Latin for "hundred".^{[ citation needed ]}

The numbers 500 and 1000 were denoted by V or X overlaid with a box or circle. Thus 500 was like a Ɔ superimposed on a ~~Þ~~. It became ~~D~~ or Ð by the time of Augustus, under the graphic influence of the letter D. It was later identified as the letter D; an alternative symbol for "thousand" was a CIƆ, and half of a thousand or "five hundred" is the right half of the symbol, IƆ, and this may have been converted into D.^{ [18] }

The notation for 1000 was a circled or boxed X: Ⓧ, ⊗, ⊕, and by Augustinian times was partially identified with the Greek letter Φ* phi *. Over time, the symbol changed to Ψ and ↀ. The latter symbol further evolved into ∞, then ⋈, and eventually changed to M under the influence of the Latin word *mille* "thousand".^{ [41] }

According to Paul Kayser, the basic numerical symbols were I, X, C and Φ (or ⊕) and the intermediate ones were derived by taking half of those (half an X is V, half a C is L and half a Φ/⊕ is D).^{ [42] }

Lower case, minuscule, letters were developed in the Middle Ages, well after the demise of the Western Roman Empire, and since that time lower-case versions of Roman numbers have also been commonly used: i, ii, iii, iv, and so on.

Since the Middle Ages, a "j" has sometimes been substituted for the final "i" of a "lower-case" Roman numeral, such as "iij" for 3 or "vij" for 7. This "j" can be considered a swash variant of "i". The use of a final "j" is still used in medical prescriptions to prevent tampering with or misinterpretation of a number after it is written.^{ [43] }^{ [44] }

Numerals in documents and inscriptions from the Middle Ages sometimes include additional symbols, which today are called "medieval Roman numerals". Some simply substitute another letter for the standard one (such as "A" for "V", or "Q" for "D"), while others serve as abbreviations for compound numerals ("O" for "XI", or "F" for "XL"). Although they are still listed today in some dictionaries, they are long out of use.^{ [45] }

Number | Medieval abbreviation | Notes and etymology |
---|---|---|

5 | A | Resembles an upside-down V. Also said to equal 500. |

6 | ↅ | Either from a ligature of VI, or from digamma (ϛ), the Greek numeral 6 (sometimes conflated with the στ ligature).^{ [41] } |

7 | S, Z | Presumed abbreviation of , Latin for 7.septem |

9.5 | X ̷ | Scribal abbreviation, an x with a slash through it. Likewise, IX ̷ represented 8.5 |

11 | O | Presumed abbreviation of , French for 11.onze |

40 | F | Presumed abbreviation of English forty. |

70 | S | Also could stand for 7, with the same derivation. |

80 | R | |

90 | N | Presumed abbreviation of , Latin for 90. (Ambiguous with N for "nothing" (nonagintanihil)). |

150 | Y | Possibly derived from the lowercase y's shape. |

151 | K | Unusual, origin unknown; also said to stand for 250.^{ [46] } |

160 | T | Possibly derived from Greek tetra, as 4 × 40 = 160. |

200 | H | Could also stand for 2 (see also 𐆙, the symbol for the dupondius). From a barring of two I's. |

250 | E | |

300 | B | |

400 | P, G | |

500 | Q | Redundant with D; abbreviates , Latin for 500.quingenti |

800 | Ω | Borrowed from Gothic. |

2000 | Z |

Chronograms, messages with dates encoded into them, were popular during the Renaissance era. The chronogram would be a phrase containing the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. By putting these letters together, the reader would obtain a number, usually indicating a particular year.

By the 11th century, Arabic numerals had been introduced into Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises. Roman numerals, however, proved very persistent, remaining in common use in the West well into the 14th and 15th centuries, even in accounting and other business records (where the actual calculations would have been made using an abacus). Replacement by their more convenient "Arabic" equivalents was quite gradual, and Roman numerals are still used today in certain contexts. A few examples of their current use are:

- Names of monarchs and popes, e.g. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Pope Benedict XVI. These are referred to as regnal numbers and are usually read as ordinals; e.g. II is pronounced "the second". This tradition began in Europe sporadically in the Middle Ages, gaining widespread use in England during the reign of Henry VIII. Previously, the monarch was not known by numeral but by an epithet such as Edward the Confessor. Some monarchs (e.g. Charles IV of Spain and Louis XIV of France) seem to have preferred the use of IIII instead of IV on their coinage (see illustration).
- Generational suffixes, particularly in the US, for people sharing the same name across generations, for example William Howard Taft IV.
- In the French Republican Calendar, initiated during the French Revolution, years were numbered by Roman numerals – from the year I (1792) when this calendar was introduced to the year XIV (1805) when it was abandoned.
- The year of production of films, television shows and other works of art within the work itself. It has been suggested – by BBC News, perhaps facetiously – that this was originally done "in an attempt to disguise the age of films or television programmes."
^{ [47] }Outside reference to the work will use regular Arabic numerals. - Hour marks on timepieces. In this context, 4 is often written IIII.
- The year of construction on building faces and cornerstones.
- Page numbering of prefaces and introductions of books, and sometimes of appendices and annexes, too.
- Book volume and chapter numbers, as well as the several acts within a play (e.g. Act iii, Scene 2).
- Sequels to some films, video games, and other works (as in
*Rocky II*). - Outlines that use numbers to show hierarchical relationships.
- Occurrences of a recurring grand event, for instance:
- The Summer and Winter Olympic Games (e.g. the XXI Olympic Winter Games; the Games of the XXX Olympiad)
- The Super Bowl, the annual championship game of the National Football League (e.g. Super Bowl XXXVII; Super Bowl 50 is a one-time exception
^{ [48] }) - WrestleMania, the annual professional wrestling event for the WWE (e.g. WrestleMania XXX). This usage has also been inconsistent.

As Roman numerals are composed of ordinary alphabetic characters, there may sometimes be confusion with other uses of the same letters. For example, "XXX" and "XL" have other connotations in addition to their values as Roman numerals, while "IXL" more often than not means "I excel", and is in any case not an unambiguous Roman numeral.

In astronomy, the natural satellites or "moons" of the planets are traditionally designated by capital Roman numerals appended to the planet's name. For example, Titan's designation is Saturn VI.

In chemistry, Roman numerals are often used to denote the groups of the periodic table. They are also used in the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry, for the oxidation number of cations which can take on several different positive charges. They are also used for naming phases of polymorphic crystals, such as ice.

In education, school grades (in the sense of year-groups rather than test scores) are sometimes referred to by a Roman numeral; for example, "grade IX" is sometimes seen for "grade 9".

In entomology, the broods of the thirteen and seventeen year periodical cicadas are identified by Roman numerals.

In advanced mathematics (including trigonometry, statistics, and calculus), when a graph includes negative numbers, its quadrants are named using I, II, III, and IV. These quadrant names signify positive numbers on both axes, negative numbers on the X axis, negative numbers on both axes, and negative numbers on the Y axis, respectively. The use of Roman numerals to designate quadrants avoids confusion, since Arabic numerals are used for the actual data represented in the graph.

In military unit designation, Roman numerals are often used to distinguish between units at different levels. This reduces possible confusion, especially when viewing operational or strategic level maps. In particular, army corps are often numbered using Roman numerals (for example the American XVIII Airborne Corps or the WW2-era German III Panzerkorps) with Arabic numerals being used for divisions and armies.

In music, Roman numerals are used in several contexts:

- Movements are often numbered using Roman numerals.
- In music theory, the diatonic functions are identified using Roman numerals. (See: Roman numeral analysis)
- Individual strings of stringed instruments, such as the violin, are often denoted by Roman numerals, with higher numbers denoting lower strings.

In pharmacy, Roman numerals are used in some contexts, including S to denote "one half" and N to denote "zero" (See the sections below on "zero" and "fractions").^{ [49] }

In photography, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote varying levels of brightness when using the Zone System.

In seismology, Roman numerals are used to designate degrees of the Mercalli intensity scale of earthquakes.

In sport the team containing the "top" players and representing a nation or province, a club or a school at the highest level in (say) rugby union is often called the "1st XV", while a lower-ranking cricket or American football team might be the "3rd XI".

In tarot, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote the cards of the Major Arcana.

In theology and biblical scholarship, the Septuagint is often referred to as LXX, as this translation of the Old Testament into Greek is named for the legendary number of its translators (*septuaginta* being Latin for "seventy").

Some uses that are rare or never seen in English speaking countries may be relatively common in parts of continental Europe. For instance:

Capital or small capital Roman numerals are widely used in Romance languages to denote **centuries**, e.g. the French *xviii ^{e} siècle*

Mixed Roman and Arabic numerals are sometimes used in numeric representations of dates (especially in formal letters and official documents, but also on tombstones). The **month** is written in Roman numerals, while the day is in Arabic numerals: "14.VI.1789" and "VI.14.1789" both refer unambiguously to 14 June 1789.

Roman numerals are sometimes used to represent the **days of the week** in hours-of-operation signs displayed in windows or on doors of businesses,^{ [51] } and also sometimes in railway and bus timetables. Monday, taken as the first day of the week, is represented by I. Sunday is represented by VII. The hours of operation signs are tables composed of two columns where the left column is the day of the week in Roman numerals and the right column is a range of hours of operation from starting time to closing time. In the example case (left), the business opens from 10 am to 7 pm on weekdays, 10 AM to 5 pm on Saturdays and is closed on Sundays. Note that the listing uses 24-hour time.

Roman numerals may also be used for floor numbering.^{ [52] }^{ [53] } For instance, apartments in central Amsterdam are indicated as 138-III, with both an Arabic numeral (number of the block or house) and a Roman numeral (floor number). The apartment on the ground floor is indicated as *138-huis*.

In Italy, where roads outside built-up areas have kilometre signs, major roads and motorways also mark 100-metre subdivisionals, using Roman numerals from I to IX for the smaller intervals. The sign "IX | 17" thus marks 17.9 km.

A notable exception to the use of Roman numerals in Europe is in Greece, where Greek numerals (based on the Greek alphabet) are generally used in contexts where Roman numerals would be used elsewhere.

The number zero does not have its own Roman numeral, but the word *nulla* (the Latin word meaning "none") was used by medieval scholars in lieu of 0. Dionysius Exiguus was known to use *nulla* alongside Roman numerals in 525.^{ [54] }^{ [55] } About 725, Bede or one of his colleagues used the letter N, the initial of *nulla* or of *nihil* (the Latin word for "nothing"), in a table of epacts, all written in Roman numerals.^{ [56] }

Though the Romans used a decimal system for whole numbers, reflecting how they counted in Latin, they used a duodecimal system for fractions, because the divisibility of twelve (12 = 2^{2} × 3) makes it easier to handle the common fractions of 1/3 and 1/4 than does a system based on ten (10 = 2 × 5). On coins, many of which had values that were duodecimal fractions of the unit * as *, they used a tally-like notational system based on twelfths and halves. A dot (**·**) indicated an *uncia* "twelfth", the source of the English words *inch* and *ounce*; dots were repeated for fractions up to five twelfths. Six twelfths (one half) was abbreviated as the letter *S* for *semis* "half". *Uncia* dots were added to *S* for fractions from seven to eleven twelfths, just as tallies were added to V for whole numbers from six to nine.^{ [57] }

Each fraction from 1/12 to 12/12 had a name in Roman times; these corresponded to the names of the related coins:

Fraction | Roman numeral | Name (nominative and genitive) | Meaning |
---|---|---|---|

1/12 | · | Uncia, unciae | "Ounce" |

2/12 = 1/6 | ·· or : | Sextans, sextantis | "Sixth" |

3/12 = 1/4 | ··· or ∴ | Quadrans, quadrantis | "Quarter" |

4/12 = 1/3 | ···· or ∷ | Triens, trientis | "Third" |

5/12 | ····· or ⁙ | Quincunx, quincuncis | "Five-ounce" (quinque unciae → quincunx) |

6/12 = 1/2 | S | Semis, semissis | "Half" |

7/12 | S· | Septunx, septuncis | "Seven-ounce" (septem unciae → septunx) |

8/12 = 2/3 | S·· or S: | Bes, bessis | "Twice" (as in "twice a third") |

9/12 = 3/4 | S··· or S∴ | Dodrans, dodrantisornonuncium, nonuncii | "Less a quarter" (de-quadrans → dodrans)or "ninth ounce" (nona uncia → nonuncium) |

10/12 = 5/6 | S···· or S∷ | Dextans, dextantisordecunx, decuncis | "Less a sixth" (de-sextans → dextans)or "ten ounces" (decem unciae → decunx) |

11/12 | S····· or S⁙ | Deunx, deuncis | "Less an ounce" (de-uncia → deunx) |

12/12 = 1 | I | As, assis | "Unit" |

The arrangement of the dots was variable and not necessarily linear. Five dots arranged like (**⁙**) (as on the face of a die) are known as a quincunx, from the name of the Roman fraction/coin. The Latin words * sextans* and

Other Roman fractional notations included the following:

- 1/8
*sescuncia, sescunciae*(from*sesqui-*+*uncia*, i.e. 1^{1}⁄_{2}uncias), represented by a sequence of the symbols for the semuncia and the uncia. - 1/24
*semuncia, semunciae*(from*semi-*+*uncia*, i.e. ^{1}⁄_{2}uncia), represented by several variant glyphs deriving from the shape of the Greek letter sigma (Σ), one variant resembling the pound sign without the horizontal line (𐆒) and another resembling the Cyrillic letter Є. - 1/36
*binae sextulae, binarum sextularum*("two sextulas") or*duella, duellae*, represented by a sequence of two reversed Ss (ƧƧ). - 1/48
*sicilicus, sicilici*, represented by a reversed C (Ɔ). - 1/72
*sextula, sextulae*(^{1}⁄_{6}of an uncia), represented by a reversed S (Ƨ). - 1/144 = 12
^{−2}*dimidia sextula, dimidiae sextulae*("half a sextula"), represented by a reversed S crossed by a horizontal line (~~Ƨ~~). - 1/288
*scripulum, scripuli*(a scruple), represented by the symbol ℈. - 1/1728 = 12
^{−3}*siliqua, siliquae*, represented by a symbol resembling closing guillemets (»).

A number of systems were developed for the expression of larger numbers that cannot be conveniently expressed using the normal seven letter symbols of conventional Roman numerals.

One of these was the *apostrophus*,^{ [58] } in which 500 (usually written as "D") was written as IƆ, while 1,000, was written as CIƆ instead of "M".^{ [18] } This is a system of encasing numbers to denote thousands (imagine the Cs and Ɔs as parentheses), which has its origins in Etruscan numeral usage. The IƆ and CIƆ used to represent 500 and 1,000 most likely preceded, and subsequently influenced, the adoption of "D" and "M" in conventional Roman numerals.

In this system, an extra Ɔ denoted 500, and multiple extra Ɔs are used to denote 5,000, 50,000, etc. For example:

Base number | CIƆ = 1,000 | CCIƆƆ = 10,000 | CCCIƆƆƆ = 100,000 | |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 extra Ɔ | IƆ = 500 | CIƆƆ = 1,500 | CCIƆƆƆ = 10,500 | CCCIƆƆƆƆ = 100,500 |

2 extra Ɔs | IƆƆ = 5,000 | CCIƆƆƆƆ = 15,000 | CCCIƆƆƆƆƆ = 105,000 | |

3 extra Ɔs | IƆƆƆ = 50,000 | CCCIƆƆƆƆƆƆ = 150,000 |

Sometimes CIƆ was reduced to ↀ for 1,000. John Wallis is often credited for introducing the symbol for infinity (modern ∞), and one conjecture is that he based it on this usage, since 1,000 was hyperbolically used to represent very large numbers. Similarly, IƆƆ for 5,000 was reduced to ↁ; CCIƆƆ for 10,000 to ↂ; IƆƆƆ for 50,000 to ↇ; and CCCIƆƆƆ for 100,000 to ↈ.^{ [59] }

Another system is the * vinculum *, in which conventional Roman numerals are multiplied by 1,000 by adding a "bar" or "overline".^{ [59] } Although mathematical historian David Eugene Smith disputes that this was part of ancient Roman usage,^{ [60] } the notation was certainly in use in the Middle Ages, and is sometimes suggested as a workable method for modern use, although it is not standardised as such.

Any hundreds, tens or units in the number are written in ordinary Roman numerals - but instead of **M, MM** or **MMM**, "barred" notation is used to express the thousands - which greatly expands the range of numbers expressible.

For instance:

**IV**= 4,000**IVDCXXVII**= 4,627**XXV**= 25,000**XXVCDLIX**= 25,459

If this were ever to be applied consistently in our own times - then the main difficulty would be what to do with "M" - one way would be to do away with "M" altogether, except perhaps for **CM** (=900) - thus rendering **MMXVIII** as **IIXVIII** - or alternatively to retain "M" in its current usage, with the barred numerals starting at **IV** (=4,000). Retaining "M" would permit our numerals to run up to **MMMCMXCIXCMXCIX** (= 3,999,999).

Another inconsistent medieval usage was the addition of *vertical* lines (or brackets) before and after the numeral to multiply it by 10 (or 100): thus **M** for 10,000 as an alternative form for **X**. In combination with the overline the bracketed forms might be used to raise the multiplier to (say) ten (or one hundred) thousand, thus:

**VIII**for 80,000 (or 800,000)**XX**for 200,000 (or 2,000,000)

Through all this, and whether any kind of vinculum notation or "barring" ought to be revived or not, this needs to be distinguished from the custom, once very common, of adding both underline and overline to a Roman numeral, simply to make it clear that it *is* a number, e.g. **MCMLXVII** (1967).

The "Number Forms" block of the Unicode computer character set standard has a number of Roman numeral symbols in the range of code points from U+2160 to U+2188.^{ [61] } This range includes both upper- and lowercase numerals, as well as pre-combined characters for numbers up to 12 (Ⅻ or XII). One justification for the existence of pre-combined numbers is to facilitate the setting of multiple-letter numbers (such as VIII) on a single horizontal line in Asian vertical text. The Unicode standard, however, includes special Roman numeral code points for compatibility only, stating that "[f]or most purposes, it is preferable to compose the Roman numerals from sequences of the appropriate Latin letters".^{ [62] } The block also includes some *apostrophus* symbols for large numbers, an old variant of "L" (50) similar to the Etruscan character, the Claudian letter "reversed C", etc.

Symbol | ↀ | ↁ | ↂ | ↅ | ↆ | ↇ | ↈ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Value | 1,000 | 5,000 | 10,000 | 6 | 50 | 50,000 | 100,000 |

The **decimal** numeral system is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers. It is the extension to non-integer numbers of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. The way of denoting numbers in the decimal system is often referred to as *decimal notation*.

In mathematics and computing, **hexadecimal** is a positional system that represents numbers using a base of 16. Unlike the common way of representing numbers with ten symbols, it uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols "0"–"9" to represent values zero to nine, and "A"–"F" to represent values ten to fifteen.

A **number** is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. A written symbol like "5" that represents a number is called a numeral. A numeral system is an organized way to write and manipulate this type of symbol, for example the Hindu–Arabic numeral system allows combinations of numerical digits like "5" and "0" to represent larger numbers like 50. A numeral in linguistics can refer to a symbol like 5, the words or phrase that names a number, like "five hundred", or other words that mean a specific number, like "dozen". In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels, for ordering, and for codes. In common usage, *number* may refer to a symbol, a word or phrase, or the mathematical object.

A **numerical digit** is a single symbol used alone, or in combinations, to represent numbers according to some positional numeral systems. The single digits and their combinations are the numerals of the numeral system they belong to. The name "digit" comes from the fact that the ten digits of the hands correspond to the ten symbols of the common base 10 numeral system, i.e. the decimal digits.

**Positional notation** denotes usually the extension to any base of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. More generally, a positional system is a numeral system in which the contribution of a digit to the value of a number is the product of the value of the digit by a factor determined by the *position of the digit*. In early numeral systems, such as Roman numerals, a digit has only one value: I means one, X means ten and C a hundred. In modern positional systems, such as the decimal system, the *position* of the digit means that its value must be multiplied by some value: in 555, the three identical symbols represent five hundreds, five tens, and five units, respectively, due to their different *positions* in the digit string.

The **pentimal system** is a notation for presenting numbers, usually by inscribing in wood or stone. The notation has been used in Scandinavia, usually in conjunction to runes.

The **numbered musical notation**, is a musical notation system widely used in music publications in China. It dates back to the system designed by Pierre Galin, known as **Galin-Paris-Chevé** system. It is comparable to the Gongche notation from the Tang Dynasty.

The Ancient Romans developed the **Roman hand abacus**, a portable, but less capable, base-10 version of earlier abacuses like those used by the Greeks and Babylonians. It was the first portable calculating device for engineers, merchants and presumably tax collectors. It greatly reduced the time needed to perform the basic operations of arithmetic using Roman numerals.

The **Attic numerals** are a symbolic number notation used by the ancient Greeks. They were also known as **Herodianic numerals** because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian; or as **acrophonic numerals** because the basic symbols derive from the first letters of the (ancient) Greek words that the symbols represented.

**Etruscan numerals** could mean the words and phrases for numbers of the Etruscan language, or the symbolic notation used by Etruscans to write them.

Many letters of the Latin alphabet, both capital and small, are used in mathematics, science and engineering to denote by convention specific or abstracted constants, variables of a certain type, units, multipliers, physical entities. Certain letters, when combined with special formatting, take on special meaning.

Unicode has a certain amount of duplication of characters. These are pairs of single Unicode code points that are canonically equivalent. The reason for this are compatibility issues with legacy systems.

The **Hindu–Arabic numeral system** is a decimal place-value numeral system that uses a zero glyph as in "205".

An **overline**, **overscore**, or **overbar**, is a typographical feature of a horizontal line drawn immediately above the text. In mathematical notation, an overline has been used for a long time as a *vinculum*, a way of showing that certain symbols belong together. The original use in Ancient Greek was to indicate compositions of Greek letters as Greek numerals. In Latin it indicates Roman numerals multiplied by a thousand and it forms medieval abbreviations (sigla). Marking one or more words with a continuous line above the characters is sometimes called *overstriking*, though overstriking generally refers to printing one character on top of an already-printed character.

Numeral systems have progressed from the use of tally marks, more than 40,000 years ago, through to the use of sets of glyphs to efficiently represent any conceivable number.

The **Nashville Number System** is a method of transcribing music by denoting the scale degree on which a chord is built. It was developed by Neal Matthews in the late 1950s as a simplified system for The Jordanaires to use in the studio and further developed by Charlie McCoy. It resembles the Roman numeral and figured bass systems traditionally used to transcribe a chord progression since as early as the 1700s. The Nashville Number System was compiled and published in a book by Chas Williams in 1988.

The Nashville Number System is a trick that musicians use to figure out chord progressions on the fly. It is an easy tool to use if you understand how music works. It has been around for about four hundred years but sometime during the past fifty years [approximately 1953-2003] Nashville got the credit.

The Nashville numbering system provided us the shorthand that we needed so that we could depend on our ears rather than a written arrangement. It took far less time to jot the chords, and once you had the chart written, it applied to any key. The beauty of the system is that we don't have to read. We don't get locked into an arrangement that we may feel is not as good as one we can improvise.

**Numerals** are characters or sequences of characters that denote a number. The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (base-10) is used widely in various writing systems throughout the world and all share the same semantics for denoting numbers. However, the graphemes representing the numerals differ widely from one writing system to another. To support these grapheme differences, Unicode includes encodings of these numerals within many of the script blocks. The decimal digits are repeated in 22 separate blocks. In addition to many forms of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, Unicode also includes several less common numerals such as: Aegean numerals, Roman numerals, counting rod numerals, Cuneiform numerals and ancient Greek numerals. There is also a large number of typographical variations of the Arabic numerals provided for specialized mathematical use and for compatibility with earlier character sets, and also composite characters containing Arabic numerals such as ½.

**Modern Arabic mathematical notation** is a mathematical notation based on the Arabic script, used especially at pre-university levels of education. Its form is mostly derived from Western notation, but has some notable features that set it apart from its Western counterpart. The most remarkable of those features is the fact that it is written from right to left following the normal direction of the Arabic script. Other differences include the replacement of the Latin alphabet letters for symbols with Arabic letters and the use of Arabic names for functions and relations.

In music, **Roman numeral analysis** uses Roman numerals to represent chords. The Roman numerals denote scale degrees ; used to represent a chord, they denote the root note on which the chord is built. For instance, III denotes the third degree of a scale or the chord built on it. Generally, uppercase Roman numerals represent major chords while lowercase Roman numerals represent minor chords ; elsewhere, upper-case Roman numerals are used for all chords. In Western classical music in the 2000s, Roman numeral analysis is used by music students and music theorists to analyze the harmony of a song or piece and chord charts or lead sheets with Roman numeral or macro analysis are often the basis or guide for ensemble and solo improvisation.

- ↑ An exception to this is where a Roman numeral is considered a legally binding expression of a number, as in U.S. Copyright law - an incorrect or ambiguous numeral for a copyright date may invalidate a copyright claim, or affect the termination date of the copyright period.
^{ [3] } - ↑ Without theorising about causation, it may be noted that "IV" uses 25% fewer strokes than "IIII", and takes up 25% less space. For the other forms (IX, XL, XC, CD, and CM), the savings on either or both counts are 50% or more. "IX" is also more distinctive than "VIIII" and less likely to be confused with "VIII". This equally applies to XC, CD, and CM.
- ↑ Since the largest Roman numerals likely to be used today are year numbers up to the present there is normally no need to use Roman numerals for numbers beyond this limit. In the unlikely case a larger number might be needed there is really no reason why more "M"s, as required, could not be added, cumbersome as this might prove. Through the centuries during which Roman numerals remained the standard way of writing numbers throughout Europe there were various extensions to the system designed to indicate larger numbers, see the final sections of this article.

- ↑ Gordon, Arthur E. (1982).
*Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy*. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05079-7.Alphabetic symbols for larger numbers, such as Q for 500,000, have also been used to various degrees of standardization.

- ↑ Judkins, Maura (4 November 2011). "Public clocks do a number on Roman numeralss". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
Most clocks using Roman numerals traditionally use IIII instead of IV... One of the rare prominent clocks that uses the IV instead of IIII is Big Ben in London.

- 1 2 Hayes, David P. "Guide to Roman Numerals".
*Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site*. - ↑ Adams, Cecil (23 February 1990). "What is the proper way to style Roman numerals for the 1990s?".
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*Essential Math and Calculations for Pharmacy Technicians*. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-203-49534-6. - ↑ Dela Cruz, M. L. P.; Torres, H. D. (2009).
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*Quora*. - 1 2 3 Julius Caesar (52-49 BC):
*Commentarii de Bello Gallico*. Book II, Section 4: "... XV milia Atrebates, Ambianos X milia, Morinos XXV milia, Menapios VII milia, Caletos X milia, Veliocasses et Viromanduos totidem, Atuatucos XVIIII milia; ..." Section 8: "... ab utroque latere eius collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter passuum CCCC et ad extremas fossas castella constituit..." Book IV, Section 15: "Nostri ad unum omnes incolumes, perpaucis vulneratis, ex tanti belli timore, cum hostium numerus capitum CCCCXXX milium fuisset, se in castra receperunt." Book VII, Section 4: "...in hiberna remissis ipse se recipit die XXXX Bibracte." - ↑ Angelo Rocca (1612)
*De campanis commentarius*. Published by Guillelmo Faciotti, Rome. Title of a Plate: "Campana a XXIIII hominibus pulsata" ("Bell to be sounded by 24 men") - ↑ Gerard Ter Borch (1673):
*Portrait of Cornelis de Graef*. Date on painting: "Out. XXIIII Jaer. // M. DC. LXXIIII". - ↑ Pliny the Elder (77-79 AD):
*Naturalis Historia*, Book III: "Saturni vocatur, Caesaream Mauretaniae urbem CCLXXXXVII p[assum]. traiectus. reliqua in ora flumen Tader ... ortus in Cantabris haut procul oppido Iuliobrica, per CCCCL p. fluens ..." Book IV: "Epiri, Achaiae, Atticae, Thessalia in porrectum longitudo CCCCLXXXX traditur, latitudo CCLXXXXVII." Book VI: "tam vicinum Arsaniae fluere eum in regione Arrhene Claudius Caesar auctor est, ut, cum intumuere, confluant nec tamen misceantur leviorque Arsanias innatet MMMM ferme spatio, mox divisus in Euphraten mergatur." - ↑ Thomas Bennet (1731):
*Grammatica Hebræa, cum uberrima praxi in usum tironum ... Editio tertia.*Published by T. Astley, copy in the British Library; 149 pages. Page 24: "PRÆFIXA duo sunt*viz.**He*emphaticum vel relativum (de quo Cap VI Reg. LXXXX.) &*Shin*cum*Segal*sequente*Dagesh*, quod denotat pronomen relativum..." - ↑ Pico Della Mirandola (1486)`
*Conclusiones sive Theses DCCCC*("Conclusions, or 900 Theses"). - ↑ "360:12 tables, 24 chairs, and plenty of chalk".
*Roman Numerals…not quite so simple*. 2 January 2011. - 1 2 3 Asimov, Isaac (1966).
*Asimov On Numbers*(PDF). Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 12. - ↑ Milham, W.I. (1947).
*Time & Timekeepers*. New York: Macmillan. p. 196. - 1 2 Pickover, Clifford A. (2003),
*Wonders of Numbers: Adventures in Mathematics, Mind, and Meaning*, Oxford University Press, p. 282, ISBN 978-0-19-534800-2 . - ↑ Adams, Cecil; Zotti, Ed (1988).
*More of the straight dope*. Ballantine Books. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-345-35145-6.. - ↑ "Gallery: Museum's North Entrance (1910)". Saint Louis Art Museum. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
The inscription over the North Entrance to the Museum reads: "Dedicated to Art and Free to All MDCDIII." These roman numerals translate to 1903, indicating that the engraving was part of the original building designed for the 1904 World's Fair.

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*Vera Ac Germana Detecto Clandestinarvm Deliberationvm*. Page 16, line 1: "repertum Originale Subdatum IIIXXX Aug. A. C. MDC.IIXX". Page 41, upper right corner: "Decemb. A. C. MDC.IIXX". Page 42, upper left corner: "Febr. A. C. MDC.XIX". Page 70: "IIXX. die Maij sequentia in consilio noua ex Bohemia allata....". Page 71: "XIX. Maij". - ↑ Wilhelm Ernst Tentzel (1699):
*Als Ihre Königl. Majestät in Pohlen und ...*. Page 39: "... und der Umschrifft: LITHUANIA ASSERTA M. DC. IIIC [1699]." - ↑ Joh. Caspar Posner (1698):
*Mvndvs ante mvndvm sive De Chao Orbis Primordio*, title page: "Ad diem jvlii A. O. R. M DC IIC". - ↑ Wilhelm Ernst Tentzel (1700):
*Saxonia Nvmismatica: Das ist: Die Historie Des Durchlauchtigsten...*. Page 26: "Die Revers hat eine feine Inscription: SERENISSIMO DN.DN... SENATUS.QVERNF. A. M DC IIC D. 18 OCT [year 1698 day 18 oct]." - ↑ Enea Silvio Piccolomini (1698):
*Opera Geographica et Historica*. Helmstadt, J. M. Sustermann. Title page of first edition: "Bibliopolæ ibid. M DC IC" - ↑ Kennedy, Benjamin H. (1879).
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*(2005) Legio XX Valeria Victrix...*. PhD thesis. On page 396 it discusses many coins with "Leg. IIXX" and notes that it must be Legion 22. The footnote on that page says: "The form IIXX clearly reflecting the Latin duo et vicensima 'twenty-second': cf. X5398, legatus I[eg II] I et vicensim(ae) Pri[mi]g; VI 1551, legatus leg] IIXX Prj; III 14207.7, miles leg IIXX; and III 10471-3, a vexillation drawn from four German legions including 'XVIII PR' - surely here the stonecutter's hypercorrection for IIXX PR. - ↑
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^{os}CCLXI-CCLXXXIV)".*Bulletin de la Commission royale d'Historie*, volume 3, pages 345-554. Page 347:*Lettre de Philippe le Beau aux échevins...*, quote: "Escript en nostre ville de Gand, le XXIIII^{me}de febvrier, l'an IIII^{XX}XIX [quatre-vingt-dix-neuf = 99]." Page 356:*Lettre de l'achiduchesse Marguerite au conseil de Brabant...*, quote: "... Escript à Bruxelles, le dernier jour de juing anno XV^{c}XIX [1519]." Page 374:*Letters patentes de la rémission ... de la ville de Bruxelles*, quote: "... Op heden, tweentwintich ['twenty-two'] daegen in decembri, anno vyfthien hondert tweendertich ['fifteen hundred thirty-two'] ... Gegeven op ten vyfsten dach in deser jegewoirdige maent van decembri anno XV tweendertich [1532] vorschreven." Page 419:*Acte du duc de Parme portant approbation...*, quote": "Faiet le XV^{me}de juillet XV^{c}huytante-six [1586]." doi : 10.3406/bcrh.1862.3033 - ↑ Herbert Edward Salter (1923)
*Registrum Annalium Collegii Mertonensis 1483-1521*Oxford Historical Society, volume 76; 544 pages. Page 184 has the computation in pounds:shillings:pence (li:s:d) x:iii:iiii + xxi:viii:viii + xlv:xiiii:i = iii^{xx}xvii:vi:i, i.e. 10:3:4 + 21:8:8 + 45:14:1 = 77:6:1. - ↑ Johannis de Sancto Justo (1301): "E Duo Codicibus Ceratis" ("From Two Texts in Wax"). In de Wailly, Delisle (1865):
*Contenant la deuxieme livraison des monumens des regnes de saint Louis,...*Volume 22 of*Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France*. Page 530: "SUMMA totalis, XIII. M. V. C. III. XX. XIII. l. III s. XI d. [Sum total, 13 thousand 5 hundred 3 score 13 livres, 3 sous, 11 deniers]. - 1 2 Gilles Van Heems (2009)> "Nombre, chiffre, lettre : Formes et réformes. Des notations chiffrées de l'étrusque" ("Between Numbers and Letters: About Etruscan Notations of Numeral Sequences").
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*Pittsburgh Post-Gazette*. Retrieved 13 January 2012. - ↑ NFL won't use Roman numerals for Super Bowl 50 Archived 1 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine , National Football League. Retrieved 5 November 2014
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*History of Mathematics*,**II**, p. 60, ISBN 0-486-20430-8 - ↑ Unicode Number Forms
- ↑
*The Unicode Standard, Version 6.0 – Electronic edition*(PDF), Unicode, Inc., 2011, p. 486

- Menninger, Karl (1992).
*Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers*. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-27096-8.

- Aczel, Amir D. 2015.
*Finding Zero: A Mathematician's Odyssey to Uncover the Origins of Numbers.*1st edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. - Goines, David Lance.
*A Constructed Roman Alphabet: A Geometric Analysis of the Greek and Roman Capitals and of the Arabic Numerals.*Boston: D.R. Godine, 1982. - Houston, Stephen D. 2012.
*The Shape of Script: How and Why Writing Systems Change.*Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press. - Taisbak, Christian M. 1965. "Roman numerals and the abacus."
*Classica et medievalia*26: 147–60.

Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Appendix:Roman numerals |

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- "Roman Numerals (Totally Epic Guide)".
*Know The Romans*.

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