Mongolian script

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Mongolian script
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ
Bosoo mongol bicig.png
Example text
Script type
Creator Tata-tonga
Time period
ca.1204 – present
Directiontop-to-bottom, left-to-right  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Languages Mongolian language
Manchu language (obsolete)
Daur language (obsolete)
Evenki language (experimentally)
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Manchu alphabet
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
Buryat alphabet
Galik alphabet
Evenki alphabet
Xibe alphabet
ISO 15924
ISO 15924 Mong, 145  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg ,Mongolian
Unicode
Unicode alias
Mongolian
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The classical or traditional Mongolian script, [lower-alpha 1] also known as the Qudum Mongγol bičig, [lower-alpha 2] [ citation needed ] was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Text direction TDright.svg Top-Down, right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.

Contents

Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for the Mongolian script, and almost all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties.

History

The Stele of Yisungge [ru], with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script. Hermitage hall 366 - 06.jpg
The Stele of Yisüngge  [ ru ], with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.

The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language. [2] :545 From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal documents from the period of the Middle Mongol language are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols , monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab–Mongolian and Persian–Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc. [3] :1–2 The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, these vowels are still distinct); inter-vocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dot system). [3] :1–2

Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with [dʒ] and [tʃ] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity. [2] :545

Traditional Mongolian is written vertically from top to bottom, flowing in lines from left to right. The Old Uyghur script and its descendants, of which traditional Mongolian is one among Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat are the only known vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters. [4] [1] :36

The reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence. [5] :422 Pens were also historically made of wood, reed, bamboo, bone, bronze, or iron. Ink used was black or cinnabar red, and written with on birch bark, paper, cloths made of silk or cotton, and wooden or silver plates. [6] :80–81

Reed pens Kalam2.jpg
Reed pens
Ink brushes Pinceaux chinois.jpg
Ink brushes
Writing implements of the Bogd Khan Bogd khaany bichgiin khereglel.jpg
Writing implements of the Bogd Khan

Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels. [7]

The script remained in continuous use by Mongolian speakers in Inner Mongolia in People's Republic of China. In the Mongolian People's Republic, it was largely replaced by the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, although the vertical script remained in limited use. In March 2020, the Mongolian government announced plans to increase the use of the traditional Mongolian script and to use both Cyrillic and Mongolian script in official documents by 2025. [8] [9] [10]

Names

The traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Because of its similarity to the Old Uyghur alphabet, it became known as the Uigurjin Mongol script. [lower-alpha 3] During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script, [lower-alpha 4] in contrast to the New script, [lower-alpha 5] referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who did not receive education in the new script.[ citation needed ]

Overview

The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d and k/g, sometimes ǰ/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script. [4] The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.

Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.

The rules for writing below apply specifically for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise.

Sort orders

Vowel harmony

Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups – two mutually exclusive and one neutral:

Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups. The vowel qualities of visually separated vowels and suffixes must likewise harmonize with those of the preceding word stem. Such suffixes are written with front or neutral vowels when preceded by a word stem containing only neutal vowels. Any of these rules might not apply for foreign words however. [3] :11, 35, 39 [16] :10 [17] :4 [13]

Separated final vowels

Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix -un ( ) and the final vowel -a ( ) Mongolia police patch 03.tif
Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix un( Brush-written un-uen suffix 2.svg ) and the final vowel a( Brush-written a-e suffix or seprated vowel 2.svg )

A separated final form of vowels a or e is common, and can appear at the end of a word stem, or suffix. This form requires a final-shaped preceding letter, and an inter-word gap in between. This gap can be transliterated with a hyphen. [note 1] [3] :30, 77 [18] :42 [1] :38–39 [17] :27 [19] :534–535

The presence or lack of a separated a or e can also indicate differences in meaning between different words (compare ᠬᠠᠷ ? qara 'black' with ᠬᠠᠷᠠqara 'to look'). [20] :3 [19] :535

Its form could be confused with that of the identically shaped traditional dative-locative suffix a/e exemplified further down. That form however, is more commonly found in older texts, and more commonly takes the forms of ᠤᠷtur/tür or ᠤᠷdur/dür instead. [16] :15 [21] [1] :46

Separated suffixes

1925 logo of Buryat-Mongolian newspaper
buriyad monggol un Unen.  Buriyad Monggol-un unen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix
un -un. Buriaad-Mongolon unen 1925.jpeg
1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃Buriyad Mongγolun ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix ᠤᠨ un.

All case suffixes, as well as any plural suffixes consisting of one or two syllables are likewise separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap. [note 2] A maximum of two case suffixes can be added to a stem. [3] :30, 73 [16] :12 [21] [22] [17] :28 [19] :534

Such single-letter vowel suffixes appear with the final-shaped forms of a/e, i, or u/ü, [3] :30 as in ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ? γaǰara 'to the country' and ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ? edüre 'on the day', [3] :39 or ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ? ulusi 'the state' etc. [3] :23 Multi-letter suffixes most often start with an initial- (consonants), medial- (vowels), or variant-shaped form. Medial-shaped u in the two-letter suffix ᠤᠨ ? un/ün is exemplified in the adjacent newspaper logo. [3] :30 [19] :27

Compound names

In the modern language, proper names (but not words) usually forms graphic compounds (such as those of ᠬᠠᠰᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢQas'erdeni 'Jasper-jewel' or ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠKökeqota – the city of Hohhot). These also allow components of different harmonic classes to be joined together, and where the vowels of an added suffix will harmonize with those of the latter part of the compound. Ortographic peculiarities are most often retained, as with the short and long teeth of an initial-shaped ö in ᠮᠤᠤᠬᠢᠨMuu'ökin 'Bad Girl' (protective name). Medial t and d, in contrast, are not affected in this way. [3] :30 [23] :92 [1] :44 [24] :88

Isolate citation forms

Isolate citation forms for syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in ᠪᠣbo/bu or ᠮᠣmo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in ᠪᠥ/ or ᠮᠥ/ (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables). [13] [1] :39

Notes on letter tables

A dash indicates a non-applicable position for that letter.

Parentheses enclose glyphs or positions whose corresponding sounds are not found in native Mongolian words.

Palatalized phonemes have been excluded. These are conditioned by a following i. [18] :178

Components

Listed in the table below are letter components (graphemes, or in Mongolian: ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠯᠭǰirulγa / зурлага zurlaga) commonly used across the script. Some of these are used with several letters, and others to contrast between them. As their forms and usage may differ between § writing styles however, examples of these can be found under this section below.

Common components [26] [27] :4–5 [28] :29–30, 205 [29] [23] :82–83 [1] :36 [12] :1 [30] [31] :20 [32] :211–212 [33] :10–11 [34] [35] [36]
FormName(s)Used with
'Crown':ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮtitim ( тит(и/э)м tit(i/e)m)all initial vowels ( a , e , i , o , u , ö , ü , ē ), and some initial consonants ( n , m , l , h , etc).
᠊ᠡ'Tooth':ᠠᠴᠤᠭačuγ ( ацаг atsag)a, e, n, ng , q , γ , m, l, d , etc; historically also r .
'Tooth':ᠰᠢᠳᠦsidü ( шүд shüd)
᠊᠊'Spine, backbone':ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤniruγu ( нуруу nuruu)the vertical line running through words.
᠊ᠠ'Tail':ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯsegül ( сүүл süül)a, e, n, etc. A final connected flourish/swash pointing right.
᠊ᠰ'Short tail': ᠪᠣᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯboγuni segül ( богино/богонь сүүлbogino/bogoni süül)final q, γ, m, and s
? Mongolian letter E (final form-2).svg [...]:ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠴᠠorkiča ( орхиц orkhits)separated final a or e.
'Sprinkling, dusting':ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠯᠭ ? čačulγa ( цацлага tsatslaga)lower part of final a or e; the lower part of final g.
'Hook':ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡdegege ( дэгээ degee)final i and d.
'Shin, stick':ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢsilbi ( шилбэ shilbe)i; initial ö and ü; the upper part of final g ; ǰ and y , etc.
'Straight shin':ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢsiluγun silbi ( шулуун шилбэshuluun shilbe)
'Long tooth':ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠦurtu sidü ( урт шүдurt shüd)
'Shin with upturn':ᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢegeteger silbi ( э(э)тгэр шилбэe(e)tger shilbe)y.
Shin with downturn:ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢmataγar silbi ( матгар шилбэmatgar shilbe)ē and w .
Horned shin:ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢörgesütei silbi ( өргөстэй шилбэörgöstei shilbe)r, and historically also the upper part of final g and separated a.
'Looped shin':ᠭᠣᠭᠴᠤᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢγoγčuγatai silbi ( гогцоотой шилбэgogtsootoi shilbe) t and d.
'Hollow shin':ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢköndei silbi ( хөндий шилбэkhöndii shilbe)h and zh .
'Bow':ᠨᠤᠮᠤnumu ( нум num)final i, oü, and r; ng, b , p , k , g, etc.
᠊ᠣ'Belly, stomach,' loop, contour:ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦgedesü ( гэдэс gedes)the enclosed part of oü, b, p, initial t and d, etc.
'Hind-gut':ᠠᠷᠤᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ ? aruyin gedesü ( арын гэдэсaryn gedes)initial t and d.
᠊ᠹFlaglet, tuft:ᠵᠠᠷᠲᠢᠭǰartiγ ( зартиг zartig Wylie : 'jar-thig)the left-side diacritic of f and z .
[...]:[...] ( ятгар зартигyatgar zartig)initial q and γ.
᠊ᠮ'Braid, pigtail':ᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡgeǰige ( гэзэг gezeg)m.
'Horn':ᠡᠪᠡᠷeber ( эвэр ever)
᠊ᠯ'Horn':ᠡᠪᠡᠷeber (эвэрever)l.
'Braid, pigtail':ᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡgeǰige (гэзэгgezeg)
᠊ᠰ'Corner of the mouth':ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠵᠢǰabaǰi ( зав(и/ь)ж zavij)s and š .
[...]:ᠰᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠪᠡᠷserege eber ( сэрээ эвэрseree ever) č .
'Fork':ᠠᠴᠠača ( ац ats)
[...]:[...] (жалжгар эвэрjaljgar ever)ǰ.
'Tusk, fang':ᠰᠣᠶᠤᠭ ? soyuγa ( соёо soyoo)

Vowels

Letter [3] :17, 18 [2] :546
aaScholarly/Scientific transliteration [37]
ааCyrillic transliteration [27] [37]
[lower-alpha 6] Isolate
[lower-alpha 7]
Word-initial
Medial
Connected final
? Mongolian letter A (final form-2).svg Separated final
Ligatures [3] :22–23 [2] :546
bapaScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бапаCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠠ [lower-alpha 8] ᠫᠠIsolate
ᠪᠠᠫᠠWord-initial
ᠪᠠᠫᠠMedial
ᠪᠠᠫᠠFinal
Separated suffixes [note 3]
aScholarly/Scientific transliteration
аCyrillic transliteration
? Mongolian letter A (medial form-3).svg Separated suffix-initial
? Mongolian letter A (final form-2).svg Separated suffix

Letter [3] :17, 18–19 [2] :546
eeScholarly/Scientific transliteration
ээCyrillic transliteration
[lower-alpha 7] Isolate
Word-initial
Medial
Connected final
? Mongolian letter E (final form-2).svg Separated final
Ligatures [3] :22–23, 24–25 [2] :546
bepekegeScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бэпэхэгэCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠡ [lower-alpha 8] ᠫᠡᠬᠡ [lower-alpha 9] Isolate
ᠪᠡᠫᠡᠬᠡWord-initial
ᠪᠡᠫᠡᠬᠡMedial
ᠪᠡᠫᠡᠬᠡFinal
Separated suffixes [note 4]
eScholarly/Scientific transliteration
эCyrillic transliteration
Separated suffix-initial
? Mongolian letter E (final form-2).svg Separated suffix

Letter [3] :17, 19 [2] :546
iScholarly/Scientific transliteration
иCyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Mongolian letter manchu I (medial form-3).svg [lower-alpha 10] Medial (syllable-final)
Final
Ligatures [3] :22–23, 24–25 [2] :546
bipikigiScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бипихигиCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠢ [lower-alpha 11] ᠫᠢᠬᠢ [lower-alpha 12] Isolate
ᠪᠢᠫᠢᠬᠢWord-initial
ᠪᠢᠫᠢᠬᠢMedial
ᠪᠢᠫᠢᠬᠢFinal
Separated suffixes [note 5]
iScholarly/Scientific transliteration
иCyrillic transliteration
? Mongolian letter I (medial form).svg Separated suffix-initial
? Mongolian letter I (final form).svg Separated suffix

Letter [3] :17, 19–20 [2] :546
oScholarly/Scientific transliteration
оCyrillic transliteration
[lower-alpha 13] Isolate
Word-initial
Medial
Final
Ligatures [3] :22–23 [2] :546
bopoScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бопоCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠣᠫᠣIsolate
ᠪᠣᠫᠣWord-initial
ᠪᠣᠫᠣMedial
ᠪᠣᠫᠣFinal

Letter [3] :17, 19–20 [2] :546
uScholarly/Scientific transliteration
уCyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
Medial
Final
Ligatures [3] :22–23 [2] :546
bupuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бупуCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠤᠫᠤIsolate
ᠪᠤᠫᠤWord-initial
ᠪᠤᠫᠤMedial
ᠪᠤᠫᠤFinal
Separated suffixes [note 6]
uuunuduruγuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
ууунудуругуCyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter U (final form).svg ? Suffix
Mongolian letter U (medial form).svg ᠤᠨ ? ᠤᠳ ?
Mongolian letter U (initial form).svg ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ?

Letter [3] :17, 20 [2] :546
öScholarly/Scientific transliteration
өCyrillic transliteration
[lower-alpha 14] Isolate
Word-initial
Medial (word-initial syllable)
Medial (subsequent syllables)
Final
Ligatures [3] :22–23, 24–25 [2] :546
Scholarly/Scientific transliteration
бөпөхөгөCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠥᠫᠥᠭᠥ ? (w/otail) [lower-alpha 15] Isolate
ᠭᠥ ? (w/tail)
ᠪᠥᠫᠥᠭᠥWord-initial
ᠪᠥᠫᠥᠭᠥMedial
ᠪᠥᠫᠥᠭᠥFinal

Letter [3] :17, 20 [2] :546
üScholarly/Scientific transliteration
үCyrillic transliteration
[lower-alpha 16] Isolate
Word-initial
Medial (word-initial syllable)
Medial (subsequent syllables)
Final
Ligatures [3] :22–23, 24–25 [2] :546
Scholarly/Scientific transliteration
бүпүхүгүCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠦᠫᠦᠭᠦ ? (w/otail) [lower-alpha 15] Isolate
ᠭᠦ ? (w/tail)
ᠪᠦᠫᠦᠭᠦWord-initial
ᠪᠦᠫᠦᠭᠦMedial
ᠪᠦᠫᠦᠭᠦFinal
Separated suffixes [note 7]
üüünügeiüdScholarly/Scientific transliteration
үүүнүгэиүдCyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter Ue (final form).svg ? Suffix
Mongolian letter Ue (medial form).svg ᠦᠨ ? ᠦᠳ ?
Mongolian letter Ue (initial form).svg ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ?

Letter [1] :38–39
ēScholarly/Scientific transliteration [lower-alpha 17]
еCyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
Medial
Final
Example ligatures
Scholarly/Scientific transliteration
фекекеCyrillic transliteration
ᠹᠧᠺᠧᠻᠧIsolate
ᠹᠧᠺᠧᠻᠧWord-initial
ᠹᠧᠺᠧᠻᠧMedial
ᠹᠧᠺᠧᠻᠧFinal

Consecutive vowels

Doubled vowels [3] :10, 30 [16] :59 [note 8]
iioouuüüScholarly/Scientific transliteration
ииооууүүCyrillic transliteration
ᠤᠤ ? Block-printed interrogative particle.svg [lower-alpha 18] Isolate
ᠣᠣ [lower-alpha 19]
ᠤᠤWord-initial
ᠢᠢᠣᠣMedial
ᠤᠤ [lower-alpha 20] Final
Diphthongs [3] :31–32 [16] :58 [18] :111 [1] :41–42
aieioiuiöiüiScholarly/Scientific transliteration
аиэиоиуиөиүиCyrillic transliteration
ᠠᠢ [lower-alpha 21] ᠡᠢ [lower-alpha 22] ᠣᠢ [lower-alpha 23] ᠥᠢ [lower-alpha 24] Isolate
ᠠᡳᠡᡳᠣᡳᠣᡳWord-initial
ᠠᡳᠣᡳᠦᡳMedial
ᠠᠢᠣᠢᠦᠢFinal
Diphthongs, continued [3] :31–32
auuauuaScholarly/Scientific transliteration
ауэүуаууаCyrillic transliteration
ᠠᠤWord-initial
ᠠᠤMedial
? 3mg ouou final.PNG 3mg ae2 final 2.png [lower-alpha 25] ᠤᠤ ? Final

Native consonants

Letter [3] :17, 20–21 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
nScholarly/Scientific transliteration
нCyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
? Mongolian letter Na (medial form-2).svg Medial (syllable-initial)
? Mongolian letter Na (medial form).svg Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables [27] :8
nanenaneninonuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
нанэнанэнинонунөнүCyrillic transliteration
ᠨᠠᠨᠢ [lower-alpha 26] ᠨᠣᠨᠥIsolate
ᠨᠠᠨᠢᠨᠣᠨᠥWord-initial
ᠨᠠᠨᠢᠨᠣMedial
? 3mg n2 final.png 3mg ae2 final 2.png ᠨᠠᠨᠢᠨᠣFinal
Separated suffixes [note 9]
nanenuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
нанэнунүCyrillic transliteration
ᠨᠠᠨᠤSuffix-initial

Letter [3] :15, 17 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
ngScholarly/Scientific transliteration [lower-alpha 17]
нгCyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final

Letter [3] :(12), 17, 22 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
bScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бCyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables [27] :16
babebibobuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
бабэбибобубөбүCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠠ [lower-alpha 8] ᠪᠢ [lower-alpha 11] ᠪᠣᠪᠥIsolate
ᠪᠠᠪᠢᠪᠣᠪᠥWord-initial
ᠪᠠᠪᠢᠪᠣMedial
ᠪᠠᠪᠢᠪᠣFinal
Separated suffixes [note 10]
banbenbarberScholarly/Scientific transliteration
банбэнбарбэрCyrillic transliteration
ᠪᠠᠨᠪᠠᠷSuffixes

Letter [3] :12, 15, 17, 23 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
pScholarly/Scientific transliteration
пCyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
()Final
C-V syllables [27] :46
papepipopuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
папэпипопупөпүCyrillic transliteration
ᠫᠠᠫᠢᠫᠣᠫᠥIsolate
ᠫᠠᠫᠢᠫᠣᠫᠥWord-initial
ᠫᠠᠫᠢᠫᠣMedial
ᠫᠠᠫᠢᠫᠣFinal

(1/2)

Letter [3] :14, 17, 21 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
qScholarly/Scientific transliteration
хCyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables [3] :15 [27] :19
qaqeqaqeqiqoquScholarly/Scientific transliteration
хахэхахэхихохухөхүCyrillic transliteration
ᠬᠠ [lower-alpha 27] ᠬᠣIsolate
ᠬᠠᠬᠣWord-initial
ᠬᠠᠬᠣMedial
? 3mg q final.png 3mg ae2 final 2.png ᠬᠣFinal

(2/2)

Letter [3] :14, 17, 24–25 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
kScholarly/Scientific transliteration
хCyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter Qa (initial form).svg Word-initial
Mongolian letter Qa (initial form).svg Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables [3] :15 [27] :19
kakekikokuScholarly/Scientific transliteration
хахэхихохухөхүCyrillic transliteration
ᠬᠡ [lower-alpha 9] ᠬᠢ [lower-alpha 12] ᠬᠥ ? (w/otail) [lower-alpha 15] Isolate
ᠬᠥ ? (w/tail) [lower-alpha 28]
ᠬᠡᠬᠢᠬᠥWord-initial
ᠬᠡᠬᠢᠬᠥMedial
ᠬᠡᠬᠢᠬᠥFinal
Separated suffixes [note 11]
kikinScholarly/Scientific transliteration
хихинCyrillic transliteration
ᠬᠢᠬᠢᠨSuffixes

(1/2)

Letter [3] :14, 17, 21–22 [2] :546 [32] :212–213
γScholarly/Scientific transliteration [lower-alpha 17]
гCyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
? Mongolian letter Ga (medial form-2).svg Medial (syllable-initial)
? Mongolian letter Ga (medial form).svg Medial (syllable-final)
[lower-alpha 29] Final
C-V syllables [3] :15 [27] :21
γaγeγaγeγiγoγuγöγüScholarly/Scientific transliteration
гагэгагэгигогугөгүCyrillic transliteration
ᠭᠠᠭᠣIsolate
ᠭᠠᠭᠣWord-initial
ᠭᠠᠭᠣMedial
? 3mg gh1 final.png 3mg ae2 final 2.png ᠭᠣFinal