Timeline of Mongolian history

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This is a timeline of Mongolian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Mongolia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Mongolia. See also the list of presidents of Mongolia.


Centuries: 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th  · 21st

3rd century BC

215 Qin armies evict Xiongnu nomadic tribes from their pastures on the Yellow River in the Ordos Loop. Xiongnu leader Touman forced to flee far into the Mongolian Plateau
209 Modu Chanyu found the Xiongnu Empire. These nomadic peoples would inhabit the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BCE to the late 1st century CE.
203Xiongnu launch second war against the Yuezhi, seizing a large swath of Yuezhi territory (modern day Xinjiang).
200At the Battle of Baideng, Emperor Gaozu of Han was ambushed reputedly by 300,000 elite Xiongnu cavalry, only narrowly escaping capture.

2nd century BC

198 Modu Chanyu and the emperor Gaozu of China's Han dynasty sign a peace treaty, recognizing equality of the Xiongnu.
176 Modu Chanyu leads a Xiongnu invasion of the Gansu region and soundly defeats last remnants of the Yuezhi, killing the Yuezhi king in the process and asserting their presence in the Western Regions.
174Death of Xiongnu leader Modu Chanyu.
133The Battle of Mayi, an abortive ambush operation by Emperor Wu of Han (Han Wudi) against the invading Xiongnu forces, begins a decades-long Han dynasty offensive against the nomads
119The Battle of Mobei, Han forces invade the northern regions of the Gobi Desert forcing the Xiongnu to flee into Siberia. After a series of further defeats, the Xiongnu are expelled from the Ordos Desert and Qilian Mountains.

1st century BC

71Various tribes invade the Xiongnu territory from all fronts; Wusun from the west, Dingling from the north, Wuhuan from the east, and Han forces from the south.
60Xiongnu civil war as factions fight for power following the death of Xulüquanqu, the 12th Chanyu
53The southern Xiongnu surrender and become tributaries to the Han after splitting into northern and southern dynasties.
36At the Battle of Zhizhi General Chen Tang and Protector General Gan Yanshou, acting without explicit permission from the Han court, kill Northern Xiongnu leader Zhizhi Chanyu at his capital city (present-day Taraz, Kazakhstan)

1st century AD

49 Tsi Yung, allied with the Wuhuan and Xianbei, attacked the northern Xiongnu kingdom. Xianbei move into Xiongnu territory.
93The northern Xiongnu are dispersed by the Xianbei and the Chinese during the Battle of Ikh Bayan. The last Northern Chanyu is defeated and flees over to the north west with his subjects.

2nd century AD

147The Xianbei, who gain strength beginning from the 1st century CE, are consolidated into a state under Tanshihuai.
167The Xianbei successfully repel an invasion of the Han dynasty.
180The Xianbei conquer areas of northern China.

3rd century AD

235The last khagan of the Xianbei, Kebineng, is assassinated by Cao Wei, successor state of the Eastern Han (25–220). The Xianbei state disintegrates into a number of smaller independent domains (Murong, Tuoba, Khitan people, Shiwei, and Rouran Khaganate).

4th century AD

330A branch of the Xianbei, the Rouran (also known as Nirun) establish a powerful nomadic empire over modern day Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, part of Gansu, northern Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, parts of Northeast China and southern Siberia.

5th century AD

402 Yujiulü Shelun assumes the title of Khagan, landmarking the establishment of the state of the Rouran Khaganate.

6th century AD

555The Göktürks join the Western Wei, successor state of the Northern Wei, to defeat the Rouran.
570The Chinese Northern Qi and Northern Zhou dynasties begin paying tribute to the Göktürks.
584The Göktürks Empire, which stretches west to Crimea, is partitioned into Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates. Eastern Turk Göktürks recognize Sui dynasty Suzerainty.

7th century AD

615Turkic Khaganate revolts against Emperor of Sui and besiege the command seats at present-day Daixian in Shanxi
63027 MarchA Tang army under the command of Li Jing defeats the Eastern Turkic Khaganate under the command of Illig Qaghan at the Battle of Yinshan
648A reunited China—under the Tang dynasty (618-906) destroys the Eastern Türk north of the Gobi and establishes the Anbei Protectorate in the Mongolian Steppes. Uyghurs khagan are installed as Anbei protector.
682 Ilterish Qaghan (682-91) founds the Second Turkic Khaganate by uniting the tribes and subjugating the nine Turkic tribes of the Toquz Oghuz (which included the Uyghurs) and joining with the Sir tribes, Basmyls and Karluks to the west. He would later defeat Chinese armies and raid China.
691 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate dies and is succeeded by his brother Qapaghan Qaghan.
696 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate defeats the Khitans to the east and raids the Tang dynasty.

8th century AD

711Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate defeats the Turgesh
742The Basmyl, Uyghurs, and Karluks revolt against the Second Turkic Khaganate
745The Uyghurs kill the last khagan of the Göktürks, Baimei Kagan Cooloon bey, and sent his head to the Tang.
756Uyghur Bayanchur Khan aids Emperor Suzong of the Tang dynasty against the An Lushan rebellion. Approximately 4,000 Uyghur horsemen assisted Tang armies in retaking Chang'an and Luoyang in 757.
758Uyghurs destroy several northern Yenisei Kyrgyz trading outposts before slaughtering a Kyrgyz army and executing their Khan

9th century AD

840The Tang dynasty surreptitiously encouraged the Yenisei Kirghiz and the Karluks to attack the Uyghurs and the Uyghur Khaganate fell under an invasion of the Yenisei Kirghiz

10th century AD

907Ambagyan founds the Khitan Liao dynasty which covered a significant portion of what is now Mongolia including the basins of the three rivers Kherlen, Tuul and Orkhon.
925The Khitan ruled eastern Mongolia, most of Manchuria, and much of China north of the Yellow River.
944Emperor Taizong launches an invasion of the Jin.
947Khitan chieftains had established themselves as emperors of northern China. The Khitan state is renamed the Liao dynasty
951 7 October Emperor Shizong of Liao is murdered by a relative and is succeeded by Yelü Jing, son of Emperor Taizong of Liao, who becomes Emperor Muzong of Liao [1]
960 FebruaryZhao Kuangyin declares himself Emperor Taizu of Song, replacing Later Zhou [2]
964 Liao dynasty assists Northern Han in repelling Song dynasty [3]
969 12 March Emperor Muzong of Liao is murdered by his attendants and is succeeded by Yelü Xian, son of Emperor Shizong of Liao, who becomes Emperor Jingzong of Liao [3]
979 Liao dynasty attempts to assist Northern Han in repelling Song dynasty but is defeated at the Battle of Gaoliang River
980 13 October Emperor Jingzong of Liao dies and his son Yelü Longxu succeeds him as Emperor Shengzong of Liao; Empress Xiao Yanyan becomes regent [4]
983 The Liao dynasty reverts to calling itself the Khitans [5]
993 First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War : Khitans invade Goryeo and acquire nominal tributary status over Goryeo [6]

11th century AD

1004 Emperor Shengzong of Liao conducts a full-scale invasion of the Song dynasty which ends in stalemate and the Chanyuan Treaty, an agreement to an annual payment of silk and silver from the Song to the Khitans [7]
1009 Empress Xiao Yanyan dies [8]
1010 Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War : Mokjong of Goryeo is murdered by Gang Jo and the Khitans send an expedition to punish him; Gang Jo is killed [8]
1018 Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War : Khitans invade Goryeo but are defeated [9]
1019 Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War : Khitans prepares another army to attack Goryeo [9]
1031 25 June Emperor Shengzong of Liao dies and his son Yelü Zongzhen succeeds him as Emperor Xingzong of Liao; Empress Dowager Xiao Noujin becomes regent [10]
1055 28 August Emperor Xingzong of Liao dies and is succeeded by his son Yelü Hongji, who becomes Emperor Daozong of Liao [11] All officials are required to wear Chinese court dress [12]
1066 Khitans revert to calling their state the Liao dynasty [5]
1082 Unusually heavy snowfall kills 70 percent of livestock and horses [13]
1093 Mogusi of the Zubu and the Dilie tribes of western Heilongjiang raid the Liao dynasty

12th century AD

1101 12 February Emperor Daozong of Liao dies and his grandson Yelü Yanxi succeeds him as Emperor Tianzuo of Liao [14]
1117 Emperor Taizu of Jin defeats the Khitan army of the Liao dynasty [15]
1122 Emperor Tianzuo of Liao flees the Southern Capital and his uncle Yelü Chun is declared emperor of Northern Liao, however he dies three months later and the title is passed down to Yelü Ding, the son in hiding with his father the emperor also in hiding; real power goes to Empress Dowager Xiao Puxiannu [16]
1129 Yelü Dashi annexes two Jin tribes [17]
1130 Yelü Dashi leaves the Orkhon River with 20,000 followers and travels to the Kingdom of Qocho where the ruler welcomes him [18]
1131 summer Yelü Dashi attacks the Karakhanids at Kashgar but is repelled [19]
1141 9 September Battle of Qatwan : Yelü Dashi annihilates the army of Ahmad Sanjar of the Seljuk Empire and vassalizes the Khwarazmian dynasty [20]
1143 Yelü Dashi dies and his wife Xiao Tabuyan succeeds him as regent [21]
1151 Yelü Yilie, son of Yelü Dashi, becomes gurkhan of the Qara Khitai [22]
c. 1162Temüjin (the future Genghis Khan) is born in the Khentii mountains of today's Mongolia.
11867 November Ögedei Khan, third son of Temüjin (Genghis Khan) is born.
1189Temüjin becomes Khan of the Khamag Mongol.

13th century

1205 Temüjin unites all nomadic tribes who settled around at Baikal Lake to China's Great Wall.
1206Temüjin given the title Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan), first Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire.
121523 September Kublai Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, is born.
122718 AugustGenghis Khan, 1st Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies in Western Xia during the fall of Yinchuan aged c. 65.
122913 September Ögedei Khan, third son of Genghis Khan, becomes second Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
124111 DecemberÖgedei Khan, second Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies aged 55.
1243 Zhenjin, second son of Kublai Khan and later founder of the Yuan dynasty, is born.
124624 August Güyük Khan, eldest son of Ögedei Khan and grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes third Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
124820 AprilGüyük Khan, third Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies aged 42.
12511 July Möngke Khan, eldest son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
125911 AugustMöngke Khan, fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies aged 50.
12605 May Kublai Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire. However, the Toluid Civil War begins as various members of the Tolui family line fight for the title of Khagan resulting in the division of the Mongol Empire.
1268The Kaidu–Kublai war breaks out, which lasts until 1301 and deepens the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. All later Khagans of the Mongol Empire were nominal due to the empire's division.
1269Birth of the 'Phags-pa script, designed by Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan.
1271Kublai Khan officially proclaims the founding of the Yuan dynasty with himself as first emperor. Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) named the dynasty's capital.
1273 Zhenjin designated Crown Prince by Kublai Khan.
129418 FebruaryDeath of Kublai Khan (aged 78). By this time the Mongol Empire had already fractured into four khanates: the Yuan dynasty based in China, the Golden Horde based in Russia, the Chagatai Khanate based in Central Asia, and the Ilkhanate based in Iran, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan.
129410 May Temür Khan, son of Crown Prince Zhenjin and grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes sixth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and second emperor of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
1295Enthronement of Ilkhan Ghazan. Islamization of the Ilkhanate.

14th century

1304A peace among the Mongol khanates establishs the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty over the three western khanates (the Golden Horde, the Chagatai Khanate and the Ilkhanate). However, the peace itself was short-lived and the war soon resumed.
130721 JuneWith the death of Temür Khan (aged 41), Külüg Khan, first son of Darmabala and Dagi of the Khunggirad clan, and a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes seventh Khagan of the Mongol Empire and third Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
13117 AprilKülüg Khan dies (aged 29). Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, second son of Darmabala and Dagi of the Khunggirat, and a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes eighth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and fourth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1313Enthronement of Öz Beg Khan. Islamization of the Golden Horde.
1315Revival of the imperial examination system within the Yuan dynasty under Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan.
132019 April Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan dies (aged 34), Gegeen Khan, eldest son of Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan and Radnashiri, becomes ninth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and fifth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
13234 OctoberDeath of Gegeen Khan (aged 20). Yesün Temür, son of Gammala, grandson of Zhenjin and great-grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes tenth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and sixth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1328OctoberWith the death of Yesün Temür (aged 34), Ragibagh Khan, eldest son of Yesün Temür, becomes 11th Khagan of the Mongol Empire at the age of 7-8 and designated seventh Emperor of the Yuan dynasty before being deposed in a coup before his succession.
132816 October Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, second son of Khayishan, becomes 12th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and eighth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. The War of the Two Capitals begins. His forces defeated, Ragibagh Khan disappears or dies at the age of 7–8, possibly murdered.
132927 February Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür abdicates and his elder brother Khutughtu Khan Kusala becomes 13th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and ninth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. However, he dies on August 30 at age 28, four days after a banquet with brother Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, presumed to have been poisoned. Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür regaines the throne on September 8.
133223 OctoberWith the death of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür (aged 28), Rinchinbal Khan, second son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala, becomes 14th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and tenth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty at the age of six.
133319 JulyRinchinbal Khan dies nine months later (aged 6), Toghon Temür, (1320-1370) eldest son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala and older brother of Rinchinbal, becomes 15th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and eleventh Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1335Disintegration of the Ilkhanate after the death of Ilkhan Abu Sa'id.
136814 September Toghon Temür flees Beijing for Shangdu in advance of approaching Ming dynasty forces. Yuan dynasty falls. The remnants of the Yuan known as the Northern Yuan dynasty continue in Mongolia.
1370 Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara (1340-1378), son of Toghon Temür, is declared Khan of Mongolia at Karakorum. Timur (Tamerlane) gains control of the western Chagatai Khanate.
1378 Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür (1342-1388) succeeds his brother Ayuushridar as Khan of Mongolia.
1380 The Golden Horde is defeated at the Battle of Kulikovo. Karakorum is destroyed by Chinese troops.
1388 Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür is murdered by an ally of the Oirats, thus launching the Oirat-Mongol wars in Northern Yuan dynasty. Jorightu Khan Yesüder (1358-1391) becomes Khan of a fractured and diminished Mongol Khanate.
1394Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khan (1361-1399) overthrew Engke Khan from the House of Ariq Böke succeeds as Khan of the Mongols.
1395 Timur invades The Golden Horde and sacks Saray and Astrakhan.
1399Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khagan is defeated by the Four Oirats and killed by their leaders, Ugetchi Khashikha and Batula.

15th century

1405 Timur dies of illness at Farab (present day Kazakhstan) while preparing for war against Ming China.
1408 Öljei Temür Khan (1379-1412) succeeds his father Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khan and older brother Gün Temür Khan as Khan of the Yuan dynasty.
1415 Oirat nobles place Oyiradai (died 1425) on the throne of Khagan of the Mongol Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty following the death of Delbeg Khan
1425 Adai Khan (1390-1438) assumes throne of Northern Yuan dynasty, unifies both the central and eastern Mongol territories but then suffers major defeats by Oirats in 1430 and 1434.
1433Oirats crown Toghtoa Bukha (Taisun Khan) as Khagan of the Northern Yuan. He later proclaims himself of Khagan of the Great Yuan enraging the Ming dynasty.
1449 Esen Taishi (Taisun Khan's military commander and later successor as Khan) captures the Zhentong Emperor of the Ming dynasty at the Battle of Tumu Fortress and lays siege to Beijing, but is pushed back.
1473The Ming begin construction of the Great Wall at the southern edge of the Ordos Desert to contain resurgent Mongol tribes.
1480 Madukhai Khatun, widow of the previous Chinggisid khan, marries Batu-Möngke Dayan Khan who defeats the Oirats, beginning a Chinggisid revival in Mongolia. The Great Horde's attempt to invade Muscovy failed. Their leader Akhmat Khan dies.

16th century

1510 Dayan Khan defeats the Ordos and Tümed Mongols at the Battle of Dalan Terigün (Inner Mongolia), reunifying the Six Tümens of the Mongols.
1513 Dayan Khan launches successive invasions of China that continue through 1526 and include an unsuccessful assault on Beijing in 1517
1542Following his brother's death in 1542, Altan Khan (grandson of Dayan Khan) becomes the de facto leader of the whole of the "Right Wing" (western Inner Mongolia and Ordos) and is given the title, "Tüsheet Sechen Khan."
1550 Altan Khan launches large scale incursions into Ming territory, surrounds Beijing.
1551Altan Khan and the Ming strike accords on peace and border trade.
1571Altan Khan founds the city of Guihua or Köke Khota (Hohhot, meaning "The Blue City"), now the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
1577Altan Khan meets Sodnam Gyatso in northeast Tibet and bestows on him the Mongolian title "Dalai Lama". The Mongols’ “Second Conversion” to Buddhism begins
1585 Abtai Sain Khan of the Tüsheet Khanate and nephew of Altan Khan founds Erdene Zuu Monastery, the first Buddhist monastery in Mongolia, adjacent to the ancient Mongol capital of Karakorum

17th century

1601Yonten Gyatso, great-grandson of Altan Khan, becomes the 4th Dalai Lama in Lhasa, Tibet.
1604 Ligdan Khan becomes ruler of the northern Yuan.
1619Several Mongol tribes defect to the Qing due to Ligdan Khan's oppressive rule.
1632Ligdan Khan flees to Tibet to evade the Manchus and conquer the Gelug.
1634Ligdan Khan dies at Qinghai Lake.
1640 Zanabazar, four-year-old son of the Tüsheet Khan of the Khalkha, is recognized as the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu .
1642Establishment of the Khoshut Khanate in the Tibetan Plateau by Güshi Khan.
1661 Irkutsk fort founded.
1671 Galdan Boshigt becomes leader of the western Dzungar Khanate.
1685 Galdan Khan founds the town of Khovd.
1687Outbreak of the decades-long Dzungar–Qing War between the Dzungar Khanate and Khalkha-Mongols / Qing dynasty.
1688The Dzungars invade Khalkha and force Khalkha nobility to flee to Inner Mongolia.
1691 Khalkha nobles pledge fealty to the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
1696The Qing dynasty seizes de facto control of Khalkha by defeating the Dzungars in the Battle of Jao Modo.

18th century

1705The Khoshut Lha-bzang Khan deposes the Sixth Dalai Lama in Tibet and kills the regent Sangs-rgyas rGya-mtsho.
1709 Khalkha jirum (Khalkha regulations) replaces the Mongol-Oirat Code among the Khalkha Mongols.
1717Acting on an appeal by the Tibetan monasteries, the Dzungar army occupies Lhasa and kills The Khoshut Lha-bzang Khan.
1718The Qing armies establish a garrison and military farm near modern Khovd city in western Mongolia.
1720 Qing dynasty's Kangxi Emperor drives Dzungar forces from Tibet.
1723Death of Zanabazar. Upper Mongols under rule of the prince Lubsan Danzan revolt against the Qing but are defeated.
1727 Kyakhta Treaty defines Russo-Qing frontier and divides the Buriats under Russia from the Khalkha Mongols under the Qing.
1752 Dawaachi and Amursanaa overthrow the Dzungar ruler in Xinjiang; Dawaachi becomes new Khong Tayiji (ruler).
1755The Qing armies occupy Dzungaria in Xinjiang.
1756 Chingünjav and Amursana lead failed rebellions which ended in the destruction of the Dzungars by the Qing dynasty.
1758 Third Jebtsundamba Khutuktu identified in Tibet (first outside of Mongolia)
1779Nom-un Yekhe Khüriye, the great monastery of the Jebtsundamba Khutuktus, finally settles at the present location of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.
1789Qing law replaces the native code, Khalkha jirum.

19th century

1809The 5th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu orders construction of Gandantegchinlen (Gandan) Monastery in Ikh Khuree.
1811First tsam religious dances performed in Ikh Khuree
1822Russian statesman Mikhail Speransky reforms administration of the Buriats and other Indigenous peoples of Siberia.
1833Opening of the Russian-Mongol school in Kyakhta
1836The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu relocates from east Khüriye (now central Ulaanbaatar)to Gandantegchinlen (Gandan) Monastery to avoid Chinese merchants.
1838Completion of Gandantegchinlen (Gandan) Monastery in Ikh Khuree
1846The Buriat Cossack Dorzhi Banzarov becomes first person of Mongol ancestry to earn a European Ph.D. at University of Kazan in Russia.
1861Russian Consul takes up residence in Ikh Khuree
1869Agvaanl Uvsanchoijinyam Danzan Vanchüg is born in Lithang, Kham. He will later be formally installed as the Bogd Khan of the new Mongolian state
1880Anti-Manchu mutiny by Uliastai garrison
1891Chinese rebels of the Jindandao (Way of the Golden Pill) sect launch massive pogroms against Mongols in southeastern Inner Mongolia.
1892Agreement to build a telegraph line from Russia to China via Ikh Khuree. Construction of Trans-Siberian Railway begins.

20th century

1907The Qing government implemented sinification policies.
19111 DecemberOuter Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty under the Bogd Khan.
29 DecemberThe Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia was proclaimed and Bogd Khan enthroned.
19123 NovemberThe Russian Empire recognized Mongolian independence and the rule of Bogd Khan.
191311 NovemberMongolia and Tibet concluded treaty on mutual recognition and mutual assistance.
1915 Russia, China and Mongolia signed a treaty at Kyakhta under which China was recognized as sovereign over an autonomous Mongolia.
1919Outer Mongolia was occupied by the Republic of China.
1921The Russian Red Army, with the support of Damdin Sükhbaatar, defeated the forces of Roman Ungern von Sternberg.
February Ungern drove Chinese troops out of Niislel Khuree.
MarchAll remaining Chinese troops were defeated by Ungern and driven from Mongolia, allowing the reassertion of Mongolian independence under Bogd Khan.
18 March Communist guerrillas headed by Damdin Sükhbaatar, with the assistance of Red Army troops, defeated the Chinese garrison in the Mongolian settlement Maimachen near Kyakhta.
192426 NovemberAfter the death of the Bogd Khan, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared in Outer Mongolia.
1928Collectivization began.
1932The failure of collectivization led to widespread uprisings and a temporary thaw.
1936Prince Demchugdongrub formed the Mongol Military Government, a non-Communist state independent from China, in Inner Mongolia.
1937The Mongol Military Government was renamed the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
Stalinist purges in Mongolia : A Stalinist terror began which would lead to the deaths of more than thirty thousand people in the Mongolian People's Republic.
1939Stalinist purges in Mongolia: The terror ended.
May Battle of Khalkhyn Gol : Large scale fighting took place between Japanese and joint Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on the border between Mongolia and Manchuria.
16 SeptemberBattle of Khalkhyn Gol: The battle ended in a Japanese defeat. A truce was negotiated between Japan and the Soviet Union.
1941The Mongol United Autonomous Government was renamed the Mongolian Autonomous Federation, or Mengjiang.
1945AugustThe Republic of China requested Soviet help in the war against Japan, and offered recognition of the independence of Outer Mongolia in exchange according to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
AugustThe Mongolian People's Republic declared war on Japan, one day after the Soviet Union, and began to liberate Southern Mongolia from the China and the Japan.
OctoberA plebiscite yielded a 100% pro-independence vote.
1946JanuaryThe Chinese government recognized the independence of Mongolian People's Republic.
19496 OctoberThe newly established People's Republic of China recognized Mongolia and agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
1950Herds were successfully collectivized.
1952The Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan renounced the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
1955The ROC blocked the accession of the Mongolian People's Republic's entry to the United Nations.
1961The Mongolian People's Republic entered the United Nations.
The Trans-Mongolian Railway was finished.
1962Mongolia became a member of the Comecon.
Sino-Soviet split : The Communist Party leadership sided with the Soviet Union in a falling-out with China.
1965 Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal purged the intelligentsia.
1969Sino-Soviet split: The Soviet Union stationed a large army on Mongolian territory in response to threats of Chinese aggression.
1981March Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa became the first Mongolian in space.
1984August Tsedenbal resigned.
198727 JanuaryMongolia established diplomatic relations with the United States.
1989JulyThe first Mongolian member of the Baháʼí Faith entered the country.
DecemberThe first popular reform demonstrations took place; the Mongolian Democratic Association was organized.
1990JanuaryLarge-scale pro-democracy demonstrations were held in sub-zero weather.
2 MarchMongolia and the Soviet Union announced that all Soviet troops would be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.
MayThe constitution was amended to provide for a multi-party system and new elections.
29 JulyThe first democratic elections were held. The Communist Party, now the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), won.
3 SeptemberThe first democratically elected People's Great Hural took office.
199213 JanuaryA new constitution went into effect.
8 AprilA new election law was passed.
28 JuneAn election was held for the first unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural. The MPRP won.
19936 JuneThe first direct presidential election took place. Opposition candidate Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, a former MPRP member, won.
199630 JuneThe first non-Communist government was elected.
1998 Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, Minister of Infrastructure and one of the leaders of the 1990 protests, was murdered.
20002 JulyThe MPRP was elected; a new government was formed by Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar.

21st century

2003Mongolian troops begin taking part in peace keeping operations in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan.
2004An election resulted in a draw. A coalition was formed between the MPRP and other parties which was headed by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj.
2006JanuaryThe governing coalition was dissolved by the MPRP.
25 JanuaryA new coalition between the MPRP and smaller parties and defectors was formed under Miyeegombyn Enkhbold.
2007OctoberThe governing coalition was led by the MPRP and replaced by a coalition headed by Sanjaagiin Bayar.
2009June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj from Democratic Party was selected President of Mongolia.
2009October Sanjaagiin Bayar resigned from Primer Ministership due to declining health conditions and was replaced with Sükhbaataryn Batbold.
2012AugustAfter the 2012 Mongolian legislative election, a coalition headed by Norovyn Altankhuyag from Democratic party was formed.
2013June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj from Democratic Party, was re-elected in the 2013 Mongolian presidential election.

See also

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The Liao dynasty was a Khitan-led imperial dynasty of China. This article discusses the provincial system that existed within the Liao dynasty from the early 10th century until the fall of the empire in 1125, in what is now North China, Northeast China and Mongolia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Mongol Empire</span>

This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from the birth of Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, to the ascension of Kublai Khan as emperor of the Yuan dynasty in 1271, though the title of Khagan continued to be used by the Yuan rulers into the Northern Yuan dynasty, a far less powerful successor entity, until 1634.

The siege of Lüshun was a military conflict between the Later Jin and Ming dynasty. In the summer of 1634 the Jin attacked and conquered the port city of Lüshun from Ming.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Khitans</span>

This is a timeline of the history of the Khitans. The Khitans were a nomadic people in northeastern Asia related to the Xianbei. Following the collapse of the Tang dynasty, they established the Liao dynasty in 916, encompassing parts of modern-day northern China, Mongolia, and North Korea. The Liao dynasty was eventually conquered by the Jin dynasty in 1125. Remnants of the Liao court led by Yelü Dashi fled westward to Central Asia where they established the Western Liao dynasty. In 1211, the Western Liao throne was usurped by a Naiman called Kuchlug. In 1218, the Mongol Empire defeated and conquered the Western Liao dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Jurchens</span> Timeline of notable events in the history of Manchuria

This is a timeline of the Jurchens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Song dynasty</span>

This is a timeline of the Song dynasty (960–1279). The Song dynasty was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, posthumously known as Emperor Taizu of Song, who ended the period of division known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song dynasty is commonly separated into two historical periods, the Northern Song (960–1127) and the Southern Song (1127–1279), divided by the loss of the north to the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234). In 1279, the Mongol Yuan dynasty conquered the Song.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms</span>

This is a timeline of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–979), which followed the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907 AD. The Five Dynasties refer to the succession of dynasties which ruled northern China following the Tang collapse while the Ten Kingdoms, with the exception of Northern Han, ruled in southern China. This era of division ended in 979 AD with the rise of the Song dynasty under Emperor Taizu of Song, although the Song would never reconquer the northern territory lost to the Khitans, collectively known as the Sixteen Prefectures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Tanguts</span>

This is a timeline of the Tangut people and Western Xia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Mongols prior to the Mongol Empire</span>

This is a timeline of Mongols prior to the Mongol Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Ilkhanate</span>

This is a timeline of the Ilkhanate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Chagatai Khanate</span>

This is a timeline of the Chagatai Khanate (1226–1348) and its successor states, Moghulistan (1347–1462), Yarkent Khanate (1514–1696), and the Turpan Khanate (1462–1680).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Golden Horde</span>

This is a timeline of events involving the Golden Horde (1242–1502), from 1459 also known as the Great Horde.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Ming dynasty</span>

This is a timeline of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) from the rise of the Hongwu Emperor to the rise and establishment of the Qing dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yunnan under Ming rule</span>

Yunnan under Ming rule saw the continuation of the tusi system instituted during the Yuan dynasty, increasing centralization, and Han migration into Yunnan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Qing dynasty</span>

This is a timeline of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jurchen unification</span> 1583–1619 unification of the Jurchen tribes under Nurhaci, founder of the Later Jin dynasty

The Jurchen unification were a series of events in the late 16th and early 17th centuries that led to the unification of the Jurchen tribes under Nurhaci, a Jianzhou Jurchen leader who had an antagonistic relationship with the Ming dynasty due to their involvement in events early on in his life that led to the death of his father and grandfather. From 1583 to the early 1600s, Nurhaci led a series of military and influence campaigns that led to the unification of the majority of the Jurchen tribes. In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin dynasty and ruled as its founding khan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Xinjiang under Qing rule</span>

This is a timeline of the Xinjiang under the rule of the Qing dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Era of Fragmentation</span>

This is a timeline of the Era of Fragmentation, the period of Tibetan history lasting from the death of the Tibetan Empire's last emperor, Langdarma, in 842 until Drogön Chögyal Phagpa gained control over the three provinces of Tibet in 1253 under Mongol rule.


  1. Twitchett 1994, p. 81.
  2. Xiong 2009, p. cxviii.
  3. 1 2 Twitchett 1994, p. 84.
  4. Twitchett 1994, p. 87.
  5. 1 2 Xiong 2009, p. 311.
  6. Twitchett 1994, p. 103.
  7. Twitchett 1994, p. 109-110.
  8. 1 2 Twitchett 1994, p. 111.
  9. 1 2 Twitchett 1994, p. 112.
  10. Twitchett 1994, p. 114.
  11. Twitchett 1994, p. 124.
  12. Twitchett 1994, p. 126.
  13. Twitchett 1994, p. 133.
  14. Twitchett 1994, p. 139.
  15. Twitchett 1994, p. 144.
  16. Twitchett 1994, p. 147.
  17. Biran 2005, p. 32.
  18. Twitchett 1994, p. 151.
  19. Biran 2005, p. 37.
  20. Biran 2005, p. 44.
  21. Biran 2005, p. 48.
  22. Biran 2005, p. 50.