Timeline of Nepalese history

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This is a timeline of Nepalese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Nepal and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Nepal. See also the list of monarchs of Nepal.


Before the common era

~600 BCEKing Yalamber establishes his first Kirat kingdom in Kathmandu (present-day Nepal) defeating Bhuwan Singh, the third and last king of the Ahir Dynasty. Kirat Kingdom originally came from beyond the Dudh Koshi river. [1] [2]
563 BCE Gautama Buddha is born in Kapilvastu in 563 BCE (died in 483 BCE) in Lumbini (present-day Nepal).
250 BCEEmperor Ashoka visits Nepal.

Centuries: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th

3rd century

205Nimisha defeats Gasti, the last ruler of the Kirata Kingdom, and establishes the Soma dynasty. The Soma dynasty originated from the Rajputs who sheltered themselves from the invasion of the Mughal Empire. [1]

4th century

305Bhaskar Varma, the last ruler of the Soma dynasty, having no sons or daughters adopts Bhoomi Varma to succeed him starting the rule of Licchavi dynasty. [1] [3]

5th century

464 Manadeva reigns until 491 A.D. His reign is characterized by great architectural and sculptural achievements. [1]

6th century

588 Shivadeva I becomes the king.
598 Amshuverma, who started as a feudal lord and now the prime minister, starts minting coins in his name and assumes the title of Maharajadhiraj reducing the king to a mere figurehead. Eventually, he marries the king's daughter and succeeds Shiva Deva I as the ruler after the king's death. Amshuverma's reign also is also characterized by architectural achievements. [1] [2] [3]

7th century

621Following the death of Amshuverma, Uday Deva becomes the king reviving the Licchavi dynasty's rule. [1]
624Uday Deva is ousted by his brother Dhruva Deva, and Jishnu Gupta. He goes to Tibet for help. Dhruva Deva and Jishnu Gupta rule together. [1]
~627Jishnu Gupta's absolute rule commences. He also mints coin in his name. [2] [3]
631Bishnu Gupta, son of Jishnu Gupta, and Bhimarjuna Deva rule together. [2]
643 Narendradeva reclaims his ancestral throne with the Tibetan Empire's help. [1] [2]
649 Narendradeva sends a cavalry of 7,000 troops to aid Tibet in a battle against Arunasva who attacked the emissary Wang Xuance from China. [2]
685 Shivadeva II, the son of Narendradeva, starts his reign. He marries Batsa Devi, daughter of the prince Bhogvarma of Magadha. [1]

8th century

705 Jayadeva II starts his reign until up to 733. After him, Nepal enters into a dark era which lasts until 1200 C.E. [1] [2]

11th century

1097 Nanyadeva establishes the Karnat dynasty in present day Simraungadh, Bara. [4]

12th century

1147 King Nanyadeva of the Karnat dynasty dies. He is succeeded by his son Gangadeva. [4]

13th century

1201 Arimalla, the first king of the Malla dynasty rules the Kathmandu valley. [3]
1216King Arimalla is succeeded by his son Abhaya Malla. [1] [5]
1255 King Abhaya Malla dies in a massive earthquake that killed one-third of the whole population. He is succeeded by his son Jayadeva Malla. [6] [7]
1244Doya from Mithila (Karnat dynasty) invades Nepal three times within two years. [7]
1258A period of political struggle begins between the House of Bhonta (the region of Banepa) headed by Jayabhimadeva and the House of Tripura (Bhadgaon) headed by Jayasimha Malla. [7]
King Jayadeva Malla dies. The two contending houses reach an agreement to share the throne alternately. Jayabhimadeva becomes the King following the agreement. [7]
1271Jayasimha Malla becomes the King following the agreement between the two Houses. [7]
1274King Jayasimha Malla is deposed with the help of House of Bhonta; Ananta Malla becomes the king. [7]
1287Jitari Malla of the Khasa area in the Karnali region attacks Nepal three times until 1290. [7]

14th century

1300Doya from Mithila invades Nepal again penetrating as far as Bhadgaon, and inflicting fines on the House of Tripura. [7]
1308 King Ananta Malla dies, leaving the throne vacant. [7]
1311After Jayasaktideva of House of Bhonta is defeated by Jayatunga Malla of House of Tripura, Jayasaktideva calls the Doya for help. This backfires as the Doya imprisoned Brahmins, looted people[ clarification needed ] and set houses on fire. [7]
1312Following an agreement between the House of Tripura and the Tirhuts, along with other wealth, Devalakshmidevi, the daughter of Jayatunga Malla, is given in marriage to King Harisimhadeva. [7] [8]
Ripu Malla from the Khasa kingdom visits the Kathmandu valley. [7]
Jayarudra Malla, the son of Jayatunga Malla, controls much of the valley. [9]
1313After five years without a King, Jayarudra Malla installs Jayanandadeva, his rival from the House of Bhonta, as the ruler. [7]
1320Jayarudra Malla withdraws support for Jayanandadeva and installs Jayari Malla, his relative and the son of Ananta Malla, as the King. [7]
1324The Karnat Kingdom of Mithila is annexed by the King of Delhi. The invader then sets up a vassal state appointing from the Oiniwar dynasty a ruler of the region. [7]
King Harisimhadeva of Mithila, along with his wife Devalakshmidevi and so Jagatsimha flees to Kathmandu Valley. Harisimha dies on the way and Devalakshmidevi, and Jagatsimha were welcomed by her brother, Jayarudra Malla. [1] [9]
1328Aditya Malla from the Khasa Kingdom invades the Kathmandu valley.
1330Jayarudra Malla dies at the age of 30, leaving Nayakadevi, his daughter, to assume the throne of House of Tripura. [7]
1335Harischandra, the husband of Nayakadevi, was poisoned by the nobles. [7]
~1338Nayakadevi marries Jagatsimha, the son of Harisimhadeva and Devalakshmidevi. This event connects all the later Mallas of Kathmandu valley to the Karnat dynasty. [7]
1344King Jayari Malla dies.
1347Rajalladevi is born to Nayakadevi and Jagatsimha. Nayakadevi dies ten days later and Jagatsimha was thrown to prison leaving Rajalladevi to the care of Devalakshmidevi. [7]
Devalakshmidevi comes to an agreement with the House of Bhonta on the condition that a king would be from the House of Bhonta while Devalakshmidevi would act as the de facto ruler. Following this agreement, Jayarajadeva, the illegitimate son of the late King Jayanandadeva, becomes the King. Devalakshmidevi, however, is given royal titles higher than the King himself. [7] [8]
1349Sultan Shams ud-din Ilyas of Bengal conquers Tirhut and leads raid in Kathmandu Valley destroying temples and damaging the images of gods and goddesses. This event is often cited as the one that destroyed much of the Lichchhavi era and early Malla era monuments and artifacts. [7]
1354Rajalladevi marries Jayasthiti Malla. It is generally accepted that Jayasthiti Malla was brought from Mithila by Devalakshmidevi to marry Rajalladevi. [7] [8]
1361King Jayarajadeva dies. He is succeeded by his son Jayarjunadeva. [7]
1366 Devalakshmidevi dies. Jayasthiti Malla starts on gathering political power. [7]
1382 Jayasthiti Malla rules as king of the united Malla kingdom in Kathmandu Valley. [1]
1395 King Jayasthiti Malla dies. His three sons Dharma Malla, Jyoti Malla, and Kiti Malla rule together. [1] [7]

15th century

1408 Jyoti Malla rules as the sole king of Kathmandu Valley after the death of both his brothers. [7]
1428 King Jyoti Malla dies. His son Yakshya Malla succeeds him. [7]
1482 King Yakshya Malla dies. His kingdom is divided in three between his sons with Ratna Malla controlling Kantipur, and Raya Malla controlling Bhaktapur. [1] [10]

16th century

1520 King Ratna Malla dies. His son Surya Malla succeeds him as the king. [7]
1526 Mukunda Sen of Palpa attacks the entire Kathmandu valley and surrounds both Kantipur, and Patan. He is defeated by the combined forces of the valley. [1] [7]
1530 King Surya Malla dies. He is succeeded by his son Amara Malla. Amara Malla annexed several villages north-west of Kantipur. [7] [11]
1560 King Amara Malla dies. His son Mahendra Malla succeeds him. Mahendra Malla issued the first silver coins. [1] [7]
1574 King Mahendra Malla is succeeded by his first son Sadashiva Malla. [7] [1]
1581 Shivasimha Malla, the second son of Mahendra Malla, deposes his brother Sadashiva Malla and rules Kantipur. Sadashiva takes refuge in Bhadgaon where he dies. [1] [7]

17th century

1600 King Shivasimha Malla annexes Patan and installs his son Harisimhadeva as the governor. Harisimhadeva dies shortly afterwards, and his son Siddhi Narasimha Malla succeeds him as the governor. [7]
1606Ram Shah of Gorkha reigns; Gorkha kingdom experiences its first expansion (to 1633).
1619 King Shivasimha Malla dies. His son Lakshmi Narasimha Malla succeeds him as the King of Kantipur, and his grandson Siddhi Narasimha Malla declares Patan independent from Kantipur. [7] [9]
1641 King Lakshmi Narasimha Malla goes insane after executing his loyal minister. Pratap Malla imprisons him and rules Kantipur. [1] [11]
1674 Nripendra Malla starts his reign after his Pratap Malla's death defying the wishes of his father to install Mahipatendra Malla as the king. [7]
1680 Parthibendra Malla, another son of Pratap Malla, starts his reign after the death of King Nripendra Malla. [7] [1]
1687 King Parthibendra Malla is poisoned by the nobles and on his death, as many as twenty-four women went Sati. He is succeeded by his 14 years old son Bhupalendra Malla with his wife Riddhilakshmi acting as the regent. [9] [2]
1688Lakshminarayan, a minister, rises to the power of supreme authority and inscribes his name on the coin issued by the monarch. He also assassinates prominent nobles. [7]
1690Lakshminarayan is assassinated following a rumor of illicit relationship with the regent and the king's mother, Riddhilakshmi. [7]

18th century

1700 King Bhupalendra Malla dies. He is succeeded by his son Bhaskara Malla. [1]
1717 King Bhaskara Malla proclaims the title of King of Patan and issues coins under the name Gajapati Mahindra Simha. [1] [9]
1720An epidemic breaks out in Kantipur killing approximately 20,000 people.
1722After about six months in confinement to be safe from the plague, King Bhaskara Malla returns to the palace after the death rate dropped. He dies some days later due to the plague. He is succeeded by Jagajjaya Malla, the grandson of Mahipatendra Malla. [9] [11]
1730 King Jagajjaya Malla's first son Rajendra Malla dies. [7] [11]
1736 Jayaprakash Malla succeeds King Jagajjaya Malla after the latter's death. [2] [9] [1]
1743 Prithvi Narayan Shah ascends to throne of Gorkha.
1764 British East India Company gains control of Bengal.
1768 Gorkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah conquers Kathmandu and lays foundations for unified kingdom.
1769Conquest of Chaudandi and Majh Kirant states.
1792Nepalese expansion is halted by the defeat at hands of Chinese in Tibet.

19th century

1806 Bhimsen Thapa becomes the first Mukhtiyar (prime minister). [5]
1809Nepalese troops lay siege to Kangra, farthest extent of Gurkha empire.
1814Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816) ends resulting in Sugauli Treaty which establishes Nepal's current boundaries and sows the seeds for political instability.
1837Bhimsen Thapa falls, beginning unstable period in court politics.
1846 Kot massacre results in the killing of more than 40 members of the palace and starts the autocratic Rana dynasty in Nepal with Jung Bahadur Rana as its first prime minister. [12]
1855War starts with China (until 1858).
1856Royal decree gives absolute power to prime minister and his family.
1857 Sepoy Rebellion is waged against British in north India; Nepal aids British (until 1858).
1858 Jang Bahadur receives the title of Rana.
1877Prime minister Jung Bahadur Rana dies; Ranodip Singh Kunwar becomes the prime minister. [13]
1885Prime minister Ranodip Singh Kunwar is assassinated by his nephews; Bir Shumsher becomes the prime minister. [14]

20th century

19015 MarPrime minister Bir Shumsher dies; Dev Shumsher becomes the prime minister. [14]
27 MarPrime minister Dev Shumsher is deposed by his relatives; Chandra Shumsher becomes the prime minister. [14]
1914Thousands of Nepalese citizens fight as soldiers for British in World War I (to 1918)
192321 Dec Treaty with Britain affirms Nepal's sovereignty.
19352 JuneNepal's first political party, Nepal Praja Parishad is founded (led by Tanka Prasad Acharya). [15]
1939Tens of thousands of Nepalese citizens fight as soldiers for British in World War II (to 1945).
194625 Jan Nepali National Congress is formed (led by BP Koirala, Matrika Prasad Koirala, Ganesh Man Singh, etc.). [16]
1948Prime Minister Padma Shamsher Rana announces first constitution of Nepal, then resigns; his replacement, Mohan Shamsher Rana, represses opposition [12]
19517 Jan Tribhuvan returns from exile and reclaims the title of King putting an end to the autocratic Rana dynasty [17]
16 Nov Matrika Prasad Koirala becomes the first commoner to be elected a prime minister [18]
195329 MayNew Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepal's Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
1955Nepal joins the United Nations.
15 MarKing Tribhuwan dies, King Mahendra ascends throne. [14]
195927 MayMulti-party constitution is adopted and the first general elections in Nepal brings Nepali Congress to power with B.P. Koirala as

the first democratically elected prime minister. [19]

196015 Dec King Mahendra leads a coup d'état dismissing the cabinet of B.P. Koirala and introduces the Panchayat, a partyless political

system. [20] [21]

1962New constitution provides for non-party system of councils known as Panchayat under which king exercises sole power. First elections to Rastrya Panchayat held in 1963.
197231 JanKing Mahendra dies, succeeded by Birendra. [14]
19802 MayIn the 1980 Nepalese governmental system referendum, the people vote in favor of the Panchayat system against a multi-party

system. The Panchayat system receives a total of 2.4 million votes, while the multi-party system receives 2 million votes. [22] [23]

1985 CPN (UML) begins civil disobedience campaign for restoration of multi-party system.
1989Trade and transit dispute with India leads to border blockade by Delhi resulting in worsening economic situation.
199018 Feb 1990 Nepalese revolution commences led by NC and the communist parties. [24]
199112 May First multi-party election is held. NC wins a majority of 110 seats. The communist parties gather a total of 82 seats.

Girija Prasad Koirala becomes the prime minister. [25]

199411 JulyDivision within the NC results in Girija Prasad Koirala losing the support of 36 congress members in a parliamentary vote. He resigns and King Birendra dismisses the cabinet announcing a new election. [26] [27]
15 Nov Second multi-party election is held. CPN (UML) led by Man Mohan Adhikari wins the election with 88 votes. NC led by Girija

Prasad Koirala wins 83 votes. RPP led by Surya Bahadur Thapa wins 20 votes. Man Mohan Adhikari heads a minority government. [28] [29]

1995Radical leftist group, the CPN (MC), begins insurrection in rural areas aimed at abolishing monarch and establishing a people's republic, sparking a conflict that would drag on for over a decade.
10 SepPrime minister Man Mohan Adhikari resigns after losing in a Congress-led no-confidence motion. Sher Bahadur Deuba becomes the new prime minister. [23] [30]
19976 MarPrime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba loses a no-confidence vote, ushering in a period of increased political instability, with frequent changes of the prime minister. [27]
200016 Mar Girija Prasad Koirala returns as the prime minister, heading the ninth government in 10 years. [31]

21st century

20011 June Nepalese royal massacre occurs; King Birendra and his family dies, and Dipendra is crownd king while in hospital. [32] [33]
4 June King Dipendra is pronounced dead; His uncle Gyanendra becomes the king. [14]
26 JulyMaoist rebels step up campaign of violence. Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala quits over the violence; succeeded by Sher Bahadur Deuba. [31]
13 NovMaoists end four-month-old truce with government, declare peace talks with government failed. Launch coordinated attacks on army and police posts. [34]
26 NovThe government declares a state of emergency throughout the country and full mobilization of the army against rebels listing the CPN (Maoist Centre) as a "terrorist organization". [23] [34]
200222 May King Gyanendra dissolves the parliament and called for early elections. Sher Bahadur Deuba heads the interim government, and renews the state of emergency. [34] [31] [35]
4 OctPrime minister Deuba formally asks the king to defer the election dates until November 2003. King Gyanendra responds by dismissing the government headed by Deuba, removing Deuba as the prime minister, postponing the elections indefinitely, and assuming full executive power. [36] [37] [31] [34]
11 Oct Lokendra Bahadur Chand is appointed as the prime minister. [34]
2003JanRebels, government declare ceasefire.
5 JuneLokendra Bahadur Chand resigns as PM; king appoints his own nominee Surya Bahadur Thapa as new premier (to June).
AugRebels pull out of peace talks with government and end seven-month truce. The following months see resurgence of violence and frequent clashes between students/activists and police.
2004AprNepal joins the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
MayRoyalist Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa resigns following weeks of street protests by opposition groups.
5 JuneKing Gyanendra reappoints Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister with the task of holding elections. [38]
20051 Feb 2005 Nepal coup d'état by King Gyanendra after which he assumes absolute direct power, sacks the government, and declares a state of emergency restoring absolute monarchy. Many prominent leaders including the prime minister were placed under house arrest. [34] [31] [37]
30 AprKing lifts the state of emergency amid international pressure.
22 NovSeveral political parties and the CPN (Maoist Centre) sign an agreement to work together against the rule of King

Gyanendra. [39]

200624 Apr King Gyanendra reinstates the dissolved parliament calling the Seven Party Alliance to lead the government. [35]
MayParliament votes unanimously to curtail the king's political powers. The government and Maoist rebels begin peace talks, the first in nearly three years.
16 JuneRebel leader Chairman Prachanda and PM Koirala hold talks – the first such meeting between the two sides – and agree that the Maoists should be brought into an interim government.
Nov Comprehensive Peace Accord is signed between the Government of Nepal and Maoist Leader Prachanda which allows the Maoist to join mainstream politics. [40]
2007JanMaoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution. Violent ethnic protests erupt in the south-east; demonstrators demand autonomy for the region.
AprFormer Maoist rebels join interim government, a move that takes them into the political mainstream.
MayElections for a constituent assembly pushed back to November.
MayA US offer to resettle thousands of Bhutanese refugees in Nepal has raised hopes but has also sparked tension in the camps, says Human Rights Watch.
SepThree bombs hit Kathmandu in the first attack in the capital since the end of the Maoist insurgency.
SepMaoists quit interim government to press demand for monarchy to be scrapped. This forces the postponement of November's constituent assembly elections.
OctUN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urges Nepal's parties to sink their differences to save the peace process.
DecParliament approves abolition of monarchy as part of peace deal with Maoists, who agree to re-join government.
2008JanA series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens in the southern Terai plains. Groups there have been demanding regional autonomy.
MayNepali Congress leader Bal Chandra Poudel attacked by maoists in Dandagaun, Rasuwa during election
10 AprThe First Nepalese Constituent Assembly election is held where the CPN (MC) emerged victorious winning 220 out of the 575 seats. It forms the government with seven other communist parties including the CPN (UML). [31]
28 May Constituent Assembly abolishes monarchy in Nepal, and declares Nepal a federal republic. [41]
JunMaoist ministers resign from the cabinet in a row over who should be the next head of state.
23 July Dr. Ram Baran Yadav becomes the first president of Nepal. [42]
15 Aug Prachanda is elected as the prime minister by the constituent assembly. [31]
20094 MayPrime minister Prachanda sacks General Rookmangud Katawal. CPN (UML) withdraws its support from the government in protest. President Ram Baran Yadav overrides the decision resulting in the resignation of Prachanda the next day. [43] [44]
25 May Madhav Kumar Nepal of CPN (UML) becomes the prime minister with support from 22 of the 25 parties. [45]
201020 MarFormer prime minister and NCP leader Girija Prasad Koirala dies. [46]
30 JunePrime minister Madhav Kumar Nepal announces his resignation blaming the CPN (MC) for their continuous obstruction in the government. [47]
20113 Feb CPN (MC) withdraws its candidate and backs Jhala Nath Khanal of CPN (UML). Khanal becomes the prime minister after more than seven months of political gridlock and more than sixteen rounds of voting in the parliament. [48]
28 Aug Dr. Baburam Bhattarai is elected as the prime minister after he gets support from some smaller parties after the resignation of Jhala Nath Khanal. [49]
201228 MayPrime minister Baburam Bhattarai dissolves the constituent assembly after it failed to promulgate a new constitution four years after its election and calls for a fresh election for 22 November. [50]
201314 MarPrime minister Baburam Bhattarai resigns. Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi becomes the interim prime minister until the elections after four main political parties agreed to form a CJ-led electoral cabinet. [51]
19 NovThe Second Nepalese Constituent Assembly election is held where the NC led by Sushil Koirala emerges as the largest party winning 196 out of the 576 seats. The CPN (UML) wins 175 seats while the CPN (MC) wins 80 seats. [52]
201425 Feb Sushil Koirala of Nepali Congress is elected as the prime minister with CPN (UML) backing. [53]
201525 AprThe 7.8 Mw Nepal earthquake affected the country with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), the worst natural disaster to strike Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake, [54] killing more than 8,000 people and injuring more than 20,000

people. [55] [56]

201520 SepPresident Dr. Ram Baran Yadav promulgates the Constitution of Nepal (2015) replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. [57]
11 Oct CPN (UML) leader KP Sharma Oli is elected as the prime minister by the parliament with the backing from CPN (MC). [58]
29 Oct Bidya Devi Bhandari becomes the second president of Nepal. [59]

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Nepali National Congress was a political party in Nepal. It was formed by B. P. Koirala, Matrika Prasad Koirala, Ganesh Man Singh, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Mahendra Narayan Nidhi and others.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2nd Federal Parliament of Nepal</span>

The Second Federal Parliament of Nepal, was elected by the 2022 general elections on 20 November 2022. The elections elected 275 Members of Parliament (MPs), 165 for each constituency and 110 through the party list, to the House of Representatives. The parliament convened for the first time on 9 January 2023.

This is a chronological timeline of events that are centered around the politics of Nepal after its unification by Prithvi Narayan Shah.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Shrestha, D.B.; Singh, C.B. (1972). The History of Ancient and Medieval Nepal (PDF) (1st ed.). Kathmandu.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Shaha, Rishikesh. "Ancient and Medieval Nepal". University of Cambridge.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Kessler, P. L. "Kingdoms of South Asia - Nepal". The History Files. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  4. 1 2 Shrestha, Shiva Raj. Nanyadev, his ancestors and their Abhijana (PDF).
  5. 1 2 Chauhan, R. S. (1977). Struggle and Change in South Asian Monarchies. Chetana Publications.
  6. Pokhrel, Aupson (12 December 2022). "Do you Know the Complete History of Early Malla Period ? - Study Social Sciences". studysocialsciences.com. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Shaha, Rishikesh. "Ancient and Medieval Nepal" (PDF). University of Cambridge.
  8. 1 2 3 Das, Basudevlal. "Devalakshmidevi in the Medieval History of Nepal". Academic Voices.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Regmi Research Series". studylib.net. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  10. Pokhrel, Aupson (15 December 2022). "Complete History of Malla Dynasty - Study Social Sciences". studysocialsciences.com. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Wright, Daniel (1877). History of Nepal (PDF). University of Cambridge.
  12. 1 2 Pandey, Madhav Raj. "How Jang Bahadur Established Rana Rule in Nepal" (PDF).
  13. Digby, William (1993). 1857, a friend in need ; 1887, friendship forgotten : an episode in Indian Foreign Office administration. New Delhi: Published by J. Jetley for Asian Educational Services. ISBN   81-206-0849-6. OCLC   42056670.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Nepal". www.worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  15. "Political Parties in Nepal" (PDF). The Economic Weekly. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  16. "नेपाली कांग्रेसको अर्को इतिहास". नेपाली कांग्रेसको अर्को इतिहास. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  17. "Rana Era" . Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  18. Brass, Paul R. (6 August 2013). Routledge handbook of South Asian politics: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Routledge. ISBN   9780415716499. OCLC   843078091.
  19. "Rana Prime Ministers". www.nepalresearch.org. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  20. Dixit, Kunda (11 December 2020). "'Putsch Ek'". Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  21. "A worried monarch". The Record. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  22. Columbia chronologies of Asian history and culture. John Stewart Bowman. New York: Columbia University Press. 2000. ISBN   0-231-50004-1. OCLC   51542679.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. 1 2 3 Whelpton, John (2005). A history of Nepal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-80026-9. OCLC   55502658.
  24. Dahal, Kishor (6 April 2020). "सम्झनामा जनआन्दोलन ०४६ (श्रृंखला १)". Nepal Live. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  25. "Kingdom of Nepal: Parliamentary Elections, May 12, 1991". www.ifes.org. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  26. "NEPAL: parliamentary elections Pratindhi Sabha, 1994". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Inter-Parliamentary Union . Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  27. 1 2 संसदीय विवरण पुस्तिका, प्रतिनिधि सभा (२०५६ - २०५९) (PDF) (in Nepali) (2nd ed.). Singhadurbar: Sanghiya Samsad Sachiwalaya. January 2020.
  28. "Communists win". The Guardian . 23 November 1994.
  29. "Nepal: King Tribhuvan and fall of the Ranas". 23 June 2009.
  30. संसदीय विवरण पुस्तिका, प्रतिनिधि सभा (२०५६ - २०५९) (PDF) (in Nepali) (2nd ed.). Singhadurbar: Sanghiya Samsad Sachiwalaya. January 2020.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "IPU PARLINE database: NEPAL (Sambidhan Sabha) ELECTIONS IN 2008". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  32. "Death, Love and Conspiracy: The Nepalese Royal Massacre of 2001 (Durbar Hatyakanda) – Association for Diplomatic Studies & Training". adst.org. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  33. "Bodyguards fired over Nepal royal massacre". The Irish Times. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "14. Nepal (1923-present)". uca.edu. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  35. 1 2 "Full text: King Gyanendra's speech". 24 April 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  36. "Full text: King Gyanendra's speech". 24 April 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  37. 1 2 Whelpton, John (21 March 2010). "Girija Koirala obituary". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  38. "Sher Bahadur Deuba sworn in as Nepal prime minister, for fifth time". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  39. "Nepal opposition in Maoist talks". 18 November 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  40. "Peace deal ends Nepal's civil war". 21 November 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  41. "Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". 28 May 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  42. "Dr Ram Baran Yadav becomes Nepal's first President - Nepal | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  43. "कटवालको आत्मकथा पढ्दा". Setopati. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  44. "Nepal communists quit in protest". 3 May 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  45. "Former-Communist leader elected Nepalese PM - CNN.com". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  46. "The Hindu : Front Page : G.P. Koirala passes away". 24 March 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  47. "Nepal PM announces resignation 'to end deadlock'". BBC News. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  48. "Nepalese parliament elects new prime minister". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  49. "Baburam Bhattarai elected prime minister of Nepal". BBC News. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  50. "CA dissolved; PM proposes fresh election for Nov 22 | Top Stories". 3 April 2015. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  51. "Chief justice to lead Nepal's interim government to elections". Reuters. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  52. "IPU PARLINE database: NEPAL (Byabasthapika-Sansad), ELECTIONS IN 2013". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  53. "Sushil Koirala wins vote to be Nepal's prime minister". BBC News. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  54. Sugden, Joanna (26 April 2015). "What 1934 Told Nepal to Expect About the Next Big Quake". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  55. "M 7.8 - 67 km NNE of Bharatpur, Nepal". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  56. "Nepal: Earthquake Emergency Appeal Final Report (MDRNP008) - Nepal | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  57. "President promulgates Constitution of Nepal, 2072". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  58. Kathmandu, Associated Press in (11 October 2015). "Communist party leader elected as Nepal's new prime minister". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  59. "Nepal gets first woman President". The Hindu. 28 October 2015. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 15 January 2023.

Further reading

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