April 2015 Nepal earthquake

Last updated

2015 Nepal earthquake
Nepal rel location map.svg
Green pog.svg
UTC  time2015-04-25 06:11:25
ISC  event 607208674
Local date25 April 2015 (2015-04-25)
Local time11:56:25 NST [1]
Magnitude7.8 (Mw) [1] or 8.1
Depth8.2 km (5.1 mi) [1]
Epicenter 28°13′48″N84°43′52″E / 28.230°N 84.731°E / 28.230; 84.731 Coordinates: 28°13′48″N84°43′52″E / 28.230°N 84.731°E / 28.230; 84.731 [1]
Type Thrust [1]
Areas affected
Total damage$10 billion (about 50% of Nepal's nominal GDP) [2]
Max. intensity VIII (Severe) [1]
Aftershocks 7.3 Mw on 12 May at 12:50 [3]
6.7 Mw on 26 April at 12:54 [4]
459 aftershocks of 4 Mw and above as of 24 May 2016 [5]
Casualties8,857 dead in Nepal and 8,964 in total [6] [7] 21,952 injured [6] 3.5 million homeless [6]

The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake) [5] [8] killed nearly 9,000 people and injured nearly 22,000. It occurred at on 25 April 2015, with a magnitude of 7.8Mw [1] or 8.1Ms [9] and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of VIII (Severe). Its epicenter was east of Gorkha District at Barpak, Gorkha, and its hypocenter was at a depth of approximately 8.2 km (5.1 mi). [1] It was the worst natural disaster to strike Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. [10] [11] [12] The ground motion recorded in the capital of Nepal was of low frequency, which, along with its occurrence at an hour where many people in rural areas were working outdoors, decreased the loss of property and human lives. [13]

The moment magnitude scale is a measure of an earthquake's magnitude based on its seismic moment, expressed in terms of the familiar magnitudes of the original "Richter" magnitude scale.

The surface wave magnitude scale is one of the magnitude scales used in seismology to describe the size of an earthquake. It is based on measurements in Rayleigh surface waves that travel primarily along the uppermost layers of the Earth. It is currently used in People's Republic of China as a national standard for categorising earthquakes.

The epicenter, epicentre or epicentrum in seismology is the point on the Earth's surface directly above a hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or an underground explosion originates.


The earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing 21, [14] making 25 April 2015 the deadliest day on the mountain in history. [15] The earthquake triggered another huge avalanche in the Langtang valley, where 250 people were reported missing. [16] [17]

2015 Mount Everest avalanches

During the afternoon of 25 April 2015, a MW 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal and surrounding countries. Shaking from the quake triggered an avalanche from Pumori into Base Camp on Mount Everest. At least twenty-two people were killed, surpassing an avalanche that occurred in 2014 as the deadliest disaster on the mountain.

Langtang Region in Nepal

Langtang is a region in the Himalayas of Nepal to the north of the Kathmandu Valley and bordering Tibet.

Hundreds of thousands of Nepalese were made homeless with entire villages flattened, [16] [18] [19] across many districts of the country. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square, the Bhaktapur Durbar Square, the Changu Narayan Temple, the Boudhanath stupa and the Swayambhunath Stupa. Geophysicists and other experts had warned for decades that Nepal was vulnerable to a deadly earthquake, particularly because of its geology, urbanization, and architecture. [20] [21] Dharahara, also called Bhimsen Tower, which was a nine-storey and 61.88-metre-tall tower was destroyed. It was a part of the architecture of Kathmandu recognized by UNESCO.

World Heritage Site place listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or natural significance

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

Kathmandu Valley valley in Nepal

The Kathmandu Valley, historically known as Nepal Valley or Nepa Valley, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of the Indian subcontinent and the broader Asian continent, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists. There are seven World Heritage Sites within the valley.

Kathmandu Durbar Square Square in Kathmandu, Nepal

Kathmandu Durbar Square in front of the old royal palace of the former Kathmandu Kingdom is one of three Durbar Squares in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Continued aftershocks occurred throughout Nepal at the intervals of 15–20 minutes, with one shock reaching a magnitude of 6.7 on 26 April at NST. [4] The country also had a continued risk of landslides. [22]

An aftershock is a smaller earthquake that follows a larger earthquake, in the same area of the main shock, caused as the displaced crust adjusts to the effects of the main shock. Large earthquakes can have hundreds to thousands of instrumentally detectable aftershocks, which steadily decrease in magnitude and frequency according to known laws. In some earthquakes the main rupture happens in two or more steps, resulting in multiple main shocks. These are known as doublet earthquakes, and in general can be distinguished from aftershocks in having similar magnitudes and nearly identical seismic waveforms.

Nepal Standard Time (NPT) is the time zone for Nepal. With a time offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of UTC+05:45 all over Nepal, it is one of only three time zones with a 45-minute offset from UTC.

A major aftershock occurred on 12 May 2015 at with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.3. [23] The epicenter was near the Chinese border between the capital of Kathmandu and Mt. Everest. [24] More than 200 people were killed and over 2,500 were injured by this aftershock, and many were left homeless. [25]

May 2015 Nepal earthquake a second earthquake in Nepal in May, 2015

A major earthquake occurred in Nepal on 12 May 2015 at 12:50 pm local time with a moment magnitude of 7.3, 18 km (11 mi) southeast of Kodari. The epicenter was on the border of Dolakha and Sindhupalchowk, two districts of Nepal. This earthquake occurred on the same fault as the larger magnitude 7.8 earthquake of 25 April, but further east than the original quake. As such, it is considered to be an aftershock of 25 April quake. It struck at a depth of 18.5 kilometres (11.5 mi). Shaking was felt in northern parts of India including Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Tremors were felt as far as about 2,400 kilometers away from the epicenter in Chennai.


Map of the earthquake and aftershocks at 12 May, showing location of major historical earthquakes NepalAftershockMap.png
Map of the earthquake and aftershocks at 12 May, showing location of major historical earthquakes

The earthquake occurred on 25 April 2015 at NST (06:11:26 UTC) at a depth of approximately 15 km (9.3 mi) (which is considered shallow and therefore more damaging than quakes that originate deeper in the ground), [26] with its epicentre approximately 34 km (21 mi) east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal, lasting approximately fifty seconds. [27] The earthquake was initially reported as 7.5 Mw by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) before it was quickly upgraded to 7.8 Mw. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) reported the earthquake's magnitude to be 8.1 Ms. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) said two powerful quakes were registered in Nepal at 06:11 UTC and 06:45 UTC. The first quake measured 7.8 Mw and its epicenter was identified at a distance of 80 km to the northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Bharatpur was the nearest major city to the main earthquake, 53 km (33 mi) from the epicenter. The second earthquake was somewhat less powerful at 6.6 Mw. It occurred 65 km (40 mi) east of Kathmandu and its seismic focus lay at a depth of 10 km (6.2 mi) below the earth's surface. Over thirty-eight aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater occurred in the day following the initial earthquake, including the one of magnitude 6.8 Mw. [28]

Lamjung District District in Gandaki Pradesh, Nepal

Lamjung District, a part of Gandaki Pradesh, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. The district, with Besisahar as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,692 square kilometres (653 sq mi) and as of 2011 had a population of 167,724. Lamjung lies in the mid-hills of Nepal spanning tropical to trans-Himalayan geo-ecological belts, including the geographical midpoint of the country. It has mixed habitation of casts and ethnicities. It is host to probably the highest density of the Gurung ethnic population in the country.

United States Geological Survey Scientific agency of the United States government

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

The China Earthquake Networks Center is an institution under the China Earthquake Administration. It is one of the most important hubs of China's earthquake disaster reduction network and the basis of information for the international community. It is responsible for the operational guidance and management of the national seismic network, short-term earthquake prediction, earthquake data collection, report processing, scientific journal management, seismological construction, technological research and operations for emergency response and relief including the State Council of the People's Republic of China's earthquake relief headquarters.

According to the USGS, the earthquake was caused by a sudden thrust, or release of built-up stress, along the major fault line where the Indian Plate, carrying India, is slowly diving underneath the Eurasian Plate, carrying much of Europe and Asia. [26] Kathmandu, situated on a block of crust approximately 120 km (74 miles) wide and 60 km (37 miles) long, rapidly shifted 3 m (10 ft) to the south in a matter of just 30 seconds. [29]

The risk of a large earthquake was well known beforehand. In 2013, in an interview with seismologist Vinod Kumar Gaur, The Hindu quoted him as saying, "Calculations show that there is sufficient accumulated energy [in the Main Frontal Thrust], now to produce an 8 magnitude earthquake. I cannot say when. It may not happen tomorrow, but it could possibly happen sometime this century, or wait longer to produce a much larger one." [30] According to Brian Tucker, founder of a nonprofit organization devoted to reducing casualties from natural disasters, some government officials had expressed confidence that such an earthquake would not occur again. Tucker recounted a conversation he had had with a government official in the 1990s who said, "We don't have to worry about earthquakes anymore, because we already had an earthquake"; the previous earthquake to which he referred occurred in 1934. [31]


M6+ Himalayan region earthquakes, 1900-2014 Himalayan Tectonic Summary.png
M6+ Himalayan region earthquakes, 1900–2014

Nepal lies towards the southern limit of the diffuse collisional boundary where the Indian Plate underthrusts the Eurasian Plate, [32] [33] occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one-third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long Himalayas. Geologically, the Nepal Himalayas are sub-divided into five tectonic zones from north to south and, east to west and almost parallel to sub-parallel. [34] These five distinct morpho-geotectonic zones are: (1) Terai Plain, (2) Sub Himalaya (Shivalik Range), (3) Lesser Himalaya (Mahabharat Range and mid valleys), (4) Higher Himalaya, and (5) Inner Himalaya (Tibetan Tethys). [35] Each of these zones is clearly identified by their morphological, geological, and tectonic features. [35]

The convergence rate between the plates in central Nepal is about 45 mm (1.8 in) per year. The location, magnitude, and focal mechanism of the earthquake suggest that it was caused by a slip along the Main Frontal Thrust. [1] [36]

The earthquake's effects were amplified in Kathmandu as it sits on the Kathmandu Basin, which contains up to 600 m (2,000 ft) of sedimentary rocks, representing the infilling of a lake. [37]

Based on a study published in 2014, of the Main Frontal Thrust, on average a great earthquake occurs every 750 ± 140 and 870 ± 350 years in the east Nepal region. [38] A study from 2015 found a 700-year delay between earthquakes in the region. The study also suggests that because of tectonic stress buildup, the earthquake from 1934 in Nepal and the 2015 quake are connected, following a historic earthquake pattern. [39] A 2016 study on historical great (M ≥ 8) earthquake pairs and cycles found that associated great earthquakes are likely to occur in the West China region through the 2020s. [40]


Isoseismal map for the Gorkha earthquake annotated with values on the Mercalli intensity scale Gorkha isoseismal map USGS annotated.png
Isoseismal map for the Gorkha earthquake annotated with values on the Mercalli intensity scale

According to the USGS website, the maximum intensity was VIII (Severe). [1] In most of Kathmandu the intensity was VI, as evidenced by the numerous undamaged water towers installed on top of undamaged multi story buildings. Tremors were felt in the neighboring Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Sikkim, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Gujarat, in the National capital region around New Delhi and as far south as Karnataka. [41] Damage was extensive in northern Bihar and minor damage was also reported from parts of Odisha. [41] Shaking was felt in high-rise buildings as far as Kochi in the southern state of Kerala. [41] The intensity in Patna was V (Moderate). [42] [ not in citation given ] The intensity was IV (Light) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. [1] The earthquake was also experienced across southwestern China, ranging from the Tibet Autonomous Region to Chengdu, which is 1,900 km (1,200 mi) away from the epicenter. [43] Tremors were felt in Pakistan [44] and Bhutan. [1] [41]


Aftershocks of 2015 Nepal earthquake 2015 Nepal earthquake.svg
Aftershocks of 2015 Nepal earthquake

A series of aftershocks began immediately after the mainshock, at intervals of 15–30 minutes, with one aftershock reaching 6.6Mw within 34 minutes of the initial quake. A major aftershock of magnitude 6.9 Mw occurred on 26 April 2015 in the same region at 12:54 NST (07:08 UTC), with an epicenter located about 17 km (11 mi) south of Kodari, Nepal. [44] [45] The aftershock caused fresh avalanches on Mount Everest and was felt in many places in northern India including Kolkata, Siliguri, Jalpaiguri, and Assam. [46] The aftershock caused a landslide on the Koshi Highway, which blocked the section of the road between Bhedetar and Mulghat. [47]

A model of GeoGateway, based on a United States Geological Survey mechanism of a near-horizontal fault as well as location of aftershocks showed that the fault had an 11° dip towards the north, striking at 295°, 50 km (31 mi) wide, 150 km (93 mi) long, and had a dip slip of 3 m (9.8 ft). [48] The USGS says the aftershock registered at a shallow depth of 10 km (6.2 mi). [46]

As of 24 May 2016, 459 aftershocks had occurred with different epicenters and magnitudes equal to or above 4 Mw (out of which 51 aftershocks are equal to or above 5 Mw and 5 aftershocks above 6 Mw) and more than 20,000 aftershocks less than 4 Mw. [5]

12 May 2015 earthquake

A second major earthquake occurred on 12 May 2015 at 12:50 NST with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.3Mw 18 km (11 mi) southeast of Kodari. The epicenter was near the Chinese border between the capital of Kathmandu and Mt. Everest. It struck at the depth of 18.5 km (11.5 miles). This earthquake occurred along the same fault as the original magnitude 7.8 earthquake of 25 April but further to the east. As such, it is considered to be an aftershock of 25 April quake. [49] Tremors were also felt in northern parts of India including Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and other North-Indian States. [50] [51] [52] [53] At least 153 died in Nepal as a result of the aftershock and about 2,500 were injured. 62 others died in India, two in Bangladesh, and one in China. [25] [54]


Disastrous events in very poor and politically paralyzed nations such as Nepal often become a long drawn out chain of events, in that one disaster feeds into another for years or even decades upon end. The aftereffects from the earthquake had subsequent effects on a myriad of things: human trafficking, labour cost and availability, rental and property cost burdens, urbanization, private and public debt burdens, mental health, politics, tourism, disease, and damage to the healthcare system. [55] A survey some 30 months afterwards found only 12% of the reconstruction money had been distributed, and those without land were locked out of financial support, exacerbating the social divide and feeding marginalization.

More direct effects

Some disasters that came with the monsoon season were suspected to be related to the earthquake. There was a landslip on 11 June that claimed 53 lives. [56] Meanwhile, a glacial lake had burst in particularly hard hit Solukhumbhu district. [57] Whether or not the quake had contributed to such events is often unknown and unresearched, but certainly possible.

Casualties by country
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal 8,85722,304 [6] [58]
Flag of India.svg  India 78560 [59]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 25383 [60]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 4200 [61]
Foreign casualties in Nepal
Flag of India.svg  India 40 [62]
Flag of France.svg  France 10 [63]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 7 [64]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7 [65] [66] [67]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 5 [68] [69]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 4 [70]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 4 [71]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 2 [72]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2 [73]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of India.svg  India
1 [74] [75]
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 1 [76]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 1 [77]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 1 [78]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 1 [79]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 1 [80]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1 [81]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1 [82]



The earthquake killed more than 8,800 people in Nepal [6] [83] [84] and injured nearly three times as many. The rural death toll may have been minimized by the fact that most villagers were outdoors working when the quake hit. [85] As of 15 May, 6,271 people, including 1,700 from the 12 May aftershock, were still receiving treatment for their injuries. [54] Nearly 3.5 million people were left homeless. [58]

The example of this earthquake shows that loss calculations for hypothetical likely future earthquakes can be reasonably reliable. In 2005, the expected numbers of fatalities due to a hypothetical scenario earthquake near Kathmandu for M8.1 was published. [86] The fatalities at that time were estimated between 21,000 and 42,000. The M7.8 earthquake of 25 April 2015 killed about 8,800 people because it occurred on a Saturday and so many buildings that collapsed, such as schools and municipal buildings, were empty reducing the death toll. In addition, the epicentre of the earthquake was in a rural setting, so the worst hit districts had low population densities and most of the population was outside when the earthquake hit. [87] Had the earthquake occurred at night or during the working week, when many more people were inside vulnerable buildings, the death toll would have likely been much closer to the modelled estimate.

Fatality reports by the media as a function of time, compared to the QLARM calculation (horizontal line) made after the rupture area of the Kathmandu earthquake had been mapped. Uncertainty extent given by the vertical solid line. The source for news reports is the NINTRAS web site of the Swiss Seismological Service. All reports, including lower values exceeded by others, are given. Fatality reprt w time Nepal.jpg
Fatality reports by the media as a function of time, compared to the QLARM calculation (horizontal line) made after the rupture area of the Kathmandu earthquake had been mapped. Uncertainty extent given by the vertical solid line. The source for news reports is the NINTRAS web site of the Swiss Seismological Service. All reports, including lower values exceeded by others, are given.

After the rupture area of the Kathmandu 2015 earthquake had been derived [88] and the intensities of shaking had been mapped, [89] a line source model for losses could be constructed with energy being radiated along the entire rupture. [90] The fatalities estimated in this way by QLARM agree with those reported in the end. The figure shows reports of fatalities as a function of time. News reports significantly underestimated the actual numbers of fatalities for several days.

The Himalayan Times reported that as many as 20,000 foreign nationals may have been visiting Nepal at the time of the earthquake, although reports of foreign deaths were relatively low. [91]


A total of 78 deaths were reported in India – including 58 in Bihar, 16 in Uttar Pradesh, 3 in West Bengal and 1 in Rajasthan. [59]


27 dead and 4 missing, all from the Tibet Autonomous Region. [60]


4 dead. [61]

Avalanches on Mount Everest

This earthquake caused avalanches on Mount Everest. At least 19 died, [92] with at least 120 others injured or missing. [92]

Landslides in the Langtang Valley

In the Langtang valley located in Langtang National Park, 329 people were reported missing after an avalanche hit the village of Ghodatabela [93] [94] and the village of Langtang. The avalanche was estimated to have been two to three kilometres wide. Ghodatabela was an area popular on the Langtang trekking route. [95] The village of Langtang was destroyed by the avalanche. Smaller settlements on the outskirts of Langtang were buried during the earthquake, such as Chyamki, Thangsyap, and Mundu. Twelve locals and two foreigners were believed to have survived. Smaller landslides occurred in the Trishuli River Valley with reports of significant damage at Mailung, Simle, and Archale. [17] [96] [97] On 4 May it was announced that 52 bodies had been found in the Langtang area, of which seven were of foreigners. [98]

According to geological models, the frequency and intensity of future landslides in the Langtang Valley is due to increase in the coming decades. [99] This is attributable directly to the effect of the earthquake, which caused widespread fracturing in the grounds of the Langtang area. [100]


Travellers waiting on airport tarmac for flights after aftershocks forced the airport to open all exit doors Qatar Airways Cargo B777 providing humanitarian support after the 2015 Nepal earthquake April 26, 2015.JPG
Travellers waiting on airport tarmac for flights after aftershocks forced the airport to open all exit doors
Damage in the Basantpur Durbar Square Durbarsquare after earthquake 3.JPG
Damage in the Basantpur Durbar Square

Thousands of houses were destroyed across many districts of the country, with entire villages flattened, especially those near the epicenter. [16] [18] [19]

The Tribhuvan International Airport serving Kathmandu was closed immediately after the earthquake, but was re-opened later in the day for relief operations and, later, for some commercial flights. [101] It subsequently shut down operations sporadically due to aftershocks, [102] and on 3 May was closed temporarily to the largest planes for fear of runway damage. [103] During strong aftershocks, the airport opened all boarding-lounge exit doors onto the tarmac, allowing travelers who were waiting post security and immigration to flee to the open spaces of the runway tarmac. Many travelers remained outside as planes were delayed and the airport swelled to capacity. The airport facilities suffered damage and there was no running water or operating toilets for travelers waiting in the airport lounges. Few airport workers were at their posts; most were killed in the earthquake or had to deal with its aftereffects. [104]

Flights resumed from Pokhara, to the west of the epicentre, on 27 April. [105]

Kathmandu Durbar Square, Nepal.JPG
Before the earthquake
Building damage as a result of the earthquake Nepal Earthquake 2015 01.jpg
Building damage as a result of the earthquake

Several of the churches in the Kathmandu valley were destroyed. As Saturday is the principal day of Christian worship in Nepal, 500 people were reported to have died in the collapses. [106] [107]

Several temples on Kathmandu Durbar Square, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, collapsed, [27] as did the Dharahara tower, built in 1832; the collapse of the latter structure killed at least 180 people, [108] [109] [110] [111] Manakamana Temple in Gorkha, previously damaged in an earlier quake, tilted several inches further. The northern side of Janaki Mandir in Janakpur was reported to have been damaged. [112] Several temples, including Kasthamandap, Panchtale temple, the top levels of the nine-story Basantapur Durbar, the Dasa Avtar temple and two dewals[ what language is this? ] located behind the Shiva Parvati temple were demolished by the quake. Some other monuments including the Taleju Bhawani Temple partially collapsed. [113] [114]

Damaged building in Balaju area Gorkha Earthquake Effect.jpg
Damaged building in Balaju area

The top of the Jaya Bageshwari Temple in Gaushala and some parts of the Pashupatinath Temple, Swyambhunath, Boudhanath Stupa, Ratna Mandir, inside Rani Pokhari, and Durbar High School have been destroyed. [115]

In Patan, the Char Narayan Mandir, the statue of Yog Narendra Malla, a pati inside Patan Durbar Square, the Taleju Temple, the Hari Shankar, Uma Maheshwar Temple and the Machhindranath Temple in Bungamati were destroyed. In Tripureshwar, the Kal Mochan Ghat, a temple inspired by Mughal architecture, was completely destroyed and the nearby Tripura Sundari also suffered significant damage. In Bhaktapur, several monuments, including the Phasi Deva temple, the Chardham temple and the 17th century Vatsala Durga Temple were fully or partially destroyed. [115]

Outside the Valley, the Manakamana Temple in Gorkha, the Gorkha Durbar, the Palanchok Bhagwati, in Kabhrepalanchok District, the Rani Mahal in Palpa District, the Churiyamai in Makwanpur District, the Dolakha Bhimsensthan in Dolakha District, and the Nuwakot Durbar suffered varying degrees of damage. Historian Prushottam Lochan Shrestha stated, "We have lost most of the monuments that had been designated as World Heritage Sites in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur District, Nepal. They cannot be restored to their original states." [115] The northeastern parts of India also received major damage. Heavy shocks were felt in the states of Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and others. Huge damage was caused to the property and the lives of the people.

Economic loss

Road damage in Nepal Nepal Earthquake 2015 08.jpg
Road damage in Nepal

Concern was expressed that harvests could be reduced or lost this season as people affected by the earthquake would have only a short time to plant crops before the onset of the Monsoon rains. [116]

Nepal, with a total Gross Domestic Product of US$19.921 billion (according to a 2012 estimate), [117] is one of Asia's poorest countries, and has little ability to fund a major reconstruction effort on its own. [118] Even before the quake, the Asian Development Bank estimated that it would need to spend about four times more than it currently does annually on infrastructure through to 2020 to attract investment. [118] The U.S. Geological Survey initially estimated economic losses from the tremor at 9 percent to 50 percent of gross domestic product, with a best guess of 35 percent. "It's too hard for now to tell the extent of the damage and the effect on Nepal's GDP", according to Hun Kim, an Asian Development Bank (ADB) official. The ADB said on the 28th that it would provide a US$3 million grant to Nepal for immediate relief efforts, and up to US$200 million for the first phase of rehabilitation. [118]

Damaged house in Chaurikharka Broken House at Chaurikharka,Nepal.jpg
Damaged house in Chaurikharka

Rajiv Biswas, an economist at a Colorado-based consultancy, said that rebuilding the economy will need international effort over the next few years as it could "easily exceed" USD$5 billion, or about 20 percent of Nepal's gross domestic product. [118] [119] [ not in citation given ]

Social effects

It was reported that the survivors were preyed upon by human traffickers involved in the supply of girls and women to the brothels of South Asia. These traffickers took advantage of the chaos that resulted from the aftermath of the earthquake. [120] The most affected were women from poor communities who lost their homes. [121] In response to the unsafe conditions of the temporary campsites, international organizations implemented Safety Committees which were provided cash grants for necessities like additional toilets and bathrooms. [122]

Most affected

Single women had very little access to relief, according to a report by the Inter-party Women's Alliance (IPWA). The report also found that violence and rapes against women and minors has increased after the earthquake. [123] Additionally, the earthquake has significantly affected certain groups of people. Tibeto-Burman peoples were hardest hit as they tend to inhabit the higher slopes of mountains as opposed to the central valleys and are less educated and connected. All of these factors make them harder to access. According to a government survey, malnutrition in children has worsened considerably some 3 months after the quake, with the most undernourished being Tamang and Chepang peoples. [124] Before the quake, 41 percent of children under five were stunted, 29 percent were underweight and 11 percent were emaciated, according to the World Food Programme. [124]

Media coverage

On 3 May, the hashtag #GoHomeIndianMedia was trending worldwide on Twitter, condemning news covered by the Indian media as insensitive and inhumane to victims of the tragedy. The people of Nepal acknowledged the aid and effort put by the Indian armed forces, yet, at the same time, accused Indian news networks of carrying out "a public relations exercise" on behalf of the Indian government, of overemphasizing the role of the Indian Army, and of hogging space on relief planes where aid material or rescue or medical personnel could have been sent instead. [125] Indian users responded with the hashtags #SorryNepal and #DontComeBackIndianMedia. [126]


Though a feared mass cholera outbreak failed to materialize (there were sporadic reports), other outbreaks were reported. At least 13 people died of scrub typhus while 240 people were taken ill since the disease was first diagnosed in the country in August 2015 until September 2016. [127]

Rescue and relief

Nepalese Army, Pakistan Air Force, United States Air Force work together to download relief supplies in Nepal. Nepalese Army, USAF, Pakistan Air Force work together to download relief supplies in Nepal 150508-F-XN788-027.jpg
Nepalese Army, Pakistan Air Force, United States Air Force work together to download relief supplies in Nepal.

About 90% of soldiers from the Nepalese Army were sent to the stricken areas in the aftermath of the earthquake under Operation Sankat Mochan, with volunteers mobilized from other parts of the country. [128] Rainfall and aftershocks were factors complicating the rescue efforts, with potential secondary effects like additional landslides and further building collapses being concerns. Impassable roads and damaged communications infrastructure posed substantial challenges to rescue efforts. [129] Survivors were found up to a week after the earthquake. [130] [131] [132]

As of 1 May international aid agencies like Médecins Sans Frontières and the Red Cross were able to start medically evacuating the critically wounded by helicopter from outlying areas, initially cut-off from the capital city, Kathmandu, [18] and treating others in mobile and makeshift facilities. [133] [134] There was concern about epidemics due to the shortage of clean water, the makeshift nature of living conditions and the lack of toilets. [135]

Emergency workers were able to identify four men who had been trapped in rubble, and rescue them, using advanced heartbeat detection. The four men were trapped in up to ten feet of rubble in the village of Chautara, north of Kathmandu. An international team of rescuers from several countries using FINDER devices found two sets of men under two different collapsed buildings. [136]

Volunteers used crisis mapping to help plan emergency aid work. [137] Local organization Kathmandu Living Labs helped coordinate local knowledge on the ground and collaborated with international crisis mapping and humanitarian organizations. Public volunteers from around the world participated in crowdmapping and added details into online maps. [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] Information was mapped from data input from social media, satellite pictures [145] and drones [137] of passable roads, collapsed houses, stranded, shelterless and starving people, who needed help, and from messages and contact details of people willing to help. [146] On-site volunteers verified these mapping details wherever they could to reduce errors.

Digital mappers, through the Kathmandu Living Labs, were already charting the densely populated Kathmandu Valley, and then focused on earthquake relief. "They were doing an inventory in the poorer communities where they didn't have a very good sense of the quality of buildings," says Cowan, whose students helped add Kathmandu's buildings and roads to OpenStreetMap. First responders, from Nepalese citizens to the Red Cross, the Nepal army and the United Nations used this data. The Nepal earthquake crisis mapping utilized experience gained and lessons learned about planning emergency aid work from earthquakes in Haiti and Indonesia. [147]

India decided to donate $1 billion in cash and materials to Nepal. India's External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj said "I am happy to announce Government of India's pledge for Nepal's post-earthquake reconstruction of Nepali Rupees 10,000 crores, equivalent to one billion US dollars, one fourth of it as Grant." The International Conference on Nepal's Reconstruction has been organised by the Nepalese government to raise funds for rebuilding the country. [148]

Reports are also coming in of sub-standard relief materials and inedible food being sent to Nepal by many of the foreign aid agencies. [149] [150]

A United States Marine Corps helicopter crashed on 12 May while involved in delivering relief supplies. The Bell UH-1Y Venom crashed at Charikot, roughly 45 miles (72 kilometers) east of Kathmandu. Two Nepalese soldiers and six American Marines died in the crash. [151]

Need-fulfillment application, Getmii, launched a special pilot version in partnership with the Red Cross to double daily blood donors at the Kathmandu donation center using the app. [152]

Imaging technologies such as satellites and smartphones, were instrumental to relief efforts in Nepal. [153] GLIMS, group of volunteer scientists from nine nations, were able to provide rapid, systematic mapping of the damaged area, allowing the investigation of earthquake-induced geo-hazard processes that provided information to relief and recovery officials on the same timeframe as those operations were occurring. [154]

Repair and reconstruction


UNESCO and the Ministry of Culture began strengthening damaged monuments in danger of collapsing before the monsoon season. Subsequent restoration of collapsed structures, including historic houses is planned. Architectural drawings exist that provide plans for reconstruction. According to UNESCO, more than 30 monuments in the Kathmandu Valley collapsed in the quakes, and another 120 incurred partial damage. [155] Repair estimates are $160 million to restore 1,000 damaged and destroyed monasteries, temples, historic houses, and shrines across the country. The destruction is concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley. UNESCO designated seven groups of multi-ethnic monuments clustered in the valley as a single World Heritage Site, including Swayambhu, the Durbar squares of Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur, and the Hindu temples of Pashupatinath and Changu Narayan. Damaged in the quakes were the structures in the three Durbar squares, the temple of Changu Narayan, and the 1655 temple in Sankhu. Drones fly above cultural heritage sites to provide 3D images of the damage to use for planning repairs. [156]

International aid

UNICEF appealed for donations, as close to 1.7 million children had been driven out into the open, and were in desperate need of drinking water, psychological counsel, temporary shelters, sanitation and protection from disease outbreak. It distributed water, tents, hygiene kits, water purification tablets and buckets. [157] Numerous other organizations provided similar support. [158]

India was the first to respond within hours, being Nepal's immediate neighbour, [159] with Operation Maitri which provided rescue and relief by its armed forces. It also evacuated its own and other countries' stranded nationals. India has been the largest aid donor to Nepal following the earthquake with a billion dollar support apart from other non-monetary reliefs extended. [148] The United States, China and other nations have provided helicopters as requested by the Nepalese government. [160] [161]

On 26 April 2015, international aid agencies and governments mobilized rescue workers and aid for the earthquake. They faced challenges in both getting assistance to Nepal and ferrying people to remote areas as the country had few helicopters. [162] [163] Relief efforts were also hampered by Nepalese government insistence on routing aid through the Prime Minister's Disaster Relief Fund and its National Emergency Operation Center. After concerns were raised, it was clarified that "Non-profits" or NGOs already in the country could continue receiving aid directly and bypass the official fund. [162] [164] Aid mismatch and supply of "leftovers" by donors, [165] aid diversion in Nepal, [166] mistrust over control of the distribution of funds and supplies, [167] [168] [169] congestion and customs delays at Kathmandu's airport and border check posts were also reported. [170] [171] On 3 May 2015, restrictions were placed on heavy aircraft flying in aid supplies after new cracks were noticed on the runway at the Tribhuvan International Airport, Nepal's only airport able to handle larger jet aircraft. [172] [173]

The list below gives a break-up of pledged donations, by each nation, along with aid in kind, delivered immediately. [174]

Summary of international aid to Nepal for earthquake relief
(Details in the article Humanitarian response to the 2015 Nepal earthquake)
Aid agency / countryCash donation (US $)Humanitarian aid and suppliesOther aidSource
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies $535,664.55 emergency fund activatedVolunteers (first-aid, search-&-rescue)Blood-bank supplies to areas in the capital [134]
Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) Rapid intervention surgical kit with 11-member team left Kathmandu for Gorkha (200 km north-west) (61 staff deployed)Water and sanitation – makeshift camps – Tudikhel (Kathmandu), Bhaktapur (14 km east of Kathmandu), first-aid material to Bhaktapur hospital [133] [163]
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union $3.3 millionAid, first-response teams and civil-protection experts [175]
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria $1 million70 relief workers, medicines, and other supplies [176]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia $15.86 million

• $3,568,500 to the United Nations relief effort, $793,000 to the World Health Organization, $793,000 to the Australian Red Cross, $396,500 to the RedR Australia relief organisation, $3.172 million for other Australian NGOs.
• Two Boeing C-17 aircraft carrying 15 tons of Australian aid and two RAAF aero medical evacuation teams.
• The Government of Tasmania donated $7,930 to Rotary Tasmania's Nepal Earthquake Appeal.

• 2 humanitarian experts and a crisis-response team initially.
• 70 defence personnel, immigration and other federal government officials to distribute aid and help with evacuation efforts.

[177] [178] [179] [180]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria $835,000 Austrian Red Cross search-&-rescue staff [181]
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 1 ton of medical supplies, tents, blankets and water (Ministry of Emergency Situations) [182]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh

BAF Lockheed C-130B aircraft with 10 tonnes of relief materials – tents, dry food, water, blankets, etc.
• Four cargo trucks carrying approximately 25 tonnes of essential relief materials for earthquake victims in Nepal left Dhaka. The cargoes will travel through Banglabandh-Fulbari-Panitanki-Kakarbhitta land route. The relief materials include 3000 cartons (12 tonne) of dry food and fruit juice donated by PRAN, and 5000 pieces of blankets donated by Brac, according to a press release of the Embassy of Nepal in Bangladesh.
• Bangladesh will provide at least one hundred thousand tons of rice and other relief materials including drinking water to help the earthquake victims in Nepal.

A 34-member team (6 military medical teams and foreign ministry officials). Stranded Bangladeshis airlifted. [183] [184] [185] [186] [187]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium $5.5 millionSearch-&-rescue teams [188]
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan $1 million63 personnel medical team [189] [190] [191] [192]
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei 8-man relief team (2 doctors, 4 paramedics from the Royal Brunei Armed Forces (RBAF) and Brunei's Gurkha Reserve Unit (GRU) [194]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada $4.16 million; $832,000 to the Canadian Red Cross A Boeing C-17 with supplies – blankets, jerry-cans, kitchen sets, hygiene kits, and tarps150 Canadian troops; a Disaster Assistance Response Team – 30 experts; pledges by humanitarian organizations; immigration assistance [195] [196] [197] [198]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China $483 millionTents, blankets, and generators; emergency response for citizensChina International Search and Rescue Team (CISAR) – 268 members, 26 search-&-rescue dogs [200] [201] [202] [203]
[204] [205] [206]
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Fundraising by the Colombian Red Cross Over 1,500 volunteers from national societies.Evacuation of citizens and aid (when needed) [207] [208] [209] [210]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic $791,378Blankets, medical supplies, water and food; and a special trauma team - transported with a Boeing 73736 medical workers and 13 firefighters. Evacuated 54 Czechs and 48 EU citizens. [211] [212] [213]
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark $744,000Aid (TBD) [214]
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Fundraising15 rescue workers and medics (could not land – airport congestion) [215] [216] [217]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland $3.35 million; fundraising by the Finnish Red Cross Medical and logistical suppliesA Finnish Red Cross relief workers team [218] [219] [220] [221]
Flag of France.svg  France Equipment and suppliesCrisis centre at Foreign Ministry; a reinforcement team in New Delhi; 11 rescuers, (more help if needed) [222] [223]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany $68.34 million (€60 million), donated by the publicA mobile medical centre52 relief workers team – physicians, searchers, dog squads; the German Federal Agency for Technical Relief (THW)'s Rapid Deployment Unit Water and Sanitation Abroad (SEEWA) [224] [225] [226] [227]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Search-&-rescue teams [188]
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti $1 million [228]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong $6.45 million World Vision Hong Kong raised $1.29 million to provide victims with tents, tarpaulins, solar-powered lights, and other necessities. [229] [230] [231]
Flag of India.svg  India $1 billion by the governmentMaterial aid in Operation Maitri:

• 8 tons of baby food
• Over 100 tons of medical supplies
• 75,000 vials of insulin
• Over 200 tons of water
• 100,000 bottles of water every day from the Indian Railways
• Hundreds of tons of food and dry rations
• 43 tons of relief material
• 10 tons of blankets
• Several tons of stretchers, tents
• A reverse osmosis (RO) plant
• Oxygen regenerators & cylinders
• 345 tons of relief material, dry food and essential medicines from the state governments of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh

Rescue aid:

• 16 National Disaster Response Force teams, over 1,000 personnel, search-&-rescue dogs
• Hundreds of retired Indian Gorkha soldiers of the Indian Army
• Hundreds of Indian Army and Indian Air Force personnel
• Military task forces headquartered in Kathmandu and Barpak
• Relief sorties by Ilyushin Il-76, C-130J Hercules, C-17 Globemaster, Antonov An-32 aircraft
• Civilian aircraft
• Helicopters – Mi-17, Cheetah, HAL Dhruv ALH
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
• 18 member medical team
• 3 field hospitals
• 2 mobile teams of specialist doctors
• 41 member medical team from the state of Rajasthan
Indian Air Force rapid action medical team
• 45 bed hospital at Lagankhel
• Light vehicles
• Earth moving equipment
• 18 Indian Army Engineer Task Forces (Indian Army Corps of Engineers)
Indian Oil Corporation team
PowerGrid Corporation of India engineers
• 36+ vehicles – ambulances and water tankers – from the Sashastra Seema Bal
• 39 member Indian Army team deployed at the Everest Base Camp to search for, rescue and assist climbers

Evacuation of over 20,000 Indian citizens and hundreds of foreign nationals by air and road

[232] [233] [234] [235]
[236] [237] [238] [239] [240]
[241] [242] [243]
[244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249]
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia $2 million2 Boeing 737-400s belonging to the Indonesian Armed Forces and Garuda Indonesia, flew with 6 tons of relief supplies – blankets, body bags, food, water
hospital and sleeping tents, medical equipment: and medicines
66 personnel of SAR and Medical team [250] [251]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran An 80,000 pounds (36,000 kg) relief package (via India) [252] [253] [254]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland $1.126 million [255]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Three IAF Hercules and two El Al Boeing 747-400 jets carrying a joint IDF and MFA search-&-rescue team and 95 tons of equipment including a field hospital (with premature-babies ward), cutters, electronic sniffers, generators, and lighting equipment. The planes were also used for evacuation.264 person search-&-rescue team, including physicians. [256] [257] [258]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy $326,000 [259]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan $8.4 millionEmergency relief supplies worth US$210,00070 experts – Foreign Ministry, the National Police Agency, and JICA, along with rescuers, search-&-rescue dog handlers, communication specialists, physicians, and field coordinators [188] [260] [261]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 20 doctors – Mercy Malaysia; 30-man rescue team – Special Malaysia Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team [262] [263]
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives Other aid (TBA) [264]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Earthquake rescue brigade and engineers. [225] [265] [266]
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco Other aid (TBA) [225]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands $4.45 million by the government and $25.394.275,18 raised by GIRO 555 Action ('Netherlands helps Nepal')5 tons of relief supplies62-man and 8-dog team; several physicians, nurses, and engineers [267] [268]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand $771,000 in humanitarian aid45 urban search and rescue technicians, 2 aid workers and an engineer. [269] [270]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway $31,1 million (as of 25 May 2015). Including: $17.3 million (Norwegian government) and $13.8 million in donations to Norwegian aid organizations through aid concerts and donations from the Norwegian public.Deployed NORSAR Search and Rescue team, consisting of search dogs, emergency medical personnel and firefighters and equipment and aid of 15.3 tonnes. Transported with the help of a Boeing 737-800 of Norwegian Air Shuttle. [271] [272] [273]
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan

•Four Lockheed C-130 planes
•30-bed hospital
•2,000 military meals
•600 blankets
•200 tents
other assorted relief items

Military emergency personnel including army doctors, medical staff, and the combined ERRA-NDMA's special search and rescue teams with sniffer dogs [274] [275]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Soldiers, Philippine Red Cross staff, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Humanitarian Assistance Team and volunteers [276] [277] [278]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 81 firefighters of the State Fire Service, 12 search and rescue dogs, and 6 doctors of the Polish Center for International Aid [279] [280]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 2 aircraft with 60 tons of relief materials, such as food, medicines, power generators, and tents; 2 additional aircraft with 120 tons of relief materials, in addition to a field hospital provided by Qatari Red Crescent Aid operations [281]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Two Ilyushin Il-76 airplanes with 'a team of 90 rescuers and rescue equipment,' and 'a batch of humanitarian aid of food products and articles of daily necessity.'50 highly skilled rescue workers [282] [283]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia The Kingdom has sent 190 tons of aid to earthquake-hit Nepal, which includes food, tents and medical supplies, according to the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The Kingdom also sent medical workers. [284]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore $100,00060 members of the Singapore Civil Defence Force; officers from Singapore's police forces, including the Gurkha Contingent; another relief team. [188] [285]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia $33,000 [286]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia $55,000 [287] [288] [289]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa A search and rescue team composed of members of the South African Police Service with police dogs to aid in the rescue operation. [290]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea $1 millionSindhupalchok area

• 1000 tents
• Food packages for 230 families (Rice 10 kg, bean 1 kg, salt 1 kg, oil, Nepal noodle 1 kg, 10 vitamin tablets etc. per a package)
• 2.4 tons of rice, 320 bottles of vegetable oil, salts for 740 villagers

42 search and rescue workers including 15 medics and two assistants. Two sniffer dogs. [291] [292] [293] [294]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 30 tons of humanitarian aid, including more than 3,200 blankets, 1680 awnings and 500 kitchen sets, donated in part by Spanish Red Cross.47 soldiers of the Military Emergencies Unit and seven agents of the Civil Guard, with 60 tons of material, in order to find Spanish citizens unlocated. [295] [296] [297]
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka SLAF C-130 Hercules flight and Sri Lankan Airlines Airbus A330 flight with 17 tonnes of medicine, engineering, signal and ordnance equipment, supportive transport requirements, water bottles, health accessories, dry rations, and water purification tablets, etc.Groups of specialist physicians, other medical staff, and medicine; 44 Sri Lanka Armed Forces personnel and 4 medical consultants; a team of 156 persons, including 11 airmen, 4 medical consultants, and 14 sailors; 97 service personnel: 72 Sri Lanka Army personnel, 14 Sri Lanka Navy personnel, 11 Sri Lanka Air Force personnel [298] [299]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland $26.7 million (fundraising)38 tonnes of relief suppliesExperts, including a physician, a building surveyor, and a water quality technician [300] [301] [302]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden $1.5 million40 support personnel: ICT, coordination, assessment, camp technicians, structural engineer [303]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan $300,000Nepal rejected Taiwan's offer to send search and rescue teams due to "China factor". [304] [305]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand $200,000 by government
$302,000 by the king
$5.56 million by the public
Medics and rescue staff [306] [307] [308] [309] [310]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1,000 tents and 320 food packages.Up to 96 search and rescue staff [311]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates $1.36 millionMedical and food supplies, purchased from India88 search and rescue staff [188] [312]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom $130 million (£83 million), of which $51 million (£33 million) was donated by the government and $79 million (£50 million) was donated by the public30 tonnes of humanitarian aid and 8 tonnes of equipmentAround 100 search and rescue responders, medical experts, and disaster and rescue experts deployed by the Department for International Development; engineers from the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas; three Chinook helicopters (returned unused by the Nepalese government) [313] [314] [315] [316]
[317] [318]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States $10 million by government, the public donates separately through several agenciesA disaster response team from USAID; Urban Search and Rescue Virginia Task Force 1 from Fairfax County, Virginia was deployed to Nepal from the Dover Air Force Base; Los Angeles County's Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2; U.S. Army Green Beret soldiers; 100 Marines; two helicopters and four V-22 Osprey VTOL aircraft [319] [320] [321] [322]
[323] [324]
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Vatican City $100,000 [325]
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam $50,000 by government
$30,000 by the Vietnam Red Cross
11 rescuers – Vietnam Red Cross [326] [327]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sindhupalchok District District in Province No. 3, Nepal

Sindhupalchok District is a part of Province No. 3 and one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal, with an area of 2,542 km2 (981 sq mi). The district's headquarters is in Chautara. In 2006, 336,478 people resided in 79 village development committees, in 2011 there were 287,798.

1999 Chamoli earthquake 1999 earthquake in India

The 1999 Chamoli earthquake occurred on 29 March in the Chamoli district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The earthquake was the strongest to hit the foothills of the Himalayas in more than ninety years. Approximately 103 people died in the earthquake.

1997 Ardabil earthquake

The 1997 Ardabil earthquake occurred on 28 February with a moment magnitude of 6.1 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). The strike-slip earthquake occurred in northern Iran near the city of Ardabil.

2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami magnitude 7.7 earthquake

The 2010 Mentawai earthquake occurred with a moment magnitude of 7.8 on 25 October off the western coast of Sumatra at 21:42 local time. The earthquake occurred on the same fault that produced the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. It was widely felt across the provinces of Bengkulu and West Sumatra and resulted in a substantial localized tsunami that struck the Mentawai Islands.

2011 Yunnan earthquake earthquake

The 2011 Yunnan earthquake was a 5.4 magnitude earthquake that occurred on 10 March 2011 at 12:58 CST, with its epicenter in Yingjiang County, Yunnan, People's Republic of China, near the Burmese border. A total of 26 people died and 313 were injured with 133 in serious condition. China's Xinhua reports that up to seven aftershocks, measuring up to a magnitude of 4.7, followed the initial quake, which caused a total of 127,000 people to be evacuated to nearby shelters. It joined over 1,000 other minor tremors that affected the region in the two preceding months. Following damage surveys, officials reported that 1,039 buildings were destroyed and 4,994 more were seriously damaged. The earthquake occurred one day before a much larger earthquake struck Japan that also formed a tsunami.

2011 Sikkim earthquake earthquake

The 2011 Sikkim earthquake occurred with a moment magnitude of 6.9 and was centered within the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, near the border of Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim, at 18:10 IST on Sunday, 18 September. The earthquake was felt across northeastern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and southern Tibet.

2013 Balochistan earthquakes earthquake to the north-northeast of Awaran in Balochistan

The 2013 Balochistan earthquakes took place in late September in southwestern Pakistan. The mainshock had a moment magnitude of 7.7 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII. At least 825 people were killed and hundreds more were injured. On 28 September, a M6.8 aftershock occurred to the north at a depth of 14.8 kilometres, killing at least 22 people.

2013 Bohol earthquake 15 October 2013 earthquake in Bohol

The 2013 Bohol earthquake occurred on October 15 at 8:12:31 PST in Bohol, an island province located in Central Visayas, Philippines. The magnitude of the earthquake was recorded at Mw 7.2, with epicenter 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) S 24° W of Sagbayan, and its depth of focus was 12 kilometres (7.5 mi). It affected the whole Central Visayas region, particularly Bohol and Cebu. The quake was felt in the whole Visayas area and as far as Masbate island in the north and Cotabato provinces in southern Mindanao.

Operation Maitri was a rescue and relief operation in Nepal by the government of India and Indian armed forces in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. India's response was started within 15 minutes of the quake. It started on 26 April 2015 and also involved Nepali ex-servicemen from India's Gurkha Regiments for interface for guidance, relief and rescue.

An earthquake struck Nepal at 11:56:54 NST on 25 April 2015 with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.8 or 8.1Ms and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX (Violent). It was the most powerful earthquake to strike Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. Many thousands of people died as a result, with most casualties reported in Nepal, including on Mount Everest, and adjoining areas of India, China, and Bangladesh.

Operation Sankat Mochan

Operation Sankat Mochan is a Nepal Army earthquake relief operation following the April 2015 Nepal earthquake; the Nepal Army has deployed 90 percent of its force.

Operation Sahayogi Haat

Operation Sahayogi Haat was a US military relief operation delivering humanitarian assistance to victims of the April and May 2015 Nepal earthquakes. About 900 US military and civilian personnel were involved, with about 300 deployed in Nepal. Joint Task Force 505 was responsible for managing the relief operation, which lasted from May 6 to 26, 2015.

October 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake earthquake which occurred on 26 October 2015

The October 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake was a magnitude 7.5 earthquake that struck South Asia on 26 October 2015, at 13:39 AFT with the epicenter 45 km north of `Alaqahdari-ye Kiran wa Munjan, Afghanistan, at a depth of 212.5 km.

The December 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake occurred with a moment magnitude of 6.3 in South Asia on 25 December 2015. One woman was killed in Pakistan. At least 100 people were injured in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The quake was also strongly felt in Tajikistan and India. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the Afghanistan-Tajikistan border region at a depth of 203.4 km.

The Nepal humanitarian crisis (2015-2017) developed owing to a lack of action following the April 2015 Nepal earthquake and its aftershocks. It was compounded by political factors as a result of the 2015 Nepal blockade. Victims of the earthquakes were still living in flimsy, temporary shelters more than a year after the initial devastation. The governmental National Reconstruction Authority had not devised relocation plans for these people as recently as July 2016. In Sindhupalchok District, the region that had suffered the worst devastation, the humanitarian situation was a little better towards the end of 2016 than it had been in 2015.

Kathmandu Living Labs (KLL) is a living lab and nonprofit civic technology company based in Kathmandu, Nepal that primarily works on mobile technology and mapping. KLL focuses on using GPS/GIS technology for humanitarian aims, sometimes referred to as "humanitarian mapping".


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "M7.8 – 36 km E of Khudi, Nepal". United States Geological Survey.
  2. "Nepal Says Earthquake Rebuilding Cost to Exceed $10 Billion". 28 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2017 via www.bloomberg.com.
  3. "M6.6 - 44km E of Lamjung, Nepal".
  4. 1 2 "M6.7 - 21km SSE of Kodari, Nepal". usgs.gov.
  5. 1 2 3 "Aftershocks of Gorkha Earthquake". National Seismological Centre, Nepal.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 "Incident Report of Earthquake 2015". Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Portal. drrportal.gov.np. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  7. "Nepal earthquake death toll rises to 8,413". The Times of India . 7 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  8. Chidanand Rajghatta (26 April 2015). "Is this the 'Big Himalayan Quake' we feared?". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  9. "2015年4月25日尼泊尔8.1级地震情况通报(in Chinese)". China Earthquake Networks Center. 25 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  10. "What 1934 Told Nepal to Expect About the Next Big Quake". 26 April 2015.
  11. "Timeline: Nepal 2015 to 1934, the worst quake disasters in the last 80 years". 27 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  12. "Nepal earthquake: Eerie reminder of 1934 tragedy". 25 April 2015.
  13. Parajuli, Rishi Ram; Kiyono, Junji (1 January 2015). "Ground Motion Characteristics of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Survey of Damage to Stone Masonry Structures and Structural Field Tests". Earthquake Engineering. 1: 23. doi:10.3389/fbuil.2015.00023.
  14. nytimes.com 2015-04-27 katmandu-nepal-fear-loss-and-devastation, nytimes.com; accessed 28 April 2015.
  15. "Trapped at 20,000 feet: Many Everest climbers await choppers as supplies run low". Fox News. The Associated Press. 26 April 2015. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  16. 1 2 3 Shrestha, Sahina (1 May 2015). "Langtang is gone". Nepali Times. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  17. 1 2 "Up to 250 missing after avalanche hits Nepal trekking route". "Mail Online". Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  18. 1 2 3 McCarthy, Julie (30 April 2015). "He Carried His Mom on His Back For 5 Hours En Route To Medical Care". Montana Public Radio. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  19. 1 2 Kaini, Sudip (29 April 2015). "Great Earthquake wipes out Barpak". The Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  20. "Experts had warned for decades that Nepal was vulnerable to a killer quake". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  21. Colin Stark (26 April 2015). "Nepal earthquake: 'A tragedy waiting to happen' - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  22. "Earth Quake-hit Nepal at high risk of landslides in coming weeks". Free Press Journal.
  23. "Earthquake Again in Nepal 12 May 2015". The Natural Disasters. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
  24. "Nepal earthquake, magnitude 7.3, strikes near Everest". BBC News. 12 May 2015.
  25. 1 2 Manesh Shrestha (14 May 2015). "Death toll from this week's Nepal earthquake rises above 125". CNN. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  26. 1 2 Howard, Brian Clark (25 April 2015). "Nepal Earthquake Strikes One of Earth's Most Quake-Prone Areas". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  27. 1 2 "Powerful earthquake hits Nepal". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  28. "1 Day, Magnitude 2.5+ Worldwide" . Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  29. Joel Achenbach (27 April 2015). "Kathmandu shifts three metres in 30 seconds". Sydney Morning Herald (Washington Post) . Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  30. Internet Desk (25 April 2015). "Was this the big earthquake that was predicted in the Himalayas?". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  31. "Experts had warned for decades that Nepal was vulnerable to a killer quake". Washington Post. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  32. Amos, Jonathan (25 April 2015). "Why Nepal is so vulnerable to quakes". BBC. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  33. "Why Earthquakes Are Devastating Nepal". video.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 13 May 2015.[ permanent dead link ]
  34. "GEOLOGY OF NEPAL HIMALAYA". n.d. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  35. 1 2 "General Geology". Government of Nepal. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  36. Josh Fischman. "How The Deadly Nepal Earthquake Happened [GRAPHIC]". scientificamerican.com. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  37. Mughier J.L.; Huyghe P.; Gajurel A.P.; Upreti B.N. & Jouanne F. (2011). "Seismites in the Kathmandu basin and seismic hazard in central Himalaya". Tectonophysics. 509 (1–2): 33–49. Bibcode:2011Tectp.509...33M. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.05.012 . Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  38. L. Bollinger; S. N. Sapkota; P. Tapponnier; Y. Klinger; M. Rizza; J. Van der Woerd; D. R. Tiwari; R. Pandey; A. Bitri; S. Bes de Berc (2014). "Return period of great Himalayan earthquakes in Eastern Nepal: evidence from the Patu and Bardibas strands of the Main Frontal Thrust". Journal of Geophysical Research. 119 (9): 7123–7163. Bibcode:2014JGRB..119.7123B. doi:10.1002/2014JB010970.
  39. "Nepal quake 'followed historic pattern'". BBC. 27 April 2015.
  40. Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai (2016). "The 2015 Nepal M8.1 earthquake and the prediction for M ≥ 8 earthquakes in West China". Natural Hazards. 82 (3): 1767–77. doi:10.1007/s11069-016-2268-2.
  41. 1 2 3 4 Martin, Stacey S.; Hough, Susan E.; Hung, Charleen (1 November 2015). "Ground Motions from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake Constrained by a Detailed Assessment of Macroseismic Data". Seismological Research Letters. 86 (6): 1524–1532. doi:10.1785/0220150138. ISSN   0895-0695.
  42. "Massive 7.9 Earthquake jolts Bihar, North India and Nepal". news.biharprabha.com. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  43. 尼泊尔8.1级地震致中国西藏震感强烈有房屋倒塌 (in Chinese). China News. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  44. 1 2 Kim Hjelmgaard (26 April 2015). "Nepal hit by major aftershock as search for quake survivors intensifies". USA Today. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  45. "Fresh Tremors in North India, Including Delhi, a Day After Nepal Earthquake". NDTV. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  46. 1 2 "LIVE: Death toll rises to 2200 in Nepal earthquake, India resumes rescue ops". The Indian Express. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  47. "Koshi Highway obstructed". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  48. "IRIS: Special Event: Nepal". iris.edu.
  49. "M7.3 - 18km SE of Kodari, Nepal". USGS Earthquake Hazards Program.
  50. "7.3 Magnitude Earthquake hits North India including Bihar". news.biharprabha.com. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  51. "Nepal earthquake, magnitude 7.3, strikes near Everest". BBC News. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  52. "M7.3 - 18km SE of Kodari, Nepal". United States Geological Survey. 12 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  53. Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey S.; Gahalaut, Vineet; Joshi, Anand; Landes, M.; Bossu, R. (1 December 2016). "A comparison of observed and predicted ground motions from the 2015 MW7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake". Natural Hazards. 84 (3): 1661–1684. doi:10.1007/s11069-016-2505-8. ISSN   0921-030X.
  54. 1 2 Manesh Shrestha; Jethro Mullen; Laura Smith-Spark (15 May 2015). "Nepal's latest earthquake: Death toll climbs above 100". CNN. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  55. "Grow Up Together " Nepal Earthquake". growuptogether.org. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  56. "Taplejung landslide death toll reaches 53". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  57. "Glacial lake burst triggers floods in Solu". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  58. 1 2 "National Emergency Operation Centre". National Emergency Operation Centre (Nepal Govt.) on Twitter (in Nepali). 3 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  59. 1 2 "Quake toll in India now 78". Zee News. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  60. 1 2 "25 dead, 383 injured in Tibet following Nepal earthquake". Xinhua. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  61. 1 2 "4 killed, 18 Bangladesh districts affected in earthquake, says govt". Bdnews24.com. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  62. "40-indian-nationals-confirmed-dead-in-nepalearthquake-8-are-missing" . Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  63. Ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international. "Népal - Tremblement de terre - Point de situation (11.05.15)". France Diplomatie :: Ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international.
  64. "España concluye el rescate en Nepal al dar por muertos a los desaparecidos". El País (in Spanish). 9 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  65. "The fourth American confirmed to have died was Vinh B Truong, who had been enjoying a hiking holiday when the tragedy happened; death toll soars past 5,000". Daily Mail . 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  66. "Families now convinced 2 Seattle teens died in Nepal quake". KOMO News. Associated Press. 14 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  67. David Hench (9 June 2015). "Family of Augusta woman acknowledges her death in Nepal earthquake". Portland Press Herald .
  68. "Foreigner victims Detail of Earthquake" (PDF). Nepal Police . Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  69. "Fünftes deutsches Erdbeben-Opfer entdeckt". n24.de. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  70. "Nepal earthquake: International aid effort increased". BBC News. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  71. "terremoto Nepal". Emergenza24. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  72. "St. Albert couple confirmed dead following Nepal earthquake". CTV Edmonton. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  73. "Russian Diplomats Missing in Nepal Found Dead". The Moscow Times. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  74. "Kashmiri-origin mountaineer Renu Fotedar dies in Everest avalanche". Hindustan Times. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  75. "Nepal earthquake: Melbourne woman Renu Fotedar killed". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  76. "Hong Kong resident confirmed dead in Nepal earthquake as 15 more remain missing". SCMP. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  77. "Nepal earthquake death toll expected to rise sharply - live updates". The Guardian. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  78. Desiree Tresa Gasper (8 May 2015). "Body confirmed to be Malaysian in Nepal earthquake". The Star/Asia News Network . AsiaOne . Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  79. Andrea Vance; Rosanna Price (28 April 2015). "One Kiwi dead after Nepal earthquake". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  80. "Nepal earthquake: British gap year student confirmed dead". BBC News. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  81. Jason Burke; Ishwar Rauniyar in Kathmandu (1 May 2015). "Nepal earthquake death toll exceeds 6,000 with thousands unaccounted for | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  82. "Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Portal". 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  83. The Latest on Nepal: In Ravaged Hamlets, Lives Were Spared, U.S. News and World Reports, 29 April 2015
  84. Wyss, M. (2005), Human losses expected in Himalayan earthquakes Nat. Hazards, 34, 305–314.
  85. Save the Children (2015), Causes of deaths and injuries in the 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake, https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/node/14168/pdf/causes_of_deaths_and_injuries_nepal_earthquake_report_eng_2017.pdf
  86. Hayes, G. P., et al. (2015), Rapid characterization of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence and its seismotectonic context, Seismol. Res. Lett., 86(6), 1557–1567.
  87. Martin, S. S., S. E. Hough, and C. Hung (2015), Ground motions from the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake constrained by a detailed assessment of macroseismic data, Seismol. Res. Lett., 86(6), 1524–1532.
  88. Wyss, M. (2017). Four loss estimates for the Gorkha M7.8 earthquake, 25 April 2015, before and after it occurred, Natural Hazards, Special Issue, doi:10.1007/s11069-016-2648-7.
  89. "90 Britons missing as Nepal earthquake death toll rises". The Himalayan Times via RT. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  90. 1 2 "Everest's avalanche, through the climbers' eyes". Washington Post . 2 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  91. "89 foreigners missing after earthquake in Nepal". aswani. 23 May 2015.
  92. Daigle, Katy (28 April 2015). "250 people feared missing after mudslide in Nepal village". Daily News. Daily News. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  93. Dave (29 April 2015). "Landslides in Langtang during and after the Nepal earthquake". AGU Blogosphere. AGU Blogosphere. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  94. "British archeologist 'terrified' after narrowly escaping death in Nepalese earthquake" . Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  95. "Landslides in Langtang during and after the Nepal earthquake". Rappler.com. Agence France-Presse. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  96. SHASHANK BENGALI AND BHRIKUTI RAI. "Nepal quake: 52 bodies found in remote valley where trekkers missing". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  97. Parker, R. N.; Hancox, G. T.; Petley, D. N.; Massey, C. I.; Densmore, A. L.; Rosser, N. J. (20 October 2015). "Spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides and hillslope preconditioning in the northwest South Island, New Zealand". Earth Surface Dynamics. 3 (4): 501–525. Bibcode:2015ESuD....3..501P. doi:10.5194/esurf-3-501-2015. ISSN   2196-6311.
  98. Qiu, Jane (28 April 2016). "Killer landslides: The lasting legacy of Nepal's quake". Nature. 532 (7600): 428–431. Bibcode:2016Natur.532..428Q. doi:10.1038/532428a. PMID   27121822.
  99. "Kathmandu airport shut, flights to resume from Sunday". ABP Live. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  100. "Quake agony revealed quietly on trip from Nepal airport". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  101. "Kathmandu shuts airport to big jets". Irish Examiner. 3 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  102. "In earthquake's deadly aftermath, Nepalis grieve the loss of their sacred landmarks". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  103. "Relief for tourists after Pokhara flights resume". Myanmar Times.
  104. "Nepal Quake Collapses Churches on Worshippers During Service; Bodies Still Not Recovered". Christianpost.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  105. "Nepal Earthquake Collapses Churches during Weekly Worship Services". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  106. Goyette, Braden (25 April 2015). "Historic Tower Collapses in Nepal Earthquake". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  107. Deepak Nagpal (25 April 2015). "LIVE: Two major quakes rattle Nepal; historic Dharahara Tower collapses, deaths reported in India". Zee News . Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  108. "Historic Dharahara tower collapses in Kathmandu after earthquake". 25 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  109. "180 bodies retrieved from debris of Nepal's historic tower" . Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  110. "Nearly 700 killed after 7.9-magnitude earthquake strikes Nepal". RT. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  111. "Earthquake in Nepal 2015". The Natural Disasters. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015.
  112. Before and After the Earthquake in Nepal (photographs), nytimes.com, 25 April 2015; accessed 4 May 2015.
  113. 1 2 3 "Historical monuments lost forever". The Nation. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  114. "In Nepal, senior UN official warns 'clock is ticking' for earthquake relief efforts". The United Nations News Centre. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  115. "Nepal Economy Devastated Following Earthquake". PrimePair. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  116. 1 2 3 4 "Nepal's Slowing Economy Set for Freefall Without Global Help". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  117. "The Latest on Nepal Quake: Aid arriving as deaths top 4,000". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  118. Burke, Jason (5 May 2015). "Nepal quake survivors face threat from human traffickers supplying sex trade". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  119. "Migrant Workers and their Families". United Nation Nepal Information Platform. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  120. "FALSE PROMISES: 12 000 NEPALESE GIRLS ARE TRAFFICKED FOR SEX WORK EVERY YEAR". People in Need. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  121. "Women have little access to relief: Report" . Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  122. 1 2 http://www.ekantipur.com/2015/07/30/national/malnutrition-stalks-quake-hit-kids/408642.html The Kathmandu Post: Malnutrition stalks quake-hit kids
  123. Sriram, Jayant (5 May 2015). "Indian media jingoism was trigger for backlash in Nepal". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  124. "Nepal Earthquake: On World Press Freedom Day, #GoHomeIndianMedia top Twitter trend". dna webdesk. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  125. http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2016-10-01/infectious-mites-found-in-70-pc-of-mice-samples.html Kathmandu Post "Infectious mites found in 70 pc of mice samples"
  126. Deadly earthquake: Death-toll reaches 4400. In: Kantipur , 28 April 2015.
  127. (A collection of Field Reports) (2 May 2015). "The Latest on Nepal: Chance of finding more survivors slim". The Tampa Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  128. "Nepal Earthquake: Man Explains How He Survived in Rubble for 82 Hours". ABC News (US). AP. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  129. "Four survivors pulled alive from earthquake rubble in Nepal". RTE News, Ireland. 3 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  130. Sedhai, Roshan. "Still finding survivors". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  131. 1 2 "Nepal - 1 May 2015". Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders). Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  132. 1 2 30 April 2015. "Japanese Red Cross medical teams reach communities beyond Kathmandu". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  133. Lee, Brianna (30 April 2015). "Nepal Earthquake: In Tent Cities, Water Shortages, Open Toilets Add To Fears Of Looming Health Disaster". International Business Times. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  134. Howard, Brian Clark; 07, National Geographic PUBLISHED May (7 May 2015). "NASA Technology Finds Nepal Survivors by Their Heartbeats". National Geographic News. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  135. 1 2 Parker, Laura (1 May 2015). "How 'Crisis Mapping' Is Shaping Disaster Relief in Nepal". The National Geographic. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  136. "The Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT)".
  137. Clark, Liat (28 April 2015). "How Nepal's Earthquake Was Mapped in 48 Hours". Wired (U.K.). Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  138. Shakya, Ayesha (1 May 2015). "Mapping the aftermath". The Nepali Times. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  139. "Can workers save Nepal's sacred sites before the monsoons hit?". PBS NewsHour. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  140. "How data gathering has helped in Nepal". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  141. "How social media is helping Nepal rebuild after two big earthquakes". Quartz. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  142. Bochenski, Natalie (5 May 2015). "Brisbane developers assist Nepal". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  143. "Earthquake in Nepal, India, Bangladesh, China". un-spider.org. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  144. "Showing Reports... (Nepal Earthquakes 2015)". Kathmandu Living Labs. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  145. Soden, Robert; Budhathoki, Nama; Palen, Lasia. "Resilience-Building and the Crisis Informatics Agenda: Lessons Learned from 'Open Cities Kathmandu'" (PDF). Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference - University Park, Pennsylvania (USA) - (May 2014). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  146. 1 2 "India to donate $1 billion to Nepal". The Telegraph.
  147. "NHRC to govt: Take action against WFP". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  148. "7,000 liters of relief oil disposed". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  149. Sugam Pokharel; Kimberly Hutcherson. "8 bodies recovered from U.S. helicopter crash site; pilot identified". CNN. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  150. "New 'Getmii' app has roots in Spearfish". Black Hills Pioneer. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  151. Pool, Rebecca. "Photonics technologies are first responders to Nepal earthquake". SPIE Newsroom. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  152. Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Shugar, D. H.; Haritashya, U. K.; Bevington, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Fujita, K.; Geertsema, M.; Miles, E. S. (8 January 2016). "Geomorphic and geologic controls of geohazards induced by Nepal's 2015 Gorkha earthquake". Science. 351 (6269): aac8353. doi:10.1126/science.aac8353. ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   26676355.
  153. Romey, Kristin; 27, National Geographic PUBLISHED April (27 April 2015). "Nepal's 8 Key Historic Sites: What's Rubble, What's Still Standing". National Geographic News. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  154. Lawler, rew; 08, National Geographic PUBLISHED June (8 June 2015). "A Race to Fix Nepal's Ravaged Monuments Before Monsoons Hit". National Geographic News. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  155. "29 April 2015 - Nepal Earthquake: New appeal for children amid growing need- UNICEF". UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund). Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  156. "Open Sans". earthquakenepalin2015.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  157. Bhardwaj, Mayank, Dutta, Ratnajyoti (28 April 2015). "China? India? We're grateful for their help: Nepal's ambassador to India". Reuters. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  158. "Nepal earthquake: Racing against time, government pleads for rescue helicopters to reach remote mountain regions". The Independent. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  159. "Chinese helicopters aid Nepal quake recovery". Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China. Xinhua/Wang Shoubao. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  160. 1 2 Mark Scott. "Nepal Earthquake Poses Challenge to International Aid Agencies". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  161. 1 2 Sifferlin, Alexandra (28 April 2015). "Medics Race Against Time to Save Nepal's Quake Survivors". TIME. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  162. Anyadike, Obinna (5 May 2015). "Nepal quake fund move is PR fiasco". IRIN Nairobi. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  163. Kumar, Ruchir (6 May 2015). "No, thank you: Nepal asks India to not send old clothes as relief". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  164. Ghimire, Yubaraj; Khan, Hamza; Dutta, Amrita (5 May 2015). "Nepal aid getting 'hijacked': Organised groups are obstructing the work or 'hijacking' aid material to Nepal midway". The Indian Express. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  165. Daniel, Frank Jack; Mahr, Krista (6 May 2015). "Nepal, aid agencies trade blame as confusion mars quake relief". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  166. Bell, Thomas (3 May 2015). "Nepal earthquake: Many survivors receiving no help despite relief effort". The Independent. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  167. "Satisfied with coordination of foreign relief aid, says Army chief". eKantipur. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  168. Ratcliffe, Rebecca (2 May 2015). "Nepal customs holding up earthquake relief efforts, says United Nations". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  169. Sriram, Jayant (3 May 2015). "Hopes dim for survivors". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  170. "Nepal Earthquake: Kathmandu Airport Closes Damaged Runway to Big Planes". NBC News. 3 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  171. Associated Press (3 May 2015). "Nepal earthquake aid fears after main airport shut to big planes | World news". The Guardian. The Guardian . Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  172. Siobhan Heanue (2 May 2015). "Nepal earthquake: Government rules out possibility of finding more survivors as frustration grows over aid distribution delays" . Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  173. 30 April 2015. "EU Commissioner Stylianides to arrive in Nepal". Kantipur. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  174. "Algeria sends rescuers, drugs to quake-hit Nepal". Xinhua News Agency (via Global Post). 26 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  175. "Earthquake in Nepal". Minister for Foreign Affairs. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  176. "Subscribe - theaustralian". www.theaustralian.com.au. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  177. "Nepal earthquake: Extra $10m provided by Australia for recovery efforts; search for bodies in Langtang village suspended". ABC News. 10 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  178. Sallese Gibson (10 May 2015). "Tasmanian Government donates $10,000 to Nepal Earthquake Appeal". ABC News . Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  179. "Werner Faymann: "Regierung beschließt Nepal-Hilfe von 750.000 Euro"". Bundeskanzleramt (in German). 28 April 2015. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  180. "Azerbaijan sends humanitarian aid to Nepal". Azerbaijan State Telegraph Agency. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  181. Star online, Report. "Bangladesh to send 1 lakh tonnes rice to Nepal". The Daily Star. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  182. "Biman flight returns to Dhaka failing to get landing clearance in earthquake- ravaged Kathmandu". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  183. "Bangladesh to help Nepal in wake of devastating earthquake". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  184. "BD Air Force aircraft reaches Nepal with relief materials". UNB News. 26 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  185. "Bangladesh sends aid for Nepali earthquake victims". BDMilitary. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  186. 1 2 3 4 5 Balachandran, Manu (26 April 2015). "Indian helicopters, Israeli hospitals and Malaysian medics: How the world is coming to Nepal's aid". Quartz. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  187. Kuensel Online (27 April 2015). "(Untitled)". Facebook. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  188. Tobgay, Tshering (27 April 2015). "(Untitled)". Facebook. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  189. "DeSuups loading supplies on special flight bound for Nepal. His Majesty has commanded 54-member medical team to assist in rescue and relief". Twitter.com.
  190. "Earthquake: Everything is fine in Bhutan, says minister". OneIndia. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  191. "Bhutan to dispatch medical team to Nepal". Kuensel Online. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  192. Aaron Wong (29 April 2015). "Brunei sends relief contingent to Nepal". The Brunei Times . Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  193. "Nepal Earthquake Kills More than 1,900 people". CBC.
  194. "Nepal earthquake: 2,500 dead as aftershocks terrify survivors". CBC. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  195. "Nepal earthquake: a roundup of relief efforts". Toronto Star. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  196. "Canada will match contributions to Nepal earthquake relief fund". Canadian Press (via CP24). 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  197. "Canada sends military transport to deliver aid to Nepal". Global Post. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  198. "Nepal Earthquake: India and China Send Rescue Teams to Himalayan Nation". The Wall Street Journal. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  199. "Chinese rescue team to depart for shaken, devastated Nepal". CCTV. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  200. 中国国际救援队出发 尼泊尔驻华大使感叹患难之交. CRI (in Chinese). 26 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  201. 中国国际救援队飞赴尼泊尔震区 精选6条搜救犬. CCTV (in Chinese). 26 April 2015.
  202. "China offers 20 mln yuan in humanitarian aid to quake-hit Nepal". Xinhua. 26 April 2015.
  203. "China prepares relief supplies for quake-hit Nepal". Xinhua. 25 April 2015.
  204. 中国第二轮援助尼泊尔灾区4000万物资. Sina (in Chinese). 28 April 2015.
  205. "Santos se solidarizó con víctimas de la tragedia en Nepal" (in Spanish). 25 April 2015.
  206. "Cruz Roja habilita cuentas para donación - ELESPECTADOR.COM". ElEspectador (in Spanish). 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  207. "Comunicado No. 4 La Cruz Roja llama a la solidaridad de los colombianos para ayudar a los damnificados del Terremoto en Nepal". cruzrojacolombiana.org (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  208. "Colombia está lista para brindar ayuda humanitaria a Nepal: UNGRD". rcnradio.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  209. "Czech Republic will help Nepal (in Czech)". Government of the Czech Republic. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  210. "Czech medical team to help earthquake victims in Nepal". The Prague Post. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  211. "Czech authorities establish contact with all Czechs in Nepal". Radio Prague. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  212. "Denmark sends aid to Nepal after earthquake". The Local. 26 April 2015. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  213. "Eesti ja Soome päästemeeskond ei lenda Nepali" [Estonian and Finnish rescue team won't fly to Nepal] (in Estonian). Postimees. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  214. "Eesti päästemeeskonna juht: lootus peab alati säilima, muidu me ei läheks sinna". Uudised (in Estonian). 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  215. Lakson, Piret (29 April 2015). "Eesti päästemeeskonna juht tõdes, et varustuse pakkimisel tehti vigu" [Estonian rescue team leader admitted that mistakes were made in packaging of equipment] (in Estonian). Postimees. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  216. "The Finnish Red Cross kicks off campaigns for earthquake victims in Nepal". YLE. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  217. "Red Cross logistical unit gets green light for Nepal trip". YLE. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  218. "Suomi lahjoittaa kaksi miljoonaa euroa Nepaliin" [Finland donates €2 million to Nepal]. Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 28 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  219. "Suomi antaa miljoona euroa lisää Nepalin maanjäristyksen uhrien auttamiseksi" [Finland gives additional €1 million to help Nepal earthquake victims]. Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 5 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  220. "Népal - Tremblement de terre (25 avril 2015)". France Diplomatie (in French). 25 April 2015. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  221. "Népal - Tremblement de terre - Déclaration de Laurent Fabius". France Diplomatie (in French). 26 April 2015. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  222. dpa (15 May 2015). "Study of the German Central Institute for Social Issues (DZI)". Mannheimer Morgen.
  223. 1 2 3 "Turkey's AFAD and international aid organizations rush to Nepal after devastating earthquake". Daily Sabah Asia Pacific. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  224. "Germany, France sending rescue teams, emergency relief to quake-hit Nepal". 680 News. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  225. "Erdbeben in Nepal: THW entsendet Voraus- und SEEWA-Team". thw.de (in German). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  226. Haiti's president Michel Joseph Martelly has allocated a million dollar to the Nepalese government, hougansydney.com; accessed 18 May 2015.
  227. "CE expresses deepest sympathies for Nepal earthquake victims". info.gov.hk. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  228. "HKSARG to provide relief and financial assistance for quake victims in Nepal". info.gov.hk. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  229. "宣 明 會 為 尼 泊 爾 救 災 重 建 籌 1000 萬 港 元". rthk.hk. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  230. "India sends 10 NDRF Teams for Relief and Rescue Operation in Nepal". Bihar Prabha.
  231. "Nepal Earthquake: Major Aftershock Hits Kathmandu as Toll Climbs". NBC News.
  232. "Nepal earthquake: Relief, rescue operations as they happened on Monday". Zee News. 27 April 2015.
  233. "Nepal quake: India launches 'Operation Maitri', airlifts many". Hindustan Times. 26 April 2015.
  234. "Live: Kathmandu airport reopens for rescue ops, Nepal quake death toll rises to 2263". FirstPost.
  235. "Operation Maitri: India launches massive relief and rescue efforts in Nepal". DNA India. 26 April 2015.
  236. "Nepal quake: Indian Railway provides one lakh 'rail neer' bottles as relief". DNA India. 26 April 2015.
  237. "Operation Maitri in full swing". The Telegraph.
  238. "Operation Maitri in Full Swing to Pull Nepal Out of Rubble". The New Indian Express.
  239. "Nepal earthquake: Rescue, relief work as they happened on Tuesday". Zee News. 28 April 2015.
  240. "#IndiaWithNepal 8 Tonnes of Baby food and skimmed milk, 6 Tonnes of Medicines, 2 Tonnes of biscuits in other material". Vikas Swarup, official spokesperson, Ministry of External Affairs, on Twitter.
  241. "#IndiaWithNepal More materials for rescue and relief efforts today: 2 Engineering Task Forces, 100 Personnel, 55 tonnes of drinking water". Vikas Swarup, official spokesperson, Ministry of External Affairs, on Twitter.
  242. "Live: India's help was like extending blank cheque, says Nepal; earthquake death toll at 5,057". FirstPost.com.
  243. India, Press Trust of (28 April 2015). "India evacuates 170 foreigners from Nepal". DNA India.
  244. "India evacuates 170 foreign nationals from Nepal". The Times of India.
  245. "#OperationMaitri 345 tonnes of relief material, dry food, water & essential medicines, from the State Govts of Bihar & UP arrived in Nepal". Vikas Swarup, Official Spokesperson, Ministry of External Affairs, India, on Twitter.
  246. "#OperationMaitri The facts till date". Vikas Swarup, Official Spokesperson, Ministry of External Affairs, India, on Twitter.
  247. "India to donate $1 billion to Nepal". Telegraph India.
  248. "Indonesia Kirim Tim SAR dan Medis ke Nepal".
  249. "Indonesia kirim bantuan 6 ton ke Nepal". 29 April 2015.
  250. "Archived copy" اعلام مراتب تسلیت جمعیت هلال احمر ایران به دولت و مردم نپال/ آمادگ هلال احمر ایران برای انجام عملیات پاسخگویی به حادثه و کمک به زلزله زدگان نپالی (in Persian). Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  251. "Iran Red Crescent ready to send relief to Nepal". Islamic Republic News Agency. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  252. "40 tons humanitarian relief supplies ready to dispatch to Nepal". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  253. "Ireland responds to Nepal earthquake" . Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  254. "Search and rescue team to depart shortly from Israel to region; will include doctors". Jerusalem Post. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  255. "Rescuers on 2 El Al jets heading for Nepal Sunday". Arutz Sheva. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  256. "IAF plane brings babies born in quake-struck Nepal to Israel". Jerusalem Post. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  257. Katz, Gregory (25 April 2015). "Leaders, charities offer condolences, help after Nepal quake". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  258. "Japan Starts Emergency Assistance to Nepal over the Great Earthquake". Poverist. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  259. "Emergency Grant Aid to Nepal for the Earthquake Damage". Poverist. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  260. Azura Abas (26 April 2015). "Malaysia ready to help Nepal, says Anifah". New Straits Times . Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  261. "Malaysia to send doctors, rescuers to Nepal: PM Najib". Channel News Asia. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  262. "IGMH Group gives USD 10,000 disaster aid to Nepal". HaveeruOnline. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  263. "Estas son las formas en que puedes ayudar a Nepal desde México" (in Spanish). CNNMéxico. Turner Broadcasting System. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  264. "Topos de Tlatelolco apoyarán en labores de rescate en Nepal" (in Spanish). Excélsior. Excélsior. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  265. "Nederland, bedankt voor deze prachtige start!=GIRO 555 WEBSITE". 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  266. "Dutch rescue team to aid Nepal earthquake response". NL Times. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  267. Rilkoff, Matt. "Strong 6.7 aftershock rocks Nepal" . Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  268. "NZ aid workers off to Nepal - Yahoo New Zealand". Nz.news.yahoo.com. 9 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  269. "Regjeringen bidrar med ytterligere 100 millioner kroner til Nepal". Regjeringen (in Norwegian). 28 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  270. "Norwegian Search and Rescue Team i Nepal" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  271. Frank Haugsbø (25 May 2015). "Artister samlet inn 19 millioner til Nepal-ofre". VG. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  272. "Nepal earthquake: Rescue effort intensifies". BBC. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  273. "Nepal earthquake kills 1,341 people while climbers 'run for their lives' after avalanche on Everest". The Telegraph. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  274. "Aquino: Nepal is not alone after deadly quake". philstar.com. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  275. Mabasa, Roy (27 April 2015). "DFA to help 2 Pinoys on Everest as Nepal quake toll nears 2,000". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  276. Maricar B. Brizuela. "Nepal quake victims get clean drinking water, thanks to MMDA team". inquirer.net.
  277. "Polscy strażacy polecieli z pomocą do Nepalu". TVN24 (in Polish). 25 April 2015.
  278. "Trzęsienie ziemi w Nepalu. Polacy pomogą w akcji ratunkowej". Polskie Radio (in Polish). 26 April 2015.
  279. "Qatar supplies aid to earthquake victims in Nepal". Gulf Times. 26 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  280. "Russia provides assistance to citizens of all post-Soviet states in Nepal". TASS. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  281. "Russia's Emergencies Ministry offers aid to Nepal in eliminating aftermaths of earthquake". TASS. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  282. "Saudi Arabia sends 190 tons of aid to Nepal". 22 May 2015.
  283. "Singapore prepares to send 55-man search-and-rescue team to Nepal". The Straits Times. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  284. "Lajčák vyčlenil 30 000 eur pre Nepál" (in Slovak). 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  285. "Slovenija Nepalu namenila 50 tisoč evrov pomoči" (in Slovenian). 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.