Temple

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The Erechtheion in Athens, Greece, is associated with some of the most ancient and holy relics of the Athenians, such as the Palladion, a xoanon of Athena Polias Athen Erechtheion BW 2017-10-09 13-58-34.jpg
The Erechtheion in Athens, Greece, is associated with some of the most ancient and holy relics of the Athenians, such as the Palladion, a xoanon of Athena Polias
Borobudur temple, the largest buddhist temple in the world, Central Java, Indonesia. Panoramic views of Borobudur.jpg
Borobudur temple, the largest buddhist temple in the world, Central Java, Indonesia.

A temple (from the Latin templum ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called churches), Hinduism (called mandira), Buddhism (often monasteries), Sikhism (whose temples are called gurudwara), Jainism (whose temples are sometimes called derasar), Islam (whose temples are called mosques), Judaism (whose temples are called synagogues), Zoroastrianism (whose temples are sometimes called Agiary), the Baha'i Faith (which are often simply referred to as Baha'i House of Worship), Taoism (which are sometimes called Daoguan), Shintoism (which are sometimes called Jinja), Confucianism (which are sometimes called the Temple of Confucius), and ancient religions such as the Ancient Egyptian religion and the Ancient Greek religion.

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The form and function of temples is thus very variable, though they are often considered by believers to be in some sense the "house" of one or more deities. Typically offerings of some sort are made to the deity, and other rituals enacted, and a special group of clergy maintain, and operate the temple. The degree to which the whole population of believers can access the building varies significantly; often parts or even the whole main building can only be accessed by the clergy. Temples typically have a main building and a larger precinct, which may contain many other buildings, or may be a dome shaped structure, much like an igloo.

The word comes from Ancient Rome, where a templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. [1] It has the same root as the word "template", a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out on the ground by the augur.

Mesopotamian temples

Ziggurat of Ur, Iraq Ziggarat of Ur 001.jpg
Ziggurat of Ur, Iraq

The temple-building tradition of Mesopotamia derived from the cults of gods and deities in the Mesopotamian religion. It spanned several civilizations; from Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian. The most common temple architecture of Mesopotamia is the structure of sun-baked bricks called a Ziggurat, having the form of a terraced step pyramid with a flat upper terrace where the shrine or temple stood.

Egyptian temples

Luxor Temple, Egypt Luxor, Luxor Temple, inside, at night, Egypt, Oct 2004.jpg
Luxor Temple, Egypt

Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the deities to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most commonly used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion (or enclosure) of a god". [2]

A god's presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual. These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were, therefore, a key part of the maintenance of maat , the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. [3] Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, [4] and thus it was the purpose of a temple as well. [5]

Ancient Egyptian temples were also of economic significance to Egyptian society. The temples stored and redistributed grain and came to own large portions of the nation's arable land (some estimate as much as 33% by the New Kingdom period). [6] In addition, many of these Egyptian temples utilized the Tripartite Floor Plan in order to draw visitors to the center room.

Hindu temples

Akshardham Temple, a Hindu temple in New Delhi, India built in 2005. New Delhi Temple.jpg
Akshardham Temple, a Hindu temple in New Delhi, India built in 2005.

Hindu temples are known by many different names, varying on region and language, including Alayam, [7] Mandir, Mandira, Ambalam, Gudi, Kavu, Koil, Kovil, Déul, Raul, Devasthana, Degul, Deva Mandiraya, and Devalaya.

A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, the seat and dwelling of Hindu gods. [8] It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together according to Hindu faith. Inside its Garbhagriha innermost sanctum, a Hindu temple contains a Murti or Hindu god's image. Hindu temples are large and magnificent with a rich history. There is evidence of use of sacred ground as far back as the Bronze Age [ citation needed ] and later during the Indus Valley civilization.[ citation needed ]

Outside of the Indian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh and Nepal), Hindu temples have been built in various countries around the world. Either following the historic diffusion of Hinduism across Asia (e.g. ancient stone temples of Cambodia and Indonesia), or following the migration of the Indian Hindus' diaspora; to Western Europe (esp. Great Britain), North America (the United States and Canada), as well as Australia, Malaysia and Singapore, Mauritius and South Africa.

Buddhist temples

Mahabodhi temple, Bihar, India Mahabodhitemple.jpg
Mahabodhi temple, Bihar, India

Buddhist temples include the structures called stupa, wat and pagoda in different regions and languages. A Buddhist temple might contain a meditation hall hosting Buddharupa , or the image of Buddha, as the object of concentration and veneration during a meditation. The stupa domed structures are also used in a circumambulation ritual called Pradakshina .

Temples in Buddhism represent the pure land or pure environment of a Buddha. Traditional Buddhist temples are designed to inspire inner and outer peace. [9]

Greco-Roman temples

The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens Acropolis wide view.jpg
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens

Though today we call most Greek religious buildings "temples," the ancient Greeks would have referred to a temenos , or sacred precinct. Its sacredness, often connected with a holy grove, was more important than the building itself, as it contained the open air altar on which the sacrifices were made. The building which housed the cult statue in its naos was originally a rather simple structure, but by the middle of the 6th century BCE had become increasingly elaborate. Greek temple architecture had a profound influence on ancient architectural traditions.

The rituals that located and sited Roman temples were performed by an augur through the observation of the flight of birds or other natural phenomenon. Roman temples usually faced east or toward the rising sun, but the specifics of the orientation are often not known today; there are also notable exceptions, such as the Pantheon which faces north. In ancient Rome only the native deities of Roman mythology had a templum; any equivalent structure for a foreign deity was called a fanum.

Pagan temples

Temple of Garni, Armenia Templo de Garni, Armenia, 2016-10-02, DD 94.jpg
Temple of Garni, Armenia

The Romans usually referred to a holy place of a pagan religion as fanum; in some cases this referred to a sacred grove, in others to a temple. Medieval Latin writers also sometimes used the word templum, previously reserved for temples of the ancient Roman religion. In some cases it is hard to determine whether a temple was a building or an outdoor shrine. For temple buildings of the Vikings, the Old Norse term hof is often used.

Zoroastrian temples

The Yazd Atash Behram Yazd fire temple.jpg
The Yazd Atash Behram

A Zoroastrian temple may also be called a Dar-e-mehr and an Atashkadeh . A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians. Zoroastrians revere fire in any form, and their temples contains an eternal flame, with Atash Behram (Fire of Victory) as the highest grade of all, as it combines 16 different types of fire gathered in elaborate rituals.

In the Zoroastrian religion, fire (Atar), together with clean water (Aban), are agents of ritual purity. Clean, white "ash for the purification ceremonies is regarded as the basis of ritual life," which, "are essentially the rites proper to the tending of a domestic fire, for the temple fire is that of the hearth fire raised to a new solemnity".

Chinese temples

Temple of Heaven, Beijing Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest.JPG
Temple of Heaven, Beijing

Chinese temples refer to temples in accordance to Chinese culture, served as a house of worship of Chinese faiths; namely Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion. Chinese temples was born from the age old religion and tradition of Chinese people since ancient era of imperial China, thus usually built in typical classical Chinese architecture.

Other than its base that constructed from an elevated platform of earth and stones, most parts of Chinese temples are of timber carpentry, with parts of bricks masonry and glazed ceramics for roofs and tiles decorations. Typical Chinese temples have curved overhanging eaves and complicated carpentry of stacked roof construction. Chinese temples are known for its vivid colour and rich decorations. Its roofs often decorated with mythical beasts, such as Chinese dragons and qilins, sometimes also Chinese deities. Chinese temples can be found throughout Mainland China and Taiwan, and also where Chinese expatriate communities have settled abroad, thus Chinese temples can be found in Chinatowns worldwide.

Indonesian temples

Sojiwan temple, an example of typical 9th-century Javanese temple architecture. Sojiwan temple 2.jpg
Sojiwan temple, an example of typical 9th-century Javanese temple architecture.

Candi is an Indonesian term to refer to ancient temples. Before the rise of Islam, between the 5th to 15th-century Dharmic faiths (Hinduism and Buddhism) were the majority in the Indonesian archipelago, especially in Java and Sumatra. As a result of numerous Hindu temples, locally known as candi, constructed and dominated the landscape of Java. The candi architecture follows the typical Indonesian architecture traditions based on Vastu Shastra. The temple layout, especially in Central Java period, incorporated mandala temple plan arrangements and also the typical high towering spires of Hindu temples. The candi was designed to mimic Meru, the holy mountain the abode of gods. In contemporary Indonesian Buddhist perspective, Candi refers to a shrine, either ancient or new. Several contemporary viharas in Indonesia for example, contain the actual-size replica or reconstruction of famous Buddhist temples, such as the replica of Pawon [10] and Plaosan's perwara (small) temples.

According to local beliefs, Java valley had thousands of Hindu temples that co-existed with Buddhist temples, most of which were buried in the massive eruption of Mount Merapi in 1006 AD.

Jain temples

Ranakpur Jain temple, Rajasthan, India. Jain Temple Ranakpur.jpg
Ranakpur Jain temple, Rajasthan, India.

A Jain temple, called a Derasar, is the place of worship for Jains, the followers of Jainism. [11] Some famous Jain temples are Shikharji, Palitana temples, Ranakpur Jain temple, Shravan Belgola, Dilwara Temples and Lal Mandir. Jain temples are built with various architectural designs. Jain temples in North India are completely different from the Jain temples in South India, which in turn are quite different from Jain temples in West India. Additionally, a manastambha (literally 'column of honor') is a pillar that is often constructed in front of Jain temples.

Sikh temples

Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, India Darbar Sahib 27 September 2018.jpg
Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, India

A Sikh temple is called a Gurdwara, literally the doorway to the Guru. Its most essential element is the presence of the Guru, Guru Granth Sahib. The Gurdwara has an entrance from all sides, signifying that they are open to all without any distinction whatsoever. The Gurdwara has a Darbar Sahib where the Guru Granth Sahib is seen and a Langar where people can eat free food. [12] A Gurdwara may also have a library, nursery, and classroom. [13]

Mesoamerican temples

Temple of Kukulcan in Chichen Itza located on top of Kukulcan pyramid. Chichen Itza 2.jpg
Temple of Kukulcan in Chichen Itza located on top of Kukulcan pyramid.

Temples of the Mesoamerican civilization usually took the shape of stepped pyramids with temples or shrines on top of the massive structure. They are more akin to the ziggurats of Mesopotamia than to Egyptian ones. A single or several flight(s) of steep steps from the base lead to the temple that stood on the plateau on top of the pyramid. The stone temple might be a square or a rounded structure with a door opening leading to a cella or inner sanctum. The plateau on top of the pyramid in front of the temple is where the ritualistic sacrifice took place.

Some classic Mesoamerican pyramids are adorned with stories about the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl or Mesoamerican creation myths, written in the form of hieroglyphs on the rises of the steps of the pyramids, on the walls, and on the sculptures contained within. [14] Notable example include Aztec Acatitlan and Mayan Chichen Itza, Uxmal and Tikal.

Jewish synagogues and temples

A model of Herod's Temple adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Jerus-n4i.jpg
A model of Herod's Temple adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
The Kenesa in Vilnius, Lithuania. Kenessa Vilnius (5970197134).jpg
The Kenesa in Vilnius, Lithuania.

In Judaism, the ancient Hebrew texts refer not to temples, the word having not existed yet, but to a "sanctuary", "palace" or "hall". Each of the two ancient temples in Jerusalem was called in the Tanakh Beit YHWH, which translates literally as "YHWH's House."

The Temple Mount in Jerusalem is the site where the First Temple of Solomon and the Second Temple were built. At the center of the structure was the Holy of Holies where only the High Priest could enter. The Temple Mount is now the site of the Islamic edifice, the Dome of the Rock (c. 690).

The Greek word synagogue came into use to describe Jewish (and Samaritan) places of worship during Hellenistic times and it, along with the Yiddish term shul , and the original Hebrew term Beit Knesset ("House of meeting") are the terms in most universal usage.

Since the 18th Century, Jews in Western and Central Europe began to apply the name "temple", borrowed from the French where it was used to denote all non-Catholic prayer houses, to synagogues. The term became strongly associated with Reform institutions, in some of which both congregants and outsiders associated it with the elimination of the prayers for the restoration of the Jerusalem Temple, though this was not the original meaning—traditional synagogues named themselves "temple" over a century before the advent of Reform, and many continued to do so after. [15] In American parlance, "temple" is often synonymous with "synagogue", but especially non-Orthodox ones.

The term kenesa , from the Aramaic for "assembly", is used to describe the places of worship of Karaite Jews.

Example of such temple is the Sofia Synagogue, Bulgaria the largest synagogue in Southeastern Europe and third-largest in Europe. [16]

Christian temples

Orthodox Christianity

Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, Russia. Russia-Moscow-Cathedral of Christ the Saviour-8.jpg
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, Russia.

The word temple is used frequently in the tradition of Eastern Christianity; particularly the Eastern Orthodox Church, where the principal words used for houses of worship are temple and church. The use of the word temple comes from the need to distinguish a building of the church vs. the church seen as the Body of Christ. In the Russian language (similar to other Slavic languages), while the general-purpose word for "church" is tserkov , the term khram (Храм), "temple", is used to refer to the church building as a temple of God (Khram Bozhy). The words "church" and "temple", in this case are interchangeable; however, the term "church" (Ancient Greek : ἐκκλησία) is far more common. The term temple (Ancient Greek : ναός) is also commonly applied to larger churches. Some famous churches which are referred to as temples include the Hagia Sophia, Saint Basil's Cathedral, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour and the Temple of Saint Sava in Belgrade, Serbia.

Catholicism

Basilique du Sacre-Coeur in Paris Basilique du Sacre-Coeur IMG 1271.jpg
Basilique du Sacré-Coeur in Paris

The word temple has traditionally been rarely used in the English-speaking Western Christian tradition. In Irish, some pre-schism churches use the word teampall . The usual word for church in the Hungarian language is templom , also deriving from the same Latin root. Spanish distinguishes between the temple being the physical building for religious activity, and the church being both the physical building for religious activity and also the congregation of religious followers. [17]

The principal words typically used to distinguish houses of worship in Western Christian architecture are abbey , basilica , cathedral , chapel and church . The Catholic Church has used the word temple in reference of a place of worship on rare occasions. An example is the Roman Catholic Sagrada Familia Temple in Barcelona, Spain and the Roman Catholic Basilique du Sacré-Cœur Temple in Paris, France. Another example is the Temple or Our Lady of the pillar, a church in Guadalajara, Mexico.

Protestantism

Also, some Protestant churches use this term; above main entrance of the Lutheran Gustav Vasa church in Stockholm, Sweden is a cartouche in Latin which reads "this temple (...) was constructed by king Oscar II."

Beginning in the late eighteenth century, following the Enlightenment, some Protestant denominations in France and elsewhere began to use the word temple to distinguish these spaces from Catholic churches. Evangelical and other Protestant churches make use of a wide variety of terms to designate their worship spaces, such as church, tabernacle or temple. Additionally some Breakaway Catholic Churches such as the Mariavite Church in Poland have chosen to also designate their central church building as a temple, as in the case of the Temple of Mercy and Charity in Płock.

Latter Day Saint movement

Kirtland Temple in Kirtland, Ohio KirtlandTemple Ohio USA.jpg
Kirtland Temple in Kirtland, Ohio

According to Latter Day Saints, in 1832, Joseph Smith received a revelation to restore the practice of temple worship, in a "house of the Lord". The Kirtland Temple was the first temple of the Latter-day Saint movement and the only one completed in Smith's lifetime, although the Nauvoo Temple was partially complete at the time of his death. The schisms stemming from a succession crisis have led to differing views about the role and use of temples between various groups with competing succession claims.

The Book of Mormon, which Latter Day Saints believe is a companion book of scripture with the Bible, refers to temple building in the ancient Americas by a group of people called the Nephites. Though Book of Mormon authors are not explicit about the practices in these Nephite temples, they were patterned "after the manner of the temple of Solomon" ( [18] ) and served as gathering places for significant religious and political events (e.g. Mosiah 1–6; 3rd Nephi 11–26). [19]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

LDS temple in Salt Lake City, Utah Salt Lake Temple, Utah - Sept 2004-2.jpg
LDS temple in Salt Lake City, Utah

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a prolific builder of temples. There are 173 dedicated temples (166 currently operating; and 7 previously dedicated, but closed for renovation), 51 under construction, and 58 announced (not yet under construction), for a total of 282. [20] Latter-day Saint temples are reserved for performing and undertaking only the most holy and sacred of covenants and special of ordinances. They are distinct from meeting houses and chapels where weekly worship services are held. The temples are built and kept under strict sacredness and are not to be defiled. Thus, strict rules apply for entrance, including church membership and regular attendance. During the open-house period after its construction and before its dedication, the temple is open to the public for tours. [21]

Other Latter Day Saint denominations

Various sects in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith have temples. [22]

Esoteric Christianity

Mount Ecclesia's Temple Temple99.JPG
Mount Ecclesia's Temple

Masonic temples

A Typical Masonic Lodge Kimbolton Lodge 123.JPG
A Typical Masonic Lodge

Freemasonry is a fraternal organization with its origins in the eighteenth century whose membership is held together by a shared set of moral and metaphysical ideals based on short role play narratives concerning the construction of King Solomon's Temple. Freemasons meet as a Lodge. Lodges meet in a Masonic Temple (in reference to King Solomon's Temple), Masonic Center or a Masonic Hall, such as Freemasons' Hall, London. Some confusion exists as Masons usually refer to a Lodge meeting as being in Lodge.

Others

The Temple of Neptune at the Monrepos Park in Vyborg, Russia Temple of Neptune in Monrepos 1.jpg
The Temple of Neptune at the Monrepos Park in Vyborg, Russia

Convention sometimes allows the use of temple in some of the following cases:

See also

Related Research Articles

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Priest Person authorized to lead the sacred rituals of a religion

A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively. A priest may have the duty to hear confessions periodically, give marriage counseling, provide prenuptial counseling, give spiritual direction, teach catechism, or visit those confined indoors, such as the sick in hospitals and nursing homes.

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Idolatry Worship of an idol as though it were a god

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Sacred language Language that is cultivated for religious reasons

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Place of worship Specially designed structure for use in worshipping

A place of worship is a specially designed structure or space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation come to perform acts of devotion, veneration, or religious study. A building constructed or used for this purpose is sometimes called a house of worship. Temples, churches, mosques, and synagogues are examples of structures created for worship. A monastery may serve both to house those belonging to religious orders and as a place of worship for visitors. Natural or topographical features may also serve as places of worship, and are considered holy or sacrosanct in some religions; the rituals associated with the Ganges river are an example in Hinduism.

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Hindu temple Place of worship in Hinduism

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Cult image Human-made object that is venerated for the deity, person, spirit or daemon that it represents

In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents. In several traditions, including the ancient religions of Egypt, Greece and Rome, and modern Hinduism, cult images in a temple may undergo a daily routine of being washed, dressed, and having food left for them. Processions outside the temple on special feast days are often a feature. Religious images cover a wider range of all types of images made with a religious purpose, subject, or connection. In many contexts "cult image" specifically means the most important image in a temple, kept in an inner space, as opposed to what may be many other images decorating the temple.

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Wat Type of Buddhist and Hindu temple

A wat is a type of Buddhist temple and Brahminical temple in Cambodia, Laos, East Shan State, Yunnan and Thailand. The word wat is a Thai word that was borrowed from Sanskrit vāṭa, meaning 'enclosure'. The term has varying meanings in each region, sometimes referring to a specific type of government-recognised or large temple, other times referring to any Buddhist or Brahminical temple.

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Further reading