|Ethnic groups||see Ethnic groups in China|
|9,596,960 km2 (3,705,410 sq mi)|
• 2019 census
|147/km2 (380.7/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN|
|Literal meaning||Continental China|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Simplified Chinese||中国 内 地|
|Traditional Chinese||中國 內 地|
|Literal meaning||Inland China|
|Mainland Area of the Republic of China|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of China
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the People's Republic of China
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland,China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since October 1, 1949. It includes Hainan, which is an island province in the South China Sea, but it excludes the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are mostly on the geographic continental landmass (the "mainland").
The Exit and Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China (Chinese :中华人民共和国出境入境管理法) defines two terms in Chinese that are translated to "mainland":
In the People's Republic of China, the usage of the two terms is strictly speaking not interchangeable. To emphasize the One-China policy and not give the Republic of China (ROC) "equal footing" in Cross-Strait relations, the term must be used in PRC's official contexts with reference to Taiwan (with the PRC referring to itself as the "mainland side" dealing with the "Taiwan side"). But in PRC's relations with Hong Kong and Macau, the PRC government refers to itself as "the Central People's Government".
The term "mainland area" is the complementary term to "free area of the Republic of China" used in the ROC Constitution by the Government of the Republic of China.
In the 1930s, the region faced Japanese invasion.By 1949, the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) People's Liberation Army had largely defeated the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War on the mainland. This forced the Kuomintang to relocate the Government and institutions of the Republic of China to the relative safety of Taiwan, an island which was placed under the control of the Republic of China after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, the CPC-controlled government saw itself as the sole legitimate government of China, competing with the claims of the Republic of China, whose authority is now limited to Taiwan and other islands. This resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments compete for international legitimacy and recognition as the "government of China".
The phrase "mainland China" emerged as a politically neutral term to refer to the area under control of the Communist Party of China, and later to the administration of the PRC itself. Until the late 1970s, both the PRC and ROC envisioned a military takeover of the other. During this time the ROC referred to the PRC government as "Communist Bandits" (共匪) while the PRC referred to the ROC as "Chiang Bandits" (蒋匪; 蔣匪). Later, as a military solution became less feasible, the ROC referred to the PRC as "Communist China"" (中共). With the democratization of Taiwan in the 1990s, the phrase "mainland China" soon grew to mean not only the area under the control of the Communist Party of China, but also a more neutral means to refer to the People's Republic of China government; this usage remains prevalent by the KMT today.
Due to their status as colonies of foreign states during the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the phrase "mainland China" excludes Hong Kong and Macau.Since the return of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999, respectively, the two territories have retained their legal, political, and economic systems. The territories also have their distinct identities. Therefore, "mainland China" generally continues to exclude these territories, because of the "One country, two systems" policy adopted by the PRC central government towards the regions. The term is also used in economic indicators, such as the IMD Competitiveness Report. International news media often use "China" to refer only to mainland China or the People's Republic of China.
In the People's Republic of China, the term 内地 ('inland') is often contrasted with the term 境外 ('outside the border') for things outside the mainland region. Examples include "Administration of Foreign-funded Banks" (中华人民共和国外资银行管理条例; 中華人民共和國外資銀行管理條例) or the "Measures on Administration of Representative Offices of Foreign Insurance Institutions" (外国保险机构驻华代表机构管理办法; 外國保險機構駐華代表機構管理辦法).
Hainan is an offshore island, therefore geographically not part of the continental mainland, and was in fact controlled by ROC forces for almost a full year after the founding of the PRC until the 1950 Battle of Hainan Island.[ original research? ][ improper synthesis? ] Nevertheless, politically it is common practice to consider it part of the mainland because its government, legal and political systems do not differ from the rest of the People's Republic within the geographical mainland. Nonetheless, Hainanese people still refer to the geographic mainland as "the mainland" and call its residents "mainlanders". [ better source needed ] In some coastal provinces such as Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangsu, people often call the area of non-coastal provinces of mainland China as "Inland" (内地).
Hong Kong and Macau are both sovereign territories of the People's Republic of China. However, due to the One Country Two Systems policy, the two regions maintain a high degree of autonomy, hence they are considered not to be part of mainland China.
Geologically speaking, Hong Kong and Macau are both connected to mainland China in certain areas (e.g. the north of the New Territories). Additionally, the islands contained within Hong Kong (e.g. Hong Kong Island) and Macau are much closer to mainland China than Taiwan and Hainan, and are much smaller.
In Hong Kong and Macau, the terms "mainland China" and "mainlander" are frequently used for people from PRC-governed areas (i.e. not Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau). The Chinese term Neidi (內地), meaning the inland but still translated mainland in English, is commonly applied by SAR governments to represent non-SAR areas of PRC, including Hainan province and coastal regions of mainland China, such as "Constitutional and Mainland Affairs" (政制及內地事務局) and Immigration Departments. In the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (as well as the Mainland and Macau Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement) the CPG also uses the Chinese characters 内地 "inner land", with the note that they refer to the "customs territory of China".
In the Republic of China, there are differing opinions as to the neutrality of the term "mainland China". However, the term is considered somewhat more neutral than historical terms used to describe the territories under the control of the People's Republic of China (PRC) (which is in turn led by the Communist Party of China (CPC)).
Since 1949, the Republic of China on Taiwan (led by the Kuomintang/Nationalists (KMT/GMD)) has referred to the territories under the control of the Chinese Communist Party with several different names, e.g. "(territory controlled by the) Communist bandits", "occupied/unfree area (of China)" (as opposed to the "free area of the Republic of China"), "Communist China" (as opposed to either "Nationalist China" or "Democratic China"), "Red China" (as opposed to "Blue China"), and "mainland China (area)". In modern times, the term "Communist bandits" is generally considered both inflammatory and offensive by supporters of the Kuomintang and other Pan-Blue political parties [the KMT and other aligned parties believe that "China" encompasses both sides of the Taiwan Strait], so it is no longer used by them. Similarly, terms implying illegal occupation (of the mainland) or an intent to reclaim the mainland tend not to be used by both Pan-Blue and Pan-Green individuals. Therefore, only the terms "Communist China" or "mainland China" are still commonly used by Taiwanese (Chinese) people aligned with Pan-Blue ideologies. Somewhat synonymous to the term "Communist China" is the term "People's Republic of China (PRC)" (which is either considered to encompass Hong Kong and Macau or isn't, due to the confusion and ambiguity of One Country Two Systems). Meanwhile, the term "mainland China" is often simply abbreviated to "the mainland" among speakers of Chinese in Taiwan or from Taiwan.
However, the Pan-Green Coalition in Taiwan, led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) [the DPP and other aligned parties usually support Taiwanese independence to a certain degree], tend to be opposed to suggestions that Taiwan is part of China,regardless of the subtlety of said suggestions. Referring to the territories under the control of the Chinese Communist Party as "mainland China" suggests that Taiwan is part of China. That is, the term "mainland China" suggests that Taiwan is a "satellite island" of China, and that Taiwan is tethered to China (much in the same way that one might say that "Kinmen is tethered to Taiwan"). Therefore, Pan-Green individuals tend to prefer the term "China", rather than "mainland China", since the term "China" suggests that Taiwan and China are two separate countries. Pan-Green Taiwanese might also prefer to refer to China as "Communist China" or "the People's Republic of China (PRC)" or "Red China". However, these terms suggest that there exist "two Chinas". Certain Pan-Green Taiwanese believe that there exist "two Chinas" and that the Republic of China (ROC) and Taiwan are one and the same, so they would be more inclined to use these terms (compared to those who believe that the ROC is illegally occupying Taiwan). Individuals in Taiwan who are aligned with Pan-Green ideologies might be more inclined to refer to the People's Republic of China as "the Communist bandits" or "occupied/unfree area" (compared to those aligned with Pan-Blue ideologies), due to their negative (or indifferent) views towards mainland China and the Chinese Communist Party, though they generally don't have any intention of "reclaiming the mainland".
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Other use of geography-related terms are also often used where neutrality is required.
|海峡两岸||海峽兩岸||Hǎixiá liǎng'àn||Hoi2 haap6 loeng5 ngon6||Hái-kiap lióng-gān||The physical shores on both sides of the straits, may be translated as "two shores".|
|两岸关系||兩岸關係||liǎng'àn guānxì||loeng5 ngon6 gwaan1 hai6||lióng-gān koan-hē||Reference to the Taiwan Strait (cross-Strait relations, literally "relations between the two sides/shores [of the Strait of Taiwan]").|
|两岸三地||兩岸三地||liǎng'àn sāndì||loeng5 ngon6 saam1 dei6||lióng-gān sam-tè||An extension of this is the phrase "two shores, three places", with "three places" meaning mainland China, Taiwan, and either Hong Kong or Macau.|
|两岸四地||兩岸四地||liǎng'àn sìdì||loeng5 ngon6 sei3 dei6||lióng-gān sù-tè||When referring to either Hong Kong or Macau, or "two shores, four places" when referring to both Hong Kong and Macau.|
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China directly under Central People's Government. As a region, they possess the highest degree of autonomy in China. Despite the relative autonomy that the Central People's Government affords special administrative regions, the National People's Congress is still able to unilaterally write laws in secret for special administrative regions that are not read publicly until they are passed.
Chinese unification, also known as the Cross-Strait unification or Chinese reunification, is the potential unification of territory currently controlled by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China under one political entity, possibly the formation of a political union between the two republics. Together with full Taiwanese independence, unification is one of the main proposals to address questions on the political status of Taiwan, which is a central focus of Cross-Strait relations.
The Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China (MOFCOM), is a Cabinet-level executive agency of the State Council of China. It is responsible for formulating policy on foreign trade, export and import regulations, foreign direct investments, consumer protection, market competition and negotiating bilateral and multilateral trade agreements of the Mainland China. It is in charge of the administration of Mainland China's foreign trade pursuant to the Foreign Trade Law. The current Commerce minister is Wang Wentao.
The 1992 Consensus is a political term referring to the outcome of a meeting in 1992 between the semiofficial representatives of the People's Republic of China (PRC) of mainland China and the Republic of China (ROC) of Taiwan. They are often credited as creating a diplomatic basis for semi-official cross-strait exchanges which began in the early 1990s and is a precondition set by the PRC for engaging in cross-strait dialogue.
The free area of the Republic of China also known as Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Tai-Min Area " or simply the "Taiwan Area" is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control. The area under the definition consists of the island groups of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and some minor islands. This term is used in the "Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China". The term "Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma" is also essentially equivalent except that it only refers to the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu Area, to the exclusion of the South China Sea possessions－Pratas Island (Tungsha/Dongsha) and Taiping Island.
The Republic of China passport is the passport issued to nationals of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. The ROC passport is also generally referred to as a Taiwan passport.
Chinese nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds People's Republic of China (PRC) nationality. Foreign nationals may naturalize if they are immediate family members of Chinese citizens or permanently resident in any part of China. Residents of Taiwan are also considered Chinese citizens, due to the PRC's continuing claims over areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC).
Taiwan Province is a province claimed by the People's Republic of China (PRC). The PRC claims the island of Taiwan to be part of its territory under its Constitution. In combination with the Republic of China-controlled Fujian islands, it is usually referred to by mainland media as the Taiwan Region or Taiwan Area.
The Exit & Entry Permit for Taiwan, Republic of China is the document for the bearer to enter and/or depart Taiwan. Currently, there are several types of Exit & Entry Permit that reflect the bearer's residency status. The permit is issued by the National Immigration Agency of Taiwan. For different purposes, the permit is also known as
The People's Republic of China passport, commonly referred to as the Chinese passport, is a passport issued to nationals of the People's Republic of China (PRC) who have registered as a resident of Mainland China and hence hold a hukou, for the purpose of international travel, and entitles the bearer to the protection of China's consular officials overseas.
The term Two Chinas refers to the current geopolitical situation of two political entities each calling itself "China" :
Taiwanese nationality law details the conditions in which a person is a national of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. Civil and political rights usually associated with citizenship are tied to an ROC national's domicile, determined by whether they have household registration in Taiwan.
Visitors to the Republic of China (Taiwan) must obtain a visa or authorization in advance, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries whose nationals are eligible for visa on arrival. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months.
Visitors to the mainland of the People's Republic of China must obtain a visa from one of the Chinese diplomatic missions, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. The two Special Administrative Regions – Hong Kong and Macau – maintain their own independent border control policies and thus have their own separate visa requirements.
The Exit-Entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong and Macau, colloquially known as a Two-way Permit or EEP is issued to Chinese nationals with residency in Mainland China as a travel document for the sole purpose to travel the Chinese Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau. The Bureau of Exit and Entry Administration of the Chinese Ministry of Public Security is responsible for the issuing of Two-way Permits and exit endorsements.
Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders often refers to Chinese people who live in mainland China, where the term "mainland China" refers to regions directly administered by the People's Republic of China, as opposed to special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, the island of Taiwan and other ethnic Chinese-majority areas of the Chinese diaspora. However, it can also refer to specific groups of people who migrated from mainland China, depending on the context and the specific translation; some of these contexts are listed below.
The Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area is the law of the Republic of China (Taiwan) governing cross-Strait relations. The act defines its de facto controlled territory as the Taiwan area. It also provides a legal framework on the relations between Taiwan and mainland China without recognising the People's Republic of China and its governmental organisations. It is enacted in accordance with Article 10 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China promulgated on 1 May 1991.
Hong Kong–mainland China relations refer to the relationship between Mainland China and Hong Kong. According to the 1997 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the United Kingdom handed control of Hong Kong over to the People's Republic of China, making it a special administrative region. In principle, Hong Kong became an autonomous administrative division based on the Hong Kong Basic Law.
National Immigration Administration, also known as the Exit and Entry Administration of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国出入境管理局), is a sub-ministry level executive agency administrated under the Ministry of Public Security. The administration is responsible for coordinating and formulating immigration policies and their implementation, border control, administering foreigners’ stay, management on refugees and nationality, taking lead in coordinating the administering of foreigners who illegally enter, stay or are employed in China, and the repatriation of illegal immigrants.
Hong Kong protest: What is mainland China hearing?[...] But on the Chinese mainland, it took a while for the story to be picked up