|Official language||Standard Chinese|
|Ethnic groups||see Ethnic groups in China|
|9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)|
• 2019 census
|147/km2 (380.7/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN|
|Today part of||People's Republic of China|
|Literal meaning||Continental China|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Simplified Chinese||中国 内 地|
|Traditional Chinese||中國 內 地|
|Literal meaning||Inland China|
|Mainland Area of the Republic of China|
The term "Mainland China" is a geopolitical term defined as the territory governed by the People's Republic of China (including islands like Hainan or Chongming),excluding dependent territories of the PRC and other territories within Greater China. By convention,the territories that fall outside of the Chinese mainland include:
Overseas Chinese,especially Malaysian Chinese and Chinese Singaporean,use this term to describe people from the "ancestral land".
In the year 1949,the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) and the People's Liberation Army had largely defeated the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War. This forced the Kuomintang to relocate the Government and institutions of the Republic of China to the relative safety of Taiwan,an island which was placed under its control after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1,1949,the CCP-controlled government saw itself as the sole legitimate government of China,competing with the claims of the Republic of China,whose authority is now limited to Taiwan and other islands. This resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments competed for international legitimacy and recognition as the "government of China". With the democratisation of Taiwan in the 1990s and the rise of the Taiwanese independence movement,some people began simply using the term "China" instead.
Due to their status as colonies of foreign states during the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949,the phrase "mainland China" excludes Hong Kong and Macau.Since the return of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999,respectively,the two territories have retained their legal,political,and economic systems. The territories also have their distinct identities. Therefore,"mainland China" generally continues to exclude these territories,because of the "One country,two systems" policy adopted by the PRC central government towards the regions. The term is also used in economic indicators,such as the IMD Competitiveness Report. International news media often use "China" to refer only to mainland China or the People's Republic of China.
The Exit and Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China (Chinese :中华人民共和国出境入境管理法) defines two terms in Chinese that are translated to "mainland":
In the People's Republic of China,the usage of the two terms is strictly speaking not interchangeable. To emphasise the One-China principle and not give the Republic of China (ROC) "equal footing" in Cross-Strait relations,the term must be used in PRC's official contexts with reference to Taiwan (with the PRC referring to itself as the "mainland side" dealing with the "Taiwan side").[ citation needed ] But in terms of Hong Kong and Macau,the PRC government refers to itself as "the Central People's Government".[ citation needed ]
In the People's Republic of China,the term 内地 ('inland') is often contrasted with the term 境外 ('outside the border') for things outside the mainland region.[ citation needed ] Examples include "Administration of Foreign-funded Banks" (中华人民共和国外资银行管理条例;中華人民共和國外資銀行管理條例) or the "Measures on Administration of Representative Offices of Foreign Insurance Institutions" (外国保险机构驻华代表机构管理办法;外國保險機構駐華代表機構管理辦法).
Hainan is an offshore island,therefore geographically not part of the continental mainland. Nevertheless,politically it is common practice to consider it part of the mainland because its government,legal and political systems do not differ from the rest of the People's Republic within the geographical mainland. Nonetheless,Hainanese people still refer to the geographic mainland as "the mainland" and call its residents "mainlanders". [ better source needed ]
Before 1949,Fujian Province (ROC),consisting of the islands of Kinmen and Matsu,was jointly governed alongside Fujian Province (PRC) as a unified Fujian Province under successive Chinese governments. The two territories are generally considered to belong to the same historical region,Fujian Province,which has been divided since 1949 as a result of the Chinese Civil War. However,because they are not controlled by the PRC,they are not included as part of "mainland China."
Hong Kong and Macau are both sovereign territories of the People's Republic of China. However,due to the One Country,Two Systems policy,the two regions maintain a high degree of autonomy,hence they are considered not to be part of mainland China.
Geologically speaking,Hong Kong and Macau are both connected to mainland China in certain areas (e.g. the north of the New Territories). Additionally,the islands contained within Hong Kong (e.g. Hong Kong Island) and Macau are much closer to mainland China than Taiwan and Hainan,and are much smaller.
In Hong Kong and Macau,the terms "mainland China" and "mainlander" are frequently used for people from PRC-governed areas (i.e. not Taiwan,Hong Kong,and Macau). The Chinese term Neidi (內地),meaning the inland but still translated mainland in English,is commonly applied by SAR governments to represent non-SAR areas of PRC,including Hainan province and coastal regions of mainland China,such as "Constitutional and Mainland Affairs" (政制及內地事務局) and Immigration Departments. In the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (as well as the Mainland and Macau Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement) the CPG also uses the Chinese characters 内地 "inner land",with the note that they refer to the "customs territory of China".
In Taiwan (the Republic of China),"mainland area" is a legal term used in the 1991 Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China,though the constitution does not define the geographical boundaries of the mainland area. In the corresponding Cross-Strait Act,the "people of the mainland area" are defined to be those under the jurisdiction of the PRC,excluding Hong Kong and Macau. By contrast,Taiwan and its offshore islands are defined as part of the "free area of the Republic of China".
Views of the term "mainland China" (中國大陸) vary on Taiwan. The KMT had previously referred to the territories under the control of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) by several different names,e.g. "(territory controlled by the) Communist bandits","occupied/unfree area (of China)","Communist China" (as opposed to either "Nationalist China" or "Democratic China"),"Red China" (as opposed to "Blue China"),and "mainland China (area)".[ citation needed ] In modern times,many of these terms have fallen out of use. The terms "mainland China" (中國大陸) or "the mainland" (大陸) still remain in popular use,but some also simply use the term "China" (中國). The former term is generally preferred by the Pan-Blue Coalition led by the KMT,while the latter term is preferred by the Pan-Green Coalition led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP),which opposes the term "mainland" and its suggestion that Taiwan is part of China.
Other geography-related terms which are used to avoid mentioning the political status of the PRC and ROC.
|海峡两岸||海峽兩岸||Hǎixiáliǎng'àn||Hoi2 haap6 loeng5 ngon6||Hái-kiap lióng-gān||The physical shores on both sides of the straits,may be translated as "two shores".|
|两岸关系||兩岸關係||liǎng'àn guānxì||loeng5 ngon6 gwaan1 hai6||lióng-gān koan-hē||Reference to the Taiwan Strait (cross-Strait relations,literally "relations between the two sides/shores [of the Strait of Taiwan]").|
|两岸三地||兩岸三地||liǎng'àn sāndì||loeng5 ngon6 saam1 dei6||lióng-gān sam-tè||An extension of this is the phrase "two shores,three places",with "three places" meaning mainland China,Taiwan,and either Hong Kong or Macau.|
|两岸四地||兩岸四地||liǎng'àn sìdì||loeng5 ngon6 sei3 dei6||lióng-gān sù-tè||When referring to either Hong Kong or Macau,or "two shores,four places" when referring to both Hong Kong and Macau.|
The Chinese people or simply Chinese, are people or ethnic groups identified with China, usually through ethnicity, nationality, citizenship, or other affiliation.
The Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents, also colloquially referred to as a Home Return Permit or Home Visit Permit, is issued to Chinese nationals who are permanent residents of or settled in Hong Kong and Macau as the travel document to Mainland China. The permit is issued by the Exit and Entry Administration of the People's Republic of China through China Travel Service sub-branches in Hong Kong and Macau and allows holders to travel freely to Mainland China.
Cimei Township is a rural township in Penghu County, Taiwan. The island is the fifth largest in the Pescadores (Penghu) and the southernmost island in the group. It is the smallest township in Penghu County.
Chinese nationality law details the conditions by which a person holds nationality of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The primary law governing these requirements is the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, which came into force on September 10, 1980.
The Exit & Entry Permit for Taiwan, Republic of China is the document for the bearer to enter and/or depart Taiwan. Currently, there are several types of Exit & Entry Permit that reflect the bearer's residency status. The permit is issued by the National Immigration Agency of the Republic of China (Taiwan). For different purposes, the permit is also known as:
The People's Republic of China Passport, commonly referred to as the Chinese passport, is a passport issued to citizens of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the purpose of international travel, and entitles its bearer to the protection of China's consular officials overseas.
Taiwanese nationality law details the conditions in which a person is a national of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. Foreign nationals may naturalize if they are permanent residents in any part of the ROC or they have immediate family members who are ROC citizens. Residents of the Mainland Area and historically, Outer Mongolia are also considered citizens of the Republic, due to the ROC's extant claim over areas controlled by the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Mongolia.
Visitors to the Republic of China (Taiwan) must obtain a visa or authorization in advance, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries whose nationals are eligible for visa on arrival. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months.
Visitors to the mainland of the People's Republic of China must obtain a visa from one of the Chinese diplomatic missions, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. The two Special Administrative Regions – Hong Kong and Macau – maintain their own independent border control policies and thus have their own separate visa requirements.
Xiuyu District is a district of the city of Putian, Fujian, People's Republic of China. The district executive, legislature and judiciary are in Hushi Town (笏石镇), together with the CPC and PSB branches.
Xiyu Township is a rural township encompassing Xiyu/Si Island/Hsi Island, also known as Fisher Island, Yuweng or Pescadores Island, which is among the three major islands of the Penghu County, Taiwan. It has a population of 8,438 and an area of 18.7148 square kilometres.
The Exit-Entry Permit for Travelling to and from Hong Kong and Macau, colloquially known as a Two-way Permit or EEP is issued to Chinese nationals with residency in Mainland China as a travel document for the sole purpose to travel the Chinese Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau. The Bureau of Exit and Entry Administration of the Chinese Ministry of Public Security is responsible for the issuing of Two-way Permits and exit endorsements.
Wuqiu is a group of islands comprising two major islands, namely Greater Qiu Islet and Smaller Qiu Islet, in the Taiwan Strait. Administratively, Wuqiu Township is a rural township which is part of Kinmen County (Quemoy) of the Republic of China (Taiwan). It is the smallest township in Kinmen County and is located 72 nmi (133 km) northeast of the rest of the county. The township is 73 nmi (135 km) from the Port of Taichung on Taiwan. The closest territory under PRC control is the neighboring Luci Island, Xiuyu District, Putian, Fujian, which is 9 nmi (17 km) to the north-northwest. Greater Qiu Island is the site of the Wuqiu Lighthouse.
Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders are Chinese people who live in or have recently emigrated from mainland China, defined as the territory governed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) except for Hong Kong, Macau, and the partly-PRC-controlled South China Sea Islands, and also excluding certain territories that are claimed by the PRC but not controlled, namely Taiwan aka the "Republic of China" (ROC), which is a state with limited recognition, and other associated territories that are ruled by Taiwan. The term also refers to historical groups of people of Chinese origin who immigrated to Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan during the 20th century, especially in the context of specific historical events.
The Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area, also called Cross-Strait Act, is the law of the Republic of China governing cross-Strait relations.
Hong Kong–mainland China relations refer to the relationship between Mainland China and Hong Kong. According to the 1997 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the United Kingdom handed control of Hong Kong over to the People's Republic of China, making it a special administrative region. In principle, Hong Kong became an autonomous administrative division based on the Hong Kong Basic Law.
Gaodeng Island is an island in the East China Sea, part of Beigan Township, Lienchiang County, Fujian Province, Republic of China (Taiwan). The island is closed to the public. Gaodeng is located 9.25 kilometres (5.75 mi) away from the Beijiao Peninsula in Lianjiang County, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (PRC). The island can be seen from the nearby Beigan Island and Daqiu Island.
Macau independence is the political movement that advocates for the independence of Macau from China. Despite receiving little attention within Macau, the issue was raised in the Legislative Assembly of Macau following the Hong Kong Legislative Council oath-taking controversy. In 2017, several Chinese media outlets warned against discussion of Macau independence, fearing that speculation would lead to further action.
The COVID-19 pandemic in Macau is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first known case of the disease in the special administrative region of China was confirmed on 22 January 2020. The city saw nine more cases by 4 February, but no more cases until 15 March, when imported cases began to appear. Stringent government measures have included the 15-day closure of all 81 casinos in the territory in February 2020; in addition, effective 25 March, the territory disallowed connecting flights at its airport as well as entry by all non-residents, and from 6 April, the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge was closed to public transport and most other traffic.
In a post on Chinese social media dated August 26, 2020, the China Coast Guard claimed that Guangdong authorities had intercepted a speedboat on August 23 under the suspicion of illegal border crossing, and that more than ten people had been detained. The released coordinates put the incident in the South China Sea, approximately 78 kilometres (48 mi) from Hong Kong Island. On August 27, The Guardian cited two Hong Kong news outlets which reported, based on unnamed sources, that in the incident, a total of 12 people had been detained en route to Taiwan, of whom at least ten were Hong Kong residents. Referring to the same sources, the passengers had included activist Andy Li, who had been arrested on August 10 under charges related to the national security law and released on bail. Hong Kong police chief Chris Tang told media on August 27 that he had heard the reports on the detention, and that the force was actively seeking information from the mainland authorities.
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