Tianjin

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Tianjin

天津市

Tientsin, T'ien-chin
Tianjin montage.jpg
Clockwise from top: Tianjin Financial Center and Hai River, St Joseph Cathedral (Xikai Church), Panorama of downtown Tianjin, Tianjin Railroad Station, Tianjin Eye
Tianjin in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Coordinates: 39°08′N117°11′E / 39.133°N 117.183°E / 39.133; 117.183 Coordinates: 39°08′N117°11′E / 39.133°N 117.183°E / 39.133; 117.183
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Settledca. 340 BC
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-
level

16 districts
240 towns and townships
Government
  Type Municipality
   CPC Secretary Li Hongzhong
  Mayor Zhang Guoqing
  Congress Chairman Xiao Huaiyuan
  Conference Chairman Zang Xianpu
Area
  Municipality11,946 km2 (4,612 sq mi)
  Land11,609.91 km2 (4,482.61 sq mi)
  Water186 km2 (72 sq mi)
  Urban
11,609.91 km2 (4,482.61 sq mi)
  Metro
5,609.9 km2 (2,166.0 sq mi)
Population
 (2016 estimation)
  Municipality15,621,200
  Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2018) [1]
15,621,200
   Metro
[2]
12,491,300
Demonym(s) Tianjinese
Tianjiner
Time zone UTC+8 (CST)
Postal code
300000 – 301900
Area code(s) 22
ISO 3166 code CN-TJ
GDP2017 [3]
 - TotalCNY1.86 trillion
USD275.41 billion (19th)
 - Per capitaCNY119,441
USD18,660 (3rd)
HDI (2017)0.845 [4] (5th) – very high
Licence plate prefixes津A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M
津E (taxis)
AbbreviationTJ / ; jīn
City flower Chinese rose
Website www.tj.gov.cn
Tianjin
Tianjin (Chinese characters).svg
"Tiānjīn" in Chinese characters
Chinese 天津
Hanyu Pinyin Loudspeaker.svg Tiānjīn
Postal Tientsin
Literal meaning"The Emperor's Ford" [lower-alpha 1]

Tianjin ( [tʰjɛ́n.tɕín] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )),alternatively romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of Bohai Sea, it is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. [5] Its built-up (or metro) area, made up of 12 central districts (all but Baodi, Jizhou, Jinghai and Ninghe), was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration (between Chengdu and Rio de Janeiro) and 11th-most populous city proper. [6]

Direct-administered municipalities of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

A municipality, formally as municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.

Metropolis very large and significant city or urban area usually with millions of inhabitants

A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Ancient Greek (μητρόπολις) and means the "mother city" of a colony, that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation.

North China Place

North China is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. It lies north of the Qinling Huaihe Line, with its heartland in the North China Plain.

Contents

It is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.

Yellow Sea Sea in Northeast Asia between China and Korea

The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea. The name is given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden yellow.

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim is the economic region surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of Northern China, rivalling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east.

In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China. [7] The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. [8] At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. [9] Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, a New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of the Bohai Gulf. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan . [10] [11]

Shanghai Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China. It is the most populous urban area in China, and the second most populous city proper in the world. Shanghai is a global financial, innovation and technology, and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the Eastern China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the south, east and west, and is bound to the east by the East China Sea.

Beijing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.

Guangzhou Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Guangzhou, also known as Canton and formerly romanized as Kwangchow or Kwong Chow, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.

Name

Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津 , which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven".

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

The romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." The dominant international standard for Putonghua since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles (Mandarin) and Yale Romanization.

The origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn..." (朝发轫于天津兮, zhāo fārèn yú Tiānjīn xī). Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. The most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor.

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, analogical reformation, or etymological reinterpretation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements. Back-formation, creating a new word by removing or changing parts of an existing word, is often based on folk etymology.

Chinese poetry literary tradition of China

Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry.

Qu Yuan ancient Chinese poet

Qu Yuan was a Chinese poet and politician who lived during the Warring States period. He is known for his patriotism and contributions to classical poetry and verses, especially through the poems of the Chu Ci anthology : a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by his verse writing. Together with the Shi Jing, the Chu Ci is one of the two greatest collections of ancient Chinese verse. He is also remembered in connection to the supposed origin of the Dragon Boat Festival.

History

The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point. The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center.

Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration, or electromagnetism. In geology, sedimentation is often used as the opposite of erosion, i.e., the terminal end of sediment transport. In that sense, it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport. Settling is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid, whereas sedimentation is the termination of the settling process. In estuarine environments, settling can be influenced by the presence or absence of vegetation. Trees such as mangroves are crucial to the attenuation of waves or currents, promoting the settlement of suspended particles.

Yellow River second longest river in China

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi). Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province. The Yellow River basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers (290,560 sq mi).

Grand Canal (China) longest canal or artificial river in the world

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as the oldest canal or artificial river in the world. Starting at Beijing, it passes through Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the city of Hangzhou, linking the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC, but the various sections were first connected during the Sui dynasty. Dynasties in 1271–1633 significantly rebuilt the canal and altered its route to supply their capital Beijing.

Qing dynasty

During the Qing dynasty (16441911) Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou ( ) in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731. Later it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu ( ) before becoming a relay station ( ) under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.

1902 map of Tianjin Tianjin 20051107.jpg
1902 map of Tianjin

Opening up as a treaty port

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. [12] These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas.

Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tientsin Church Incident. Wang Hai Lou Jiao Tang .jpg
Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tientsin Church Incident.

The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Church Our Lady's Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy(天津武備學堂) for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms. [13] The move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. [13] :267 The academy was to serve Anhui Army and Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military, mathematic and science subjects were taught at the academy. The instructors were German officers. [13] :267 Another program was started at the academy for five years in 1887 to train teenagers as new army officers. [13] :268 Mathematics, practical and technical subjects, sciences, foreign languages, Chinese Classics and history were taught at the school. Exams were administered to students. The instruction for Tianjin Military Academy was copied at the Weihaiwei and Shanhaiguan military schools. [13] :268 The 'maritime defense fund' supplied the budget for the Tianjin Military Academy, which was shared with the Tianjin Naval Academy. [13] :268 The Tianjin Military Academy in 1886 adopted as part of its curriculum the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. [14] Among its alumni were Wang Yingkai and 段祺瑞 Duan Qirui. Among its staff was Yinchang.

Peiyang University, established 1895 Main Building of Peiyang University since 1903.jpg
Peiyang University, established 1895

In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks.

Tung Lai Bank building on Heping Road, built in 1930 Dong Lai Yin Xing Da Lou .jpg
Tung Lai Bank building on Heping Road, built in 1930

In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tianjin. This alliance soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.

Major crossing (Rue General Foch and Rue de Chaylard) of downtown Tientsin in French concession 1930Nian Dai Tian Jin Fa Zu Jie Du Zong Ling Shi Lu Yu Fu Xu Jiang Jun Lu Jiao Cha Lu Kou .jpg
Major crossing (Rue Général Foch and Rue de Chaylard) of downtown Tientsin in French concession

Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Beijing. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions in Tianjin, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained under strength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tianjin from the Philippines.

Because of the rapid development of industry, commerce and finance, Tientsin was established as a municipality of China in 1927. From 1930 to 1935, Tientsin was the provincial capital of Hopeh, after that re-established as a municipality.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps unit from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.

Asahi Street (now Heping Road) in 1939 Tianjin flood 1939Nian Tian Jin Shui Zai Shi De Xu Jie .jpg
Asahi Street (now Heping Road) in 1939 Tianjin flood

Second Sino-Japanese War

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.

On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. When Italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943, Japanese troops took the Italian concession following a battle with its garrison, and the Italian Social Republic formally ceded it to Wang Jingwei's Japan-controlled puppet state. Japanese occupation of the city lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.

Post World War II

P.R.China's 10th anniversary parade in Tianjin in 1959 China 10th Anniversary Parade in Tianjin.jpg
P.R.China's 10th anniversary parade in Tianjin in 1959

In the Pingjin Campaign of the Chinese Civil War, the city was captured after 29 hours of fighting. The Communists took Tianjin on January 15, 1949.

From 1949 to February 1958, Tianjin was a municipality directly under the control of the Central Government. In October 1952, Tanggu New Port officially opened its doors, and the first 10,000-ton ferry arrived at Newport Pier. In February 1958, due to the "Great Leap Forward" and Tianjin's good industrial foundation, Tianjin was incorporated into Hebei Province and Hebei Province was relocated to Tianjin for eight years. During the period, under the coordination of the State Council, the city of Tianjin implemented a separate policy for central planning, which was independent of Hebei Province. However, a large number of factories and colleges in Tianjin moved to Hebei, adversely affecting Tianjin's economic development. In January 1967, due to "preparation, preparation for disasters," and concerns that Tianjin would become a battlefield, Hebei Province repatriated the provincial capital to Baoding, and the CPC Central Committee decided that Tianjin should be restored to the central municipality and remain so far. In April 1970, in the event that the Central Government had applied for funding for the construction of the subway, the Tianjin Municipal Government decided to raise funds on its own to establish the project on the basis of the name of the channel, and build it on the basis of the old walled river. In July 1973, five counties including Jixian, Baodi, Wuqing, Jinghai, and Ninghe were formally placed under the jurisdiction of Tianjin.

Luanhe hydraulic engineering monument and Tianjin Eye Xuan Cai Jin Men 11Tianjin Eye and Haihe River.jpg
Luanhe hydraulic engineering monument and Tianjin Eye

On July 28, 1976, during the 7.6 magnitude Tangshan Earthquake, Tianjin was affected by the shock waves and suffered major loss of life. In the city, 24,345 people died and 21,497 were seriously injured. 60% of the city's buildings were destroyed and more than 30% of the enterprises and Peking Port Reservoir and Yuqiao Reservoir were seriously damaged. Nearly 700,000 people were left homeless. On October 10 of the same year, the Tianjin Underground Railway was opened to traffic. In 1981, Miyun Reservoir was built on the upper reaches of the Hai River and is used to supply water for Beijing, however the reservoir stopped the river from supplying water to Tianjin, resulting in difficulty in the use of water in Tianjin. In the same year, the State Council of the People's Republic of China decided to initiate a project to solve the problem of water use in Tianjin and attract talented individuals to the city's academic centers.

Monument of TEDA Deng Xiao Ping Ti Kai Fa Qu Da You Xi Wang De Tian Jin Tai Da Ken Huang Li .jpg
Monument of TEDA

In 1984, during the beginning of the Chinese government's economic reforms, Tianjin was listed as one of the 14 coastal open cities by the State Council and the Tianjin Development Zone's economy began to develop rapidly, However, the overall development speed of Tianjin is still slower than that of special economic zones and in other southeast coastal areas. In 1994, Tianjin began its strategic industrial shift towards the east and developed the Binhai New Area with the Tianjin Port as the core. In October 2005, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee was convened. The meeting decided to incorporate the development and opening up of the Binhai New Area into the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” and the national development strategy. In March 2006, the State Council executive meeting positioned Tianjin as an “international port city, a northern economic center, and an "ecological city”. Since then, the dispute between the Beijing-Tianjin economic center at the policy level has come to an end. In May 2006, the State Council approved the Binhai New Area as a national integrated reform pilot area. In June of the same year, the “State Council’s Opinions on Promoting the Development and Opening of the Tianjin Binhai New Area” was announced and clearly stated: “In financial enterprises, financial services, financial markets, and finance Major reforms such as opening up can, in principle, be scheduled to precede the Tianjin Binhai New Area.

In August 2008, China’s first high-speed railway, the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway, with a speed of 350 kilometers per hour was opened. In August 2008 Tianjin was the co-host city of the 29th Olympic Games. In September 2008, the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum (also called Summer Davos) began to be established in Tianjin and is held every two years. [15] In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin. [16] In 2012, the Tianjin Metro Lines 2, 3, and 9 were completed and open to traffic, and Tianjin Rail Transit was formally networked.

In October 2013, Tianjin hosted the East Asian Games, which was the first time Tianjin hosted an international comprehensive event. In 2014, the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei was officially incorporated into the national strategy. Tianjin was positioned as “National Advanced Manufacturing R&D Base, Northern International Shipping Core Area, Financial Innovation Operation Demonstration Area, and Reform and Opening-up Preceding Area”. In the same year, the first phase of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project was completed, and the water availability in Tianjin improved. On February 26, 2015, the Tianjin National Independent Innovation Demonstration Zone was formally established. On April 21, the China (Tianjin) Free Trade Pilot Zone was formally established. On April 27, Jincheng Bank, the first private bank in northern China, officially opened its doors. On August 12, 2015, a major fire and explosion accident occurred in a chemical warehouse in Tianjin Port, causing 173 deaths, hundreds of injuries, and property losses. [17]

Jinwan Plaza, Haihe River, Tianjin.jpg
Panorama of Hai River

Geography

Map of the Hai River Basin Hai River Basin EN.svg
Map of the Hai River Basin
2011 satellite image of Tianjin. The city center was on the left, while the smaller urban area to the right was the Binhai New Area. Tian Jin Ye Jing Hang Pai 20110419.JPG
2011 satellite image of Tianjin. The city center was on the left, while the smaller urban area to the right was the Binhai New Area.
Hai River in 2011 Xuan Cai Jin Men 32Bei An Qiao .jpg
Hai River in 2011

Tianjin is located along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, looking out to the provinces Shandong and Liaoning across those waters, bordered by Beijing 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the northwest, and is surrounded on all sides by Hebei, with the exception of its eastern border, which borders the Bohai Sea. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is 11,860.63 square kilometres (4,579.41 square miles). There is 153 km (95 mi) of coastline and 1,137.48 kilometres (706.80 miles) of land border. [18] It lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China, which connects with the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak (九顶山) in Ji County on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078.5 m (3,538 ft).

The Hai River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality, as well in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.

Climate

Tianjin features a four-season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia (Köppen BSk bordering on Dwa), with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.90 °C (55.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 511 millimetres (20.1 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the semi-arid zone, with parts of the municipality being humid continental (Köppen BSk/Dwa, respectively). [19]

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F). [20]

Climate data for Tianjin (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.3
(57.7)
20.8
(69.4)
30.5
(86.9)
33.1
(91.6)
40.5
(104.9)
39.6
(103.3)
40.5
(104.9)
37.4
(99.3)
34.9
(94.8)
30.8
(87.4)
23.1
(73.6)
14.4
(57.9)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
5.7
(42.3)
12.2
(54.0)
20.9
(69.6)
26.5
(79.7)
30.2
(86.4)
31.3
(88.3)
30.5
(86.9)
26.6
(79.9)
19.9
(67.8)
10.6
(51.1)
3.8
(38.8)
18.4
(65.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−3.4
(25.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.4
(43.5)
14.7
(58.5)
20.5
(68.9)
24.8
(76.6)
26.8
(80.2)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
14.1
(57.4)
5.2
(41.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Average low °C (°F)−7.4
(18.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.7
(35.1)
9.3
(48.7)
15.1
(59.2)
20.0
(68.0)
22.9
(73.2)
22.2
(72.0)
16.7
(62.1)
9.4
(48.9)
1.1
(34.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
8.5
(47.3)
Record low °C (°F)−18.1
(−0.6)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−17.7
(0.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
16.2
(61.2)
13.7
(56.7)
6.2
(43.2)
−2.2
(28.0)
−11.4
(11.5)
−16.2
(2.8)
−22.9
(−9.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)2.5
(0.10)
3.6
(0.14)
8.1
(0.32)
22.1
(0.87)
36.8
(1.45)
79.7
(3.14)
149.8
(5.90)
124.1
(4.89)
44.7
(1.76)
26.5
(1.04)
10.8
(0.43)
2.8
(0.11)
511.5
(20.15)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.62.03.14.55.97.811.19.46.04.72.92.061
Average relative humidity (%)57545150556475766964615961
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.1170.2202.4223.8249.0226.9206.4204.4205.3196.1163.0157.62,375.2
Percent possible sunshine 59595658605748536061575757
Source: China Meteorological Administration [21] [22]

Measures to improve air quality

In May 2014, the city's administration enacted new laws in an attempt to lower the city's pollution levels. These measures included several restrictions on days of severe pollution; halving the number of vehicles allowed on roads, halting construction and manufacturing activity, closing schools, and halting large-scale outdoor activities. [23]

Foreign-born professional sportsmen have made statements regarding Tianjin's air quality, citing it as an impediment to athletic activity and being thick enough to "taste". [24]

Administrative divisions

Tianjin is divided into 16 county-level divisions, which are all districts.

Administrative divisions of Tianjin
Division code [25] DivisionArea in km2 [26] [ full citation needed ]Total population 2010 [27] Urban area
population 2010 [28]
SeatPostal codeSubdivisions [29] [ full citation needed ]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
120000Tianjin11760.0012,938,69310,277,893 Hexi 30000011211810117233762
120101 Heping 9.97273,477 Xiaobailou Subdistrict 300041663
120102 Hedong 15.06860,852 Dawangzhuang Subdistrict 30017113158
120103 Hexi 41.24870,632 Dayingmen Subdistrict 30020213171
120104 Nankai 40.641,018,196 Changhong Subdistrict 30011012180
120105 Hebei 29.14788,451 Wanghailou Subdistrict 30014310109
120106 Hongqiao 21.30531,526 Xiyuzhuang Subdistrict 30013110196
120110 Dongli 460.00598,966591,040 Zhangguizhuang Subdistrict 300300990102
120111 Xiqing 545.00713,060524,894 Yangliuqing town30038027106151
120112 Jinnan 401.00593,063590,072 Xianshuigu town300350868165
120113 Beichen 478.00669,121575,103 Guoyuanxincun Subdistrict 30040059115126
120114 Wuqing 1570.00951,078352,659 Yunhexi Subdistrict 30170062464695
120115 Baodi 1523.00799,157271,992 Baoping Subdistrict 30180061637765
120116 Binhai 2270.002,423,2042,313,361 Xingang Subdistrict 300451197254144
120117 Ninghe 1414.00416,143152,388 Lutai town30150011334282
120118 Jinghai 1476.00646,978293,014 Jinghai town30160016246383
120119 Jizhou 1590.00784,789270,236 Wenchang Subdistrict 3019001205132949

In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district. At the end of 2017, the total population of Tianjin is 15.57 million.

Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District Tianjin konggangwuliu.JPG
Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District

These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31,2004, into 240 township-level divisions, including 120 towns, 18 townships, 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistricts.

Politics

The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China.

The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CPC Party chief".

Economy

Then Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010 Wen Jiabao - Annual Meeting of the New Champions Tianjin 2010.jpg
Then Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010

Tianjin's GDP reached 1.572 trillion yuan in 2014, an increase of 10.0 percent over 2013. The city of Tianjin recorded China's highest per-capita GDP with $17,126, followed by Beijing with $16,278 and Shanghai with $15,847. [30]

Tianjin city center Tian Jin Nan Jing Lu Bin Jiang Dao Jiao Kou .jpg
Tianjin city center
Skyscrapers in TianjinMetersFeet
Goldin Finance 117 597.001,958.66
Tianjin World Financial Center 336.91,105.32
Yujiapu Administrative Services Center299.45982.45
Powerlong Center289948.16
Bohai Bank Tower270885.83
5th Taian Dao253.40831.36

Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking. EADS Airbus is an important manufacturer, and has opened an assembly plant for its Airbus A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. Tianjin also hit the news in 2010, as the current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-1A, is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin. GDP in 2009 hit ¥750.1 billion, with a per capita of RMB¥62,403.

Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area

Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area Tian Jin Bin Hai Xin Qu Tai Da Jin Rong Jie 2.jpg
Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area

As one of the first state-level economic and technological development zones, Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) was founded on December 6, 1984, with the approval of the State Council. It enjoys relevant state preferential policies with the major task of attracting domestic and foreign investment to develop high and new technology oriented modern industries. As an affiliated organ of the Tianjin Municipal Government, the Administrative Commission of Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area exercises unified administration of TEDA on behalf of the Tianjin Municipal Government and enjoys provincial-level administrative and economic management rights.

Tianjin Export Processing Zone

Tianjin Export Processing Zone is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council on April 27, 2000. This is a special enclosed zone where the Customs conduct 24-hour administration on commodities transported into and out of the zone and relevant places. The central government granted this special economic zone special preferential policies to attract enterprises in the business of processing and trade to invest in the zone. Tianjin Export Processing Zone is located to the northeast of TEDA with a planned area of 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi). The area developed in the first phase is 1 m2. A permanent wall is built to separate export processing zone and non-export processing zone. [31]

Tianjin Airport Economic Area

Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China. [32]

Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone

US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin electric car factory in 2009 At an Electric Car Factory in Tianjin, China.jpg
US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin electric car factory in 2009

Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone is the largest free trade zone in northern China as well as the only free trade zone in northern China. The zone was approved to be established in 1991 by State Council. It is 30 km (19 mi) from Tianjin city proper, less than 1 km (0.62 mi) away from the wharf and only 38 km (24 mi) away from Tianjin Binhai International Airport. [33]

Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area

Tianjin Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone has 2068 corporations and has 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information. [34]

Tianjin Nangang Industrial Zone

A heavy and chemical industry base and harbor; an important part of the "dual-city, dual-harbor"space development strategy of Tianjin, a demonstration zone of circular economy. The total planned area of Nangang Industrial Zone is 200 km2 (77 sq mi), of which the terrestrial area is 162 km2 (63 sq mi).

Agriculture

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast.

Resources

Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important[ clarification needed ] oilfields. Salt production is also important,[ clarification needed ] with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important[ clarification needed ] salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.

Binhai New Area

Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) is located in the juncture of the Beijing-Tianjin City Belt and the Circum-Bohai City Belt. It is the gateway to North China, Northeast China, and Northwest China. Lying in the center of Northeast Asia, it is the nearest point of departure of the Eurasian Continental Bridge.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19532,693,831    
19827,764,141+188.2%
19908,785,402+13.2%
20009,848,731+12.1%
201012,938,224+31.4%
201314,720,000+13.8%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural. [35] Tianjin has recently shifted to rapid population growth, its population has reached 14.72 million as of 2013 end. [36]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 15.4 million. [37] [2]

The majority of Tianjin residents are Han Chinese. There are also 51 out of the 55 minor Chinese ethnic groups living in Tianjin. Major minorities include Hui, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols.

Old Guanyinhao Bank Tianjin guanyinhao.JPG
Old Guanyinhao Bank
Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census
Ethnicity PopulationPercentage
Han 9,581,77597.29%
Hui 172,3571.75%
Manchu 56,5480.57%
Mongols 11,3310.12%
Korean 11,0410.11%
Zhuang 4,0550.041%
Tujia 3,6770.037%

This excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service. [38]

Media

Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million. [39] Tianjin Television, the local television station, broadcasts on nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs. [40] [ non-primary source needed ] Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002. [41] [ non-primary source needed ]

Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: Jin, [42] [ non-primary source needed ]Tianjin Plus [43] [ non-primary source needed ] and Business Tianjin, [44] [ non-primary source needed ] mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.

Previous newspapers

The first German newspaper in northern China, Tageblatt für Nordchina , was published in Tianjin. [45]

In 1912 Tianjin had 17 Chinese-language newspapers and 5 daily newspapers in other languages; none of the newspapers in the Tianjin district were trade papers. Of the foreign language newspapers, three were in English and one each was in French and German. Newspapers from Tianjin published in Tianjin included China Critic , Peking and Tientsin Times , The China Times , [46] Tageblatt für Nordchina, L'Echo de Tientsin , China Tribune , Ta Kung Pao (L'Impartial), Min Hsing Pao , and Jih Jih Shin Wen Pao (Tsientsin Daily News). [47] Newspapers from Beijing published in Tianjin included Pei Ching Jih Pao , Peking Daily News , and Le Journal de Peking . [46]

In 1930, the newspaper Deutsch-Mandschurische Nachrichten [11] moved from Harbin to Tianjin and changed its name to the Deutsch-Chinesische Nachrichten . [48]

Censorship capital

More and more, China's leading Internet information providers (usually located in Beijing), including social network Sina Weibo, Douban and the online video website Sohu, tend to relocate their censorship departments to Tianjin, where labor costs are cheaper than Beijing, as censorship is a kind of labour-intensive work. In fact, Tianjin has become the censorship capital of Chinese Internet. [11] [49]

Tourism

Crosstalk in Tianjin Tian Jin Ming Liu Cha Guan De Xiang Sheng Biao Yan .jpg
Crosstalk in Tianjin

The city has many sights; its streetscapes – an assemblage of historic nineteenth – and early twentieth-century European architecture, juxtaposed with the concrete and glass monoliths of contemporary China – are its most engrossing attraction. Though wide swaths of the city are being redeveloped, much of the colonial architecture has been placed under protection, and the shopping opportunities, especially for antiques, just about justify a day-trip from the capital, an hour away by train.

In the nineteenth century, the port city caught the attention of the seafaring Western powers, who used the boarding of a British ship by Chinese troops as an excuse to declare war. With well-armed gunboats, they were assured of victory, and the Treaty of Tianjin, signed in 1856, gave the Europeans the right to establish nine concessionary bases on the mainland, from which they could conduct trade and sell opium. These concessions, along the banks of the Hai River, were self-contained European fantasy worlds: the French built elegant châteaux and towers, while the Germans constructed red-tiled Bavarian villas. Tensions between the indigenous population and the foreigners exploded in the Tianjin Incident of 1870, when a Chinese mob attacked a French-run orphanage, and again during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, after which the foreigners levelled the walls around the old Chinese city to enable them to keep an eye on its residents.

The dense network of ex-concession streets south and west of the central train station, and south of the Hai River, now constitute the areas of most interest to visitors. Unmistakable are the châteaux of the French concession, which now make up the downtown district just south of the river, and the haughty mansions the British built east of here. Farther east, also south of the river, the architecture of an otherwise unremarkable district has a sprinkling of stern German constructions.

Landmarks and attractions

Nankai University Main Building of Nankai University 2015-08-04.jpg
Nankai University

Sights outside the old city urban core area, but within the municipality, including Binhai/TEDA:

Culture

Tianjin lunch of Goubuli.jpg
A traditional Tianjin lunch of Goubuli Baozi
Opera at Ancient Culture Street, Tianjin.jpg
Traditional opera in Tianjin

People from Tianjin speak the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin, from which it is derived. Despite its proximity to Beijing, the Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from the Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua or Standard Chinese.

Tianjin is a respected home base of Beijing opera, one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera.

"Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea", the Dome Mural of Tianjin Railway Station Tinajin railway station ceiling 0857.JPG
"Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea", the Dome Mural of Tianjin Railway Station

Tianjin is famous for its stand up comedy and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli. Ma Sanli (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his xiangsheng , a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect. Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng. Tianjin's patented brand of stand-up also includes the use of rhythmic bamboo clappers "Kuaiban". [50]

Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurines which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites, which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.

On September 28, 2015, the Juilliard School in Manhattan, New York City announced a major expansion into Tianjin during a visit by China's first lady, Peng Liyuan, the institution's first such full-scale foray outside the United States, with plans to offer a master's degree program. [51]

Cuisine

Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (Chinese:; pinyin:), smooth (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; pinyin:), and high (Chinese:; pinyin:gāo). Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (Chinese:八大碗; pinyin:Bādà wǎn), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes, and the Four Great Stews (Chinese:四大扒; pinyin:sì dà bā), actually referring to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.

The four delicacies of Tianjin include Goubuli baozi, Guifaxiang Shibajie Mahua (Chinese:十八街麻花; pinyin:shíbā jiē máhuā), Erduoyan Zhagao (Chinese:耳朵眼炸糕; pinyin:erduoyǎn zhà gāo) and Maobuwen Jiaozi (Chinese:猫不闻饺子; pinyin:māo bù wén jiǎozi). Well-known foods include Caoji donkey meat, Bazhen sheep-leg mutton of Guanshengyuan, Luji Tangmian Zhagao, Baiji Shuijiao, Gaogan of Zhilanzhai, Guobacai of Dafulai, Subao of Shitoumenkan and Xiaobao chestnut. These famous snacks are available in Nanshi Food Street, which was a famous calling-card of Tianjin in the aspect of cuisine.

Transport

Airport

Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2 Tianjin Binhai International Airport 201509.jpg
Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2

Tianjin Binhai International Airport is located in Dongli District roughly 13 km (8 mi) away from downtown area. The city will also be served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing, currently under construction and to be completed by late 2019. [52]

Tianjin Binhai International Airport now has a terminal building which covers an area of 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft), a merchandise warehouse which covers an area of 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) and runways measuring 3.6 km (2.2 mi) in total. It has a grade 4E airstrip, which all kinds of large aircraft can take off from and land safely on. Tianjin Binhai International Airport [53] has 59 flight routes, connecting 48 cities, including 30 domestic cities and 17 foreign cities. Airline companies like Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo and Martinair Holland all have flights to Tianjin Binhai International Airport.

Port of Tianjin

Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth TianjinPortContainerTerminalandOrientContainerTerminal.jpg
Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth

Tianjin port is the world's top-level and China's largest artificial deep water harbor, and the throughput capacity ranks fifth in the world. Located in Binhai Economic Zone, a national new economic zone of China, Tianjin harbor is the port of call of international cruises visiting the wider area, including Beijing.

Trams

The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tyre tram system in Asia New Tram in Tianjin.jpg
The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tyre tram system in Asia

Tianjin's harbor area of Binhai/TEDA has a modern, high speed rubber tired tram system, which is the first of its kind in China & Asia. Constructed in 2006, this marked a return of the tram to Tianjin, which once had an extensive standard steel-wheeled tramway network. The original Tianjin tram network was constructed by a Belgian company in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first citywide tramway system in China. It closed in 1972.

Metro

The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station Tian Jin Gui Dao Jiao Tong --Liu Yuan Zhe Fan Xian .jpg
The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station

The Tianjin Metro is formerly operated by two companies, Tianjin Metro General Corporation and Tianjin Binhai Mass Transit Development Company. However, in 2017, the two companies merged as Tianjin Rail Transit Group Corporation. They are currently under heavy expansion from five to nine lines. Six lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area. As of April 2019, the entire network of Tianjin Metro has 155 stations and 6 lines.

Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track was 7.4 kilometres (5 miles). The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 for reconstruction. The original line is now part of Line 1 of the new metro system. It was re-opened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.188 km (16.272 mi) and there are a total of 22 stations. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 was completed in 2012 and the two lines are now in operation. Several new metro lines are planned.

There was two rapid transit operators in Tianjin. In 2017, the two companies merged as Tianjin Rail Transit Group Corporation.

Rail

Tianjin Railway Station Tianjin Station 03.jpg
Tianjin Railway Station

There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Station being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (simplified Chinese:旺道庄; traditional Chinese:旺道莊; pinyin:Wàngdàozhuāng). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (simplified Chinese:老龙头; traditional Chinese:老龍頭; pinyin:Lǎolóngtóu) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.

Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and Binhai Railway Station and Binhai North Railway Station located in TEDA, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic. Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.

The following rail lines go through Tianjin:

Tianjin West Railway Station Xuan Cai Jin Men 0Tian Jin Xi Zhan Quan Jing Panorama of Tianjin West Railway Station.jpg
Tianjin West Railway Station

The inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity.). The train numbers range between C2001~C2298:

The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.

Bus

Tianjin Bus Route 606 Tianjin Bus Route 606 -1-.jpg
Tianjin Bus Route 606

There were over 900 bus lines in the city as of 2005. [55]

Roads and expressways

Some roads and bridges have retained names that hark back to the Republic of China era (1912–1949) such as Minquan Gate and Beiyang Road. Like with most cities in China, many roads in Tianjin are named after Chinese provinces and cities. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four cardinal directions.

Tianjin has three ring roads. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic.

Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (Chinese:; literally: 'avenue'), xian (simplified Chinese:线; traditional Chinese:; literally: 'line'). These are most often used for highways and through routes. The terms lu (Chinese:; literally: 'road'). Jie (Chinese:; literally: 'street') are rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; literally: 'avenue') roads and wei (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; literally: 'avenue') roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:

The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:

Religion

Residents of Tianjin participate in indigenous religions, such as the veneration of the goddess Mazu. In addition, Tianjin has a Buddhist Temple of Great Compassion, a Catholic St. Joseph's Cathedral (Laoxikai Church), a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church). A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists. [56] According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 1.51% of the city's population. [57] Tianjin has been described as a historically "strong center" of Islam in China. [58] Northwestern Tianjin is traditionally the location of the Muslim quarter of the city, where they have lived for centuries near the city's huge Great Mosque, Qingzhen si , founded in 1703. [59] [60] Other mosques include the Dahuoxiang Mosque. [61]

A Mazu temple in Tianjin MazuTemple.jpg
A Mazu temple in Tianjin
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic Tian Jin De Ci Fang Zi .jpg
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic
Tianjin Eye Xuan Cai Jin Men 11Tianjin Eye and Haihe River.jpg
Tianjin Eye
Tianjin Museum Xuan Cai Jin Men 31Tianjin Museum.jpg
Tianjin Museum
Tianjin Italian Town Xuan Cai Jin Men 30Tian Jin Yi Da Li Feng Qing Qu .jpg
Tianjin Italian Town

Sports

Sports teams based in Tianjin include: Chinese Super League

Chinese Super League

China Baseball League

China Women Volleyball League

Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District Tianjin shuidi.JPG
Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District

The 1995 World Table Tennis Championships were played in town.

Since 2014, a WTA international tennis tournament has taken place in Tianjin every year at the Tuanbo International Tennis Center.

Martial arts

Together with Beijing, Tianjin had been for many centuries considered a center for traditional Chinese martial arts. Many past and present masters of arts such as Bajiquan, Pigua Zhang, Xing Yi Quan, Bagua Zhang and others lived or are living in the city. [62] [63] [64] The districts most famous for martial arts in the city are Hong Qiao and Nankai, and martial artists abound in public green spaces such as Xigu Park and the Tianjin Water Park.

Education

Colleges and universities

Under the National Ministry of Education:

Under the municipal government:

Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:

Under the government of Hebei Province:

Foreign institutions:

Private:

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools

20zhongxue.JPG
Tianjin No.20 High School
TEHS in winter.JPG
Tianjin Shiyan High School

Middle schools

Notable people from Tianjin

Twin towns and sister cities

See also

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Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, commonly abbreviated as TEDA is the main free market zone in Binhai, Tianjin, China. It was formed in late 1984.

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Tianjin University is the first modern higher education institution in China, and now a national university under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education of China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. It was established in 1895 as Imperial Tientsin University and later Peiyang University. In 1951, after restructuring, it was renamed Tianjin University, and became one of the largest multidisciplinary engineering universities in China. The university was one of the first 16 universities accredited by the nation in 1959. It is also among the first group of institutions of higher learning in the national "211-Project" to which priority is given in construction. In order to carry out the "21st Century Education Revitalizing Action Plan", in late 2000 the Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipality signed an agreement which aims to build Tianjin University into a 1st-class university in the world in the 21st century.

Fuyang District District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Fuyang  is one of ten urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, East China. Fuyang is located in the northwest of Zhejiang on the Fuchun River, a tributary of the Qiantang River. The city is the birthplace of numerous notable individuals, including modern Chinese short story writer and poet Yu Dafu.

Okay Airways airline

Okay Airways is an airline headquartered in Shunyi District, Beijing, People's Republic of China. It operates passenger flight services and dedicated cargo services. Its main hubs are Tianjin Binhai International Airport and Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, with a secondary hub is Changsha Huanghua International Airport.

Binhai District & State-level new area in Tianjin, Peoples Republic of China

Binhai, fully the Binhai New Area, is a sub-provincial district and state-level new area within the jurisdiction of Tianjin Municipality in the People's Republic of China.

Port of Tianjin Port of China

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang", which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The port is on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centred on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km southeast of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

Tianjin Airlines airline

Tianjin Airlines is an airline headquartered in Tianjin Binhai International Airport passenger terminal building, Dongli District, Tianjin, China, operating domestic scheduled passenger and cargo flights out of Tianjin Binhai International Airport.

Huang Xingguo Chinese politician

Huang Xingguo was the Mayor of Tianjin, and, between 2015 and 2016, the acting Communist Party Secretary of Tianjin. Huang is originally from Zhejiang province, and previously served as party chief of Ningbo, and the party chief of Taizhou. In 2016, he was investigated by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and subsequently expelled from the Communist Party of China for breaking party regulations. He was sentenced to 12 years in prison upon being convicted on charges of bribery.

Beijing No. 8 High School is a public beacon secondary school located in Xicheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China. The school was accredited as "Municipal Model High School" by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Education. It is a model school for Scientific and Technological Practice, a member of the Association of Youth Technology Education, a National Established School of Sports in Beijing, a Member School of the Chinese Radio Sports Association and a member of the Jinfan Orchestra. As the Olympics approached, the school improved its stadiums and was chosen as the training place for trampoline and swimming athletes, the only school to undertake two missions at the same time. The school's stadiums are now available to the public, including a standard soccer field, a 400-meter runway, an underground running training center, a swimming pool and several standard basketball fields. In recent years, there are about 40 graduates every year admitted to Peking University and Tsinghua University. This number accounts for nearly one-fifth of graduates each year. The overall college admission result ranks in the third place in Xicheng School District.

Tianjin railway station railway station in Tianjin, China

The Tianjin railway station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was established in 1888, rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008. Its Chinese big title was written by Deng Xiaoping in 1988, for celebrating 100th anniversary of its founding.

Jinnan District District in Tianjin, Peoples Republic of China

Jinnan District, formerly Nanjiao District is a district of Tianjin, People's Republic of China, located on the western bank of the lower reaches of the Hai River The name of the district literally means "South Tianjin" or "South of Tianjin", explained by its location relative to the urban core of Tianjin.

Binhai railway station railway station in Binhai, Tianjin

Binhai railway station, formerly Yujiapu railway station, is an underground railway station of Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway located in Binhai, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. It serves the Yujiapu Financial District, an area with many new skyscrapers. It is considered as one of the four main rail transportation hubs for Tianjin with Tianjin, Tianjin West and Binhai West railway station. Construction was completed on August 8, 2015 and it was opened to traffic on September 20, 2015. It is to be served by the Tianjin Metro lines Z1, B2, and B3. The name of station was renamed from Yujiapu to Binhai on January 5, 2019.

Layout of the Port of Tianjin

The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction.

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang"(Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; literally: 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The Port is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centered on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

Tianjin No. 47 High School is located on China National Highway 103 in Beichen District, Tianjin, China.

Tianjin Free-Trade Zone Free-Trade Zone in Tianjin, China

Tianjin Free-Trade Zone, officially China (Tianjin) Pilot Free-Trade Zone is a free-trade zone in Tianjin, China. It is the only free-trade zone in North China. The zone covers three areas — Tianjin Airport Economic Area, Dongjiang Free Trade Port Zone and Binhai New Area Central Business District.

He Lifeng Chinese politician

He Lifeng is a Chinese politician and the current Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). Earlier in his career, he worked in Fujian province and Tianjin. He has held a number of significant posts, including party chief of Fuzhou, party chief of Xiamen, party chief of Binhai New Area, deputy party chief of Tianijn, Chairman of the Tianjin People's Political Consultative Conference, and, since 2014, a deputy director of the NDRC.

Industry in Tianjin

The city of Tianjin considers itself the original home or birthplace of Chinese industrial revolution. Modern industry started there with Tianjin Machine Factory which was established by the Qing government during the Self-Strengthening Movement. Afterwards,Yuan Shikai promoted new policies in Tianjin. Numerous modern industrial enterprises mushroomed in Hebei New District in the northern bank of the Hai River. Including Zhou Xuexi, many industrialists established large enterprise groups that were managed by merchant and supervised by the government. By the beginning of the 20th century, Chinese private enterprises were booming. Among them is the most representative Yongli Alkali Factory which won the gold award and certificate in Philadelphia, the U.S. in 1926 by the soldium carbonate it produced. The factory was praised as "the symbol of developing important chemical industry of the Republic China". The development of Tianjin's modern industrial and the establishment of the Concessions in Tianjin contributed to the rapid expansion of modern Tianjin to become the biggest city and center of industry and commerce in northern China, as well as the second biggest city of industry, finance and trade in China. The development of Tianjin modern industry mainly went through four stages: initial period, evolution period, booming period and occupied period. Because of the industrial boom of Tianjin modern industry, the government of Tianjin built The Tianjin Museum of Modern Industry in Divergence estuary for commemoration.

References

Notes

  1. A number of alternative etymologies are sometimes given; see the names section.

Citations

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Works cited

  1. Miscellaneous series, Issues 7–11. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912.
  2. Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." – In: Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter, January 1, 2003. ISBN   3110962799, 9783110962796.
  3. Also available at (Archive) the website of the Queens Library – This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version
  4. Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003. ISBN   3598218370, 9783598218378.

Further reading