Tianjin

Last updated

Tianjin
天津
Tientsin, T'ien-chin
Tian Jin Zhi Yan Hang Pai DJI 0042.jpg
View of Binhai New Area across the Hai River, July 2022.jpg
Tian Jin Shui Shang Gong Yuan Dong Hu .jpg
Tian Jin Guo Ji Shang Chang He Xi Kai Jiao Tang .jpg
Tianjin Station 03.jpg
Min Yuan Ti Yu Chang .jpg
Tian Jin Shi Ji Zhong .jpg
Clockwise from the top:Tianjin Eye,Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin railway station,Tianjin Century Bell,Minyuan Stadium, St. Joseph Cathedral, Panorama of Binhai New Area
Tianjin
Tianjin in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Coordinates(Tianjin Century Clock Plaza): 39°08′01″N117°12′19″E / 39.1336°N 117.2054°E / 39.1336; 117.2054 Coordinates: 39°08′01″N117°12′19″E / 39.1336°N 117.2054°E / 39.1336; 117.2054
Country China
Settledc. 340 BC
Municipal seat Hexi District
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-
level

16 districts
240 towns and townships
Government
  Type Municipality
  Body Tianjin Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Chen Min'er
   Congress Chairman Yu Yunlin
  Mayor Zhang Gong
   CPPCC Chairman Wang Changsong
Area
  Municipality11,946 km2 (4,612 sq mi)
  Land11,609.91 km2 (4,482.61 sq mi)
  Water186 km2 (72 sq mi)
  Urban
11,609.91 km2 (4,482.61 sq mi)
  Metro
5,609.9 km2 (2,166.0 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Highest elevation1,078 m (3,537 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [1]
  Municipality13,866,009
  Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
   Urban
13,866,009
  Urban density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
   Metro
11,165,706
  Metro density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Tianjinese
Tianjiner
Postal code
300000 – 301900
Area code 22
ISO 3166 code CN-TJ
GDP (2021) CNY 1.570 trillion
USD 244 billion (24th) [2]
 - per capita CNY 113240
USD 17754 (5th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 6.6%
HDI (2019)0.838 [3] (3rd) – very high
Vehicle registration 津A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M
津E (taxis)
AbbreviationTJ / ; jīn
Climate Dwa/BSk
Symbols
Flower China rose
Tree Fraxinus velutina

See or edit raw graph data.

Measures to improve air quality

In May 2014, the city's administration enacted new laws in an attempt to lower the city's pollution levels. These measures included several restrictions on days of severe pollution; halving the number of vehicles allowed on roads, halting construction and manufacturing activity, closing schools, and halting large-scale outdoor activities. [31]

Flights have also been grounded and highways closed. [32]

Foreign-born professional sportsmen have made statements regarding Tianjin's air quality, citing it as an impediment to athletic activity and being thick enough to "taste". [33]

Administrative divisions

Tianjin is divided into 16 county-level divisions, which are all districts.

Tianjin
Tianjin (Chinese characters).svg
"Tiānjīn" in Chinese characters
Administrative divisions of Tianjin
Division code [34] DivisionArea in km2 [35] [ full citation needed ]Total population 2010 [36] Urban area
population 2010 [37]
SeatPostal codeSubdivisions [38] [ full citation needed ]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
120000Tianjin11,760.0012,938,69310,277,893 Hexi 30000011211810117233762
120101 Heping 9.97273,477 Xiaobailou Subdistrict 300041663
120102 Hedong 15.06860,852 Dawangzhuang Subdistrict 30017113158
120103 Hexi 41.24870,632 Dayingmen Subdistrict 30020213171
120104 Nankai 40.641,018,196 Changhong Subdistrict 30011012180
120105 Hebei 29.14788,451 Wanghailou Subdistrict 30014310109
120106 Hongqiao 21.30531,526 Xiyuzhuang Subdistrict 30013110196
120110 Dongli 460.00598,966591,040 Zhangguizhuang Subdistrict 300300990102
120111 Xiqing 545.00713,060524,894 Yangliuqing town30038027106151
120112 Jinnan 401.00593,063590,072 Xianshuigu town300350868165
120113 Beichen 478.00669,121575,103 Guoyuanxincun Subdistrict 30040059115126
120114 Wuqing 1,570.00951,078352,659 Yunhexi Subdistrict 30170062464695
120115 Baodi 1,523.00799,157271,992 Baoping Subdistrict 30180061637765
120116 Binhai 2,270.002,423,2042,313,361 Xingang Subdistrict 300451197254144
120117 Ninghe 1,414.00416,143152,388 Lutai town30150011334282
120118 Jinghai 1,476.00646,978293,014 Jinghai town30160016246383
120119 Jizhou 1,590.00784,789270,236 Wenchang Subdistrict 3019001205132949

In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district. At the end of 2017, the total population of Tianjin is 15.57 million.

Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District Tianjin konggangwuliu.JPG
Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District

These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31,2004, into 240 township-level divisions, including 120 towns, 18 townships, 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistricts.

Politics

The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China.

The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the CCP Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CCP Party chief".

Economy

Then-Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010 Wen Jiabao - Annual Meeting of the New Champions Tianjin 2010.jpg
Then-Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010

Tianjin's GDP reached 1.572 trillion yuan in 2014, an increase of 10.0 percent over 2013. The city of Tianjin recorded China's highest per-capita GDP with $17,126, followed by Beijing with $16,278 and Shanghai with $15,847. [39]

Tianjin city center Tian Jin Nan Jing Lu Bin Jiang Dao Jiao Kou .jpg
Tianjin city center
Skyscrapers in TianjinMetersFeet
Goldin Finance 117 597.01,958.66
Tianjin Modern City Tower 338.01108.92
Tianjin World Financial Center 336.91,105.32
Yujiapu Administrative Services Center299.45982.45
Powerlong Center289948.16
Bohai Bank Tower270885.83
5th Taian Dao253.40831.36

Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking. EADS Airbus is an important manufacturer, and has opened an assembly plant for its Airbus A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. Tianjin also hit the news in 2010, as the current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-1A, is located at the National Supercomputing Center of Tianjin. GDP in 2009 hit ¥750.1 billion, with a per capita of RMB¥62,403.[ citation needed ]

Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area

Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area Tian Jin Bin Hai Xin Qu Tai Da Jin Rong Jie 2.jpg
Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area

As one of the first state-level economic and technological development zones, the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) was founded on December 6, 1984, with the approval of the State Council. It enjoys relevant state preferential policies with the major task of attracting domestic and foreign investment to develop high and new technology oriented modern industries. As an affiliated organ of the Tianjin Municipal Government, the Administrative Commission of Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area exercises unified administration of TEDA on behalf of the Tianjin Municipal Government and enjoys provincial-level administrative and economic management rights.[ citation needed ]

Tianjin Export Processing Zone

The Tianjin Export Processing Zone is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council on April 27, 2000. This is a special enclosed zone where the Customs conduct 24-hour administration on commodities transported into and out of the zone and relevant places. The central government granted this special economic zone special preferential policies to attract enterprises in the business of processing and trade to invest in the zone. Tianjin Export Processing Zone is located to the northeast of TEDA with a planned area of 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi). The area developed in the first phase is 1m². A permanent wall is built to separate export processing zone and non-export processing zone. [40]

Tianjin Airport Economic Area

The Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China. [41]

Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone

US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin Qingyuan Electric Vehicle factory in 2009 At an Electric Car Factory in Tianjin, China.jpg
US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin Qingyuan Electric Vehicle factory in 2009

The Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone is the only free trade zone in northern China. The zone was approved to be established in 1991 by State Council. It is 30 km (19 mi) from Tianjin city proper, less than 1 km (0.62 mi) away from the wharf and only 38 km (24 mi) away from Tianjin Binhai International Airport. [42]

Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area

The Tianjin Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone had 2068 corporations and 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information. [43]

Tianjin Nangang Industrial Zone

The Tianjin Nangang Industrial Zone is a heavy and chemical industry base and harbor; an important part of the "dual-city, dual-harbor"space development strategy of Tianjin, a demonstration zone of circular economy. The total planned area of Nangang Industrial Zone is 200 km2 (77 sq mi), of which the terrestrial area is 162 km2 (63 sq mi).

Agriculture

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops.

Resources

Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas.[ clarify ] Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.[ citation needed ]

Utilities and Services

Tianjin Electric Power Utility serves with construction, delivering and supporting electrical power service.

Binhai New Area

The Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) is located in the juncture of the Beijing-Tianjin City Belt and the Circum-Bohai City Belt. It is the gateway to North China, Northeast China, and Northwest China. Lying in the center of Northeast Asia, it is the nearest point of departure of the Eurasian Continental Bridge.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19532,693,831    
19827,764,141+188.2%
19908,785,402+13.2%
20009,848,731+12.1%
201012,938,224+31.4%
201314,720,000+13.8%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural. [44] Tianjin has recently shifted to rapid population growth, its population had reached 14.72 million as of 2013 end. [45]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 15.4 million. [46] [47]

The majority of Tianjin residents are Han Chinese. There are also 51 out of the 55 minor Chinese ethnic groups living in Tianjin. Major minorities include Hui, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols.

Old Guanyinhao Bank Tianjin guanyinhao.JPG
Old Guanyinhao Bank
Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census
Ethnicity PopulationPercentage
Han 9,581,77597.29%
Hui 172,3571.75%
Manchu 56,5480.57%
Mongols 11,3310.12%
Korean 11,0410.11%
Zhuang 4,0550.041%
Tujia 3,6770.037%

This excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service. [48]

Media

Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million. [49] Tianjin Television, the local television station, broadcasts on nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs. [50] [ non-primary source needed ] Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002. [51] [ non-primary source needed ]

Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: Jin, [52] [ non-primary source needed ]Tianjin Plus [53] [ non-primary source needed ] and Business Tianjin, [54] [ non-primary source needed ] mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.

Previous newspapers

The first German newspaper in northern China, Tageblatt für Nordchina, was published in Tianjin. [55]

In 1912 Tianjin had 17 Chinese-language newspapers and 5 daily newspapers in other languages; none of the newspapers in the Tianjin district were trade papers. Of the foreign language newspapers, three were in English and one each was in French and German. Newspapers from Tianjin published in Tianjin included China Critic, Peking and Tientsin Times, The China Times, [56] Tageblatt für Nordchina, L'Écho de Tientsin, China Tribune, Ta Kung Pao (L'Impartial), Min Hsing Pao, and Jih Jih Shin Wen Pao (Tsientsin Daily News). [57] Newspapers from Beijing published in Tianjin included Pei Ching Jih Pao, Peking Daily News, and Le Journal de Peking. [56]

In 1930, the newspaper Deutsch-Mandschurische Nachrichten [12] moved from Harbin to Tianjin and changed its name to the Deutsch-Chinesische Nachrichten. [58]

Censorship capital

More and more, China's leading Internet information providers (usually located in Beijing), including social network Sina Weibo, Douban and the online video website Sohu, tend to relocate their censorship departments to Tianjin, where labor costs are cheaper than Beijing, as censorship is a kind of labor-intensive work. In fact, Tianjin has become the censorship capital of Chinese Internet. [12] [59]

Tourism

Crosstalk in Tianjin Tian Jin Ming Liu Cha Guan De Xiang Sheng Biao Yan .jpg
Crosstalk in Tianjin

The city has many sights; its streetscapes incorporate historic nineteenth and early twentieth-century European architecture, juxtaposed with the concrete and glass monoliths of contemporary China. Though wide swaths of the city are being redeveloped, much of the colonial architecture has been placed under protection.

In the nineteenth century, the port city caught the attention of the seafaring Western powers, who used the boarding of a British ship by Chinese troops as an excuse to declare war. With well-armed gunboats, they were assured of victory, and the Treaty of Tianjin, signed in 1856, gave the Europeans the right to establish nine concessionary bases on the mainland, from which they could conduct trade and sell opium. These concessions, along the banks of the Hai River, were self-contained European communities: the French built châteaux and towers, while the Germans constructed red-tiled Bavarian villas. Tensions between the indigenous population and the foreigners exploded in the Tianjin Incident of 1870, when a Chinese mob attacked a French-run orphanage, and again during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, after which the foreigners leveled the walls surrounding the old Chinese city to enable them to keep an eye on its residents.

The old city was razed entirely from 2000 to 2001 to make way for new developments. Only several old buildings remains such as the Tianjin Temple of Confucius.

The dense network of ex-concession streets south and west of the central train station, and south of the Hai River, now constitute the areas of most interest to visitors. The châteaux of the French concession now make up the downtown district just south of the river, the imposing mansions the British built are east of here. Farther east, also south of the river, the architecture of an otherwise unremarkable district has a sprinkling of austere German construction.

Landmarks and attractions

Nankai University Main Building of Nankai University 2015-08-04.jpg
Nankai University

Sights outside the old city urban core area, but within the municipality, including Binhai/TEDA:

Culture

Tianjin lunch of Goubuli.jpg
A traditional Tianjin lunch of Goubuli baozi
Opera at Ancient Culture Street, Tianjin.jpg
Traditional opera in Tianjin

People from Tianjin speak the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin, from which it is derived. Despite its proximity to Beijing, the Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from the Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua or Standard Chinese.

Tianjin is a respected home base of Beijing opera, one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera.

Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea, the dome mural of Tianjin railway station Tinajin railway station ceiling 0857.JPG
Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea, the dome mural of Tianjin railway station

Tianjin is famous for its stand-up comedy and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli. Ma Sanli (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his xiangsheng , a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment akin to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect. Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng. Tianjin's style of stand-up also includes the use of rhythmic bamboo clappers, kuaiban. [60]

Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colorful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for the Zhang clay figurine, a type of intricate, colorful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites, which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes and are noted for portability.

On September 28, 2015, the Juilliard School in Manhattan, New York City announced a major expansion into Tianjin during a visit by China's first lady, Peng Liyuan, the institution's first such full-scale foray outside the United States, with plans to offer a master's degree program. [61]

Cuisine

Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (Chinese:; pinyin:), smooth (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; pinyin:), and high (Chinese:; pinyin:gāo). Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (Chinese:八大碗; pinyin:Bādà wǎn), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes, and the Four Great Stews (Chinese:四大扒; pinyin:sì dà bā), actually referring to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.

The four delicacies of Tianjin include Goubuli baozi, Guifaxiang Shibajie Mahua (Chinese:十八街麻花; pinyin:shíbā jiē máhuā), Erduoyan Zhagao (Chinese:耳朵眼炸糕; pinyin:erduoyǎn zhà gāo) and Maobuwen Jiaozi (Chinese:猫不闻饺子; pinyin:māo bù wén jiǎozi). Well-known foods include Caoji donkey meat, Bazhen sheep-leg mutton of Guanshengyuan, Luji Tangmian Zhagao, Baiji Shuijiao, Gaogan of Zhilanzhai, Guobacai of Dafulai, Subao of Shitoumenkan and Xiaobao chestnut. These famous snacks are available in Nanshi Food Street, which was a famous calling-card of Tianjin in the aspect of cuisine.

Transport

Airport

Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2 Tianjin Binhai International Airport 201509.jpg
Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2

Tianjin Binhai International Airport is located in Dongli District roughly 13 km (8 mi) away from downtown area. The city is also served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing.

Tianjin Binhai International Airport now has a terminal building which covers an area of 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft), a merchandise warehouse which covers an area of 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) and runways measuring 3.6 km (2.2 mi) in total. It has a grade 4E airstrip, which all kinds of large aircraft can take off from and land safely on. Tianjin Binhai International Airport [62] has 59 flight routes, connecting 48 cities, including 30 domestic cities and 17 foreign cities. Airline companies like Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo and Martinair Holland all have flights to Tianjin Binhai International Airport.

Port of Tianjin

Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth TianjinPortContainerTerminalandOrientContainerTerminal.jpg
Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth

Tianjin port is the world's top-level and China's largest artificial deep water harbor, and the throughput capacity ranks fifth in the world. Located in Binhai Economic Zone, a national new economic zone of China, Tianjin harbor is the port of call of international cruises visiting the wider area, including Beijing.

Trams

The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tire tram systems in Asia New Tram in Tianjin.jpg
The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tire tram systems in Asia

Tianjin's harbor area of Binhai/TEDA has a modern, high speed rubber tired tram system, which is the first of its kind in China and Asia. Constructed in 2006, this marked a return of the tram to Tianjin, which once had an extensive standard steel-wheeled tramway network. The original Tianjin tram network was constructed by a Belgian company [63] in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first citywide tramway system in China. It closed in 1972.

Metro

The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station Tian Jin Gui Dao Jiao Tong --Liu Yuan Zhe Fan Xian .jpg
The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station

The Tianjin Metro is formerly operated by two companies, Tianjin Metro General Corporation and Tianjin Binhai Mass Transit Development Company. However, in 2017, the two companies merged as Tianjin Rail Transit Group Corporation. They are currently under heavy expansion from five to nine lines. Six lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area. As of April 2019, the entire network of Tianjin Metro has 155 stations and 6 lines.

Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track was 7.4 kilometers (5 mi). The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 for reconstruction. The original line is now part of Line 1 of the new metro system. It was reopened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.2 km (16.280 mi) [64] and there are a total of 22 stations. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 was completed in 2012 and the two lines are now in operation. Several new metro lines are planned.

The two rapid transit operators in Tianjin are responsible for the service as follows:

Rail

Tianjin railway station Tianjin Station 03.jpg
Tianjin railway station

There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin railway station being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (simplified Chinese:旺道庄; traditional Chinese:旺道莊; pinyin:Wàngdàozhuāng). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (simplified Chinese:老龙头; traditional Chinese:老龍頭; pinyin:Lǎolóngtóu) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.

Tianjin West railway station and Tianjin North railway station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu railway station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and Binhai railway station and Binhai North railway station located in TEDA, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic. Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.

The following rail lines go through Tianjin:

Tianjin West railway station Xuan Cai Jin Men 0Tian Jin Xi Zhan Quan Jing Panorama of Tianjin West Railway Station.jpg
Tianjin West railway station

The inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity). The train numbers range between C2001~C2298:

The new C trains take only 30 min to travel between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.

Bus

Tianjin Bus Route 606 Tianjin Bus Route 606 -1-.jpg
Tianjin Bus Route 606

There were over 900 bus lines in the city as of 2005. [66]

Roads and expressways

Some roads and bridges have retained names that hark back to the Republic of China era (1912–1949) such as Minquan Gate and Beiyang Road. Like with most cities in China, many roads in Tianjin are named after Chinese provinces and cities. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four cardinal directions.

Tianjin has three ring roads. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic.

Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (Chinese:; lit. 'avenue'), xian (simplified Chinese:线; traditional Chinese:; lit. 'line'). These are most often used for highways and through routes. The terms lu (Chinese:; lit. 'road'). Jie (Chinese:; lit. 'street') are rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; lit. 'avenue') roads and wei (simplified Chinese:; traditional Chinese:; lit. 'avenue') roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north–south and east–west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:

The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:

Religion

Residents of Tianjin participate in indigenous religious practices, such as the veneration of the Goddess of Sea, Mazu. In addition, Tianjin has a Buddhist Temple of Great Compassion, a Catholic St. Joseph's Cathedral (Laoxikai Church), a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church). A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists. [67] According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 1.51% of the city's population. [68] Tianjin has been described as a historically "strong center" of Islam in China. [69] Northwestern Tianjin is traditionally the location of the Muslim quarter of the city, where they have lived for centuries near the city's huge Great Mosque, Qingzhen si, founded in 1703. [70] [71] Other mosques include the Dahuoxiang Mosque. [72]

A Mazu temple in Tianjin MazuTemple.jpg
A Mazu temple in Tianjin
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic Tian Jin De Ci Fang Zi .jpg
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic
Tianjin Eye Xuan Cai Jin Men 11Tianjin Eye and Haihe River.jpg
Tianjin Eye
Tianjin Museum Xuan Cai Jin Men 31Tianjin Museum.jpg
Tianjin Museum
Tianjin Italian Town Xuan Cai Jin Men 30Tian Jin Yi Da Li Feng Qing Qu .jpg
Tianjin Italian Town

Sports

Sports teams based in Tianjin include:

Chinese Super League

China Baseball League

Chinese Basketball Association

Chinese Volleyball League

Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District Tianjin shuidi.JPG
Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District

The 1995 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2013 East Asian Games, and the 2017 National Games of China were hosted by the city. Additionally, Tianjin will be one of the host cities for the expanded FIFA Club World Cup (postponed from 2021). It was also scheduled to be one of the host cities for the 2023 AFC Asian Cup before China's withdrawal as the host.

Since 2014, a WTA international tennis tournament has taken place in Tianjin every year at the Tuanbo International Tennis Center.

Martial arts

Together with Beijing, Tianjin had been for many centuries considered a center for traditional Chinese martial arts. Many past and present masters of arts such as Bajiquan, Pigua Zhang, Xing Yi Quan, Bagua Zhang and others lived or are living in the city. [73] [74] [75] The districts most famous for martial arts in the city are Hong Qiao and Nankai, and martial artists abound in public green spaces such as Xigu Park and the Tianjin Water Park.

Education

Colleges and universities

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under the municipal government:

Tianjin Juilliard School in Binhai,Tianjin Tianjin Juilliard School.jpg
Tianjin Juilliard School in Binhai,Tianjin

Under the national Civil Aviation Authority of China:

Under the Hebei Provincial People's Government:

Foreign institutions:

Private:

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools

20zhongxue.JPG
Tianjin No.20 High School

Middle schools

Notable people from Tianjin

Twin towns and sister cities

See also

Notes

  1. A number of alternative etymologies are sometimes given; see the names section.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hebei</span> Province of China

Hebei or, is a northern province of China. Hebei is China's sixth most populous province, with over 75 million people. Shijiazhuang is the capital city. The province is 96% Han Chinese, 3% Manchu, 0.8% Hui, and 0.3% Mongol. Three Mandarin dialects are spoken: Jilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin and Jin.

The Tianjin University of Science and Technology is a municipal public university in Tianjin, China. Founded as Hebei Institute of Light Industry, the university gained university status in 2002 and is now sponsored by the Tianjin Municipal People's Government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tai'an</span> Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in Western Shandong Province of the People's Republic of China. Centered on Mount Tai, the city borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the north, Zibo to the east, Linyi to the southeast, Liaocheng to the extreme west and Jining to the south. To the west, Tai'an is separated from the province of Henan by the Yellow River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway</span> High-speed rail service between Beijing and Tianjin, China

The Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway is a Chinese high-speed railway that runs 117 kilometres (72.7 mi) line between Beijing and Tianjin. Designed for passenger traffic only, the Chinese government built the line to accommodate trains traveling at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (217 mph), and currently carries CRH high-speed trains running speeds up to 350 km/h (217 mph) since August 2018.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Binhai</span> District & State-level new area in Tianjin, Peoples Republic of China

Binhai, officially known as Binhai New Area, is a sub-provincial district and state-level new area within the jurisdiction of Tianjin Municipality in the People's Republic of China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Port of Tianjin</span> Largest port in Northern China

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang", which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The port is on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centred on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km southeast of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tianjin railway station</span> Principal railway station in Tianjin, China

The Tianjin railway station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was established in 1888, rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008. Its Chinese big title was written by Deng Xiaoping in 1988, for celebrating 100th anniversary of its founding.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Binhai railway station</span>

Binhai railway station, formerly Yujiapu railway station, is an underground railway station located in Binhai, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. It is the southern terminus of the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway and serves the Yujiapu Financial District, an area with many new skyscrapers. It is considered one of the four main rail transportation hubs for Tianjin with Tianjin, Tianjin West and Binhai West railway station. It is to be served by the Tianjin Metro lines B1 and Z4.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Layout of the Port of Tianjin</span>

The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction.

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang"(Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; lit. 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The Port is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centered on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

The Port of Tianjin falls under the supervisory and regulatory purview of the Tianjin Municipality People’s Government. The 2004 incorporation of the Tianjin Port Authority into TPG formally divested the group of its role as Port Regulator, which passed to the Tianjin Transportation and Port Authority (天津市交通运输和港口管理局), formerly the Tianjin Transport Commission. The TTPA implements state policy on port work; drafts local policies, by-laws and regulations; and licenses, audits, and issues certifications to businesses operating in the port, in particular to ship terminals. The TTPA supervises and manages compliance to all laws and regulations regarding environmental protection, service compliance, pilotage, maintenance of port infrastructure and handling of dangerous goods and disinfection in all terminals and storage areas.

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang"(Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; lit. 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The Port is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centered on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jing-Jin-Ji</span> Megalopolis in North China

The Jingjinji Metropolitan Region or Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ), is the National Capital Region of the People's Republic of China. It is the biggest urbanized megalopolis region in North China, including an economic region surrounding the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, and along the coast of the Bohai Sea. This emerging region is rising as a northern metropolitan region rivaling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east. In 2020, Jingjinji had a total population of 110 million people, comparable to that of the Philippines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tianjin Free-Trade Zone</span> Free-Trade Zone in Tianjin, China

Tianjin Free-Trade Zone, officially China (Tianjin) Pilot Free-Trade Zone is a free-trade zone in Tianjin, China. It is the only free-trade zone in North China. The zone covers three areas — Tianjin Airport Economic Area, Dongjiang Free Trade Port Zone and Binhai New Area Central Business District.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">He Lifeng</span> Chinese politician

He Lifeng is a Chinese economist, politician, the current chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), and a member of the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party. Earlier in his career, he worked in Fujian province and Tianjin. He has held a number of significant posts, including Party secretary of Fuzhou, party secretary of Xiamen, party secretary of Binhai New Area, deputy party secretary of Tianijn, Chairman of the Tianjin People's Political Consultative Conference, and, since 2014, a deputy director of the NDRC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tianjin No. 20 High School</span> Public school in Heping District, Tianjin, China

Tianjin No. 20 High School is a public secondary school in Heping District in Tianjin.

Beijing–Binhai intercity railway, formerly known as the Second Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway, is a high-speed railway connecting the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. The western section of the railway is built as part of the Beijing–Tangshan intercity railway. From Baodi railway station onwards, the railway will branch south along new trackage to Binhai West railway station in Binhai New Area of Tianjin.

Tianjin Xinhua High School has a long history, was founded in 1914 by Li Luyi, Xia Jingru and others from Catholic Church. It was initially named by "Sheng Gong School"(simplified Chinese: 圣功学堂), and had several times changed its name, among others "Shenggong Girls middle school"(simplified Chinese: 圣功女中), Hebei University secondary school. In 1973 it got named by "Tianjin Xinhua middle school". In 1978, the school was notable as one of the first top schools in Tianjin; in 1994, the school was included in the "Chinese top school selection." It got notable as one of the first state-level demonstration high schools. Each year the school received more than 40 honors at all levels. The school is located in Machang Road 99, Hexi District, Tianjin, covers an area of 40,000 square meters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Industry in Tianjin</span>

The city of Tianjin considers itself the original home or birthplace of Chinese industrial revolution. Modern industry started there with Tianjin Machine Factory which was established by the Qing government during the Self-Strengthening Movement. Afterwards, Yuan Shikai promoted new policies in Tianjin. Numerous modern industrial enterprises mushroomed in Hebei New District in the northern bank of the Hai River. Including Zhou Xuexi, many industrialists established large enterprise groups that were managed by merchant and supervised by the government. By the beginning of the 20th century, Chinese private enterprises were booming. Among them is the most representative Yongli Alkali Factory which won the gold award and certificate in Philadelphia, the U.S. in 1926 by the sodium carbonate it produced. The factory was praised as "the symbol of developing important chemical industry of the Republic China". The development of Tianjin's modern industrial and the establishment of the Concessions in Tianjin contributed to the rapid expansion of modern Tianjin to become the biggest city and center of industry and commerce in northern China, as well as the second biggest city of industry, finance and trade in China. The development of Tianjin modern industry mainly went through four stages: initial period, evolution period, booming period and occupied period. Because of the industrial boom of Tianjin modern industry, the government of Tianjin built The Tianjin Museum of Modern Industry in Divergence estuary for commemoration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peking–Mukden Railway</span> Railway line in Republic of China

Peking–Mukden Railway was a 19th-century steam powered trunkline connecting Peking (Beijing) and Mukden through Tianjin, northeastern Hebei, and southwestern Liaoning; it was a crucial railway in North China and Northeast China.

References

Citations

  1. "China: Tiānjīn (Districts) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". citypopulation.de.
  2. "2021年天津Gdp达15695.05亿元 同比增长6.6%_中国经济网——国家经济门户". district.ce.cn (Press release).
  3. "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI". globaldatalab.org. Global Data Lab. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  4. "Tianjin". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021.
  5. "Tianjin". Merriam-Webster Dictionary .
  6. 2015年天津市国民经济和社会发展统计公报-新闻中心-北方网. news.enorth.com.cn. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  7. 最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查). elivecity.cn. 2012. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  8. 历史沿革. tj.gov.cn. Tianjin People's Government. December 4, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  9. 河北人才被空吸 本地发展缓慢世界罕见. Sohu. February 26, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
  10. Roberts, Toby; Williams, Ian; Preston, John (2021). "The Southampton system: A new universal standard approach for port-city classification". Maritime Policy & Management. 48 (4): 530–542. doi:10.1080/03088839.2020.1802785. S2CID   225502755.
  11. Alexandra Stenson and Cao Li (April 10, 2019). "'China's Manhattan' Borrowed Heavily. The People Have Yet to Arrive". The New York Times . Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  12. 1 2 3 Hille, Kathrin (November 4, 2012). "China's 'Manhattan' becomes censorship capital". Financial Times. Archived from the original on May 3, 2021. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  13. "The Global Financial Centres Index 28" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  14. "The World According to GaWC 2020". lboro.ac.uk. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  15. "Leading 200 science cities | Nature Index 2022 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". nature.com. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
  16. "Nature Index 2018 Science Cities | Nature Index Supplements | Nature Index". natureindex.com. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  17. "US News Best Global Universities Rankings in Tianjin". U.S. News & World Report. October 26, 2021. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  18. Schellinger, Paul; Salkin, Robert, eds. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 5: Asia and Oceania. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 813. ISBN   1-884964-04-4.
  19. Donati, Sabina (June 2016). "Italy's Informal Imperialism in Tianjin During the Liberal Epoch, 1902–1922". The Historical Journal. 59 (2): 447–468. doi:10.1017/S0018246X15000461. S2CID   163536150.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-22029-3. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.:266–267
  21. Michael Lackner, Ph.D.; Natascha Vittinghoff (January 2004). Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China; [International Conference "Translating Western Knowledge Into Late Imperial China", 1999, Göttingen University]. BRILL. pp. 269–. ISBN   978-90-04-13919-0.
  22. "World Economic Forum: The Inaugural Annual Meeting of the New Champions". China.org. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  23. "Global climate talks kick off in China". CNN. October 4, 2010. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  24. "China blasts: Casualties as Tianjin warehouse blows up". BBC News. August 13, 2015. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  25. 天津地理位置、行政区划、人口民族概况 (in Simplified Chinese). Chinagate. November 30, 2007. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  26. Murray, N.J.; Clemens, R.S.; Phinn, S.R.; Possingham, H.P.; Fuller, R.A. (2014). "Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea" (PDF). Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 12 (5): 267–272. doi:10.1890/130260.
  27. Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644.
  28. "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  29. 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on July 10, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  30. "Index" 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  31. "China's Tianjin to restrict vehicle use to curb pollution". Reuters . Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  32. "Highways shut, flights grounded as smog blankets China's Tianjin". Reuters. December 18, 2016.
  33. "Paartalu Airs Player Concerns about Smoggy China". Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  34. 国家统计局统计用区划代码. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012.
  35. 《保定经济统计年鉴2011》
  36. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6660-2.
  37. 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6659-6.
  38. 《中国民政统计年鉴2012》
  39. "Statistical Communiqué of the People's Republic of China on the 2013 National Economic and Social Development". National Bureau of Statistics of China. February 24, 2014. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  40. "Tianjin Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  41. "Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone". RightSite.asia. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  42. "Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone". Rightsite.asia. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  43. "Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area". Rightsite.asia. Archived from the original on May 15, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  44. 第二次湖南R&D资源清查主要数据公报(第四号) (in Simplified Chinese). Stats.gov.cn. February 21, 2011. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  45. 天津市年末总人口控制在1535万人以下-新闻中心-北方网. enorth.com.cn (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  46. CNBC.com, Justina Crabtree; special to (September 20, 2016). "A tale of megacities: China's largest metropolises". CNBC. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017. slide 9
  47. OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD Urban Policy Reviews. OECD. April 18, 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN   9789264230033. ISSN   2306-9341. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2017.Linked from the OECD here Archived December 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  48. National Bureau of Population and Social Science and Technology Statistics Division of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司); Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司) (2003). 《2000年人口普查中國民族人口資料》[Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China]. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House.
  49. 天津人民广播电台 (in Simplified Chinese). Radiotj.com. December 22, 2010. Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  50. [ permanent dead link ](in Chinese)[ dead link ]
  51. [ permanent dead link ](in Chinese)[ dead link ]
  52. "Jin". Jinmagazine.com.cn. August 16, 2011. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  53. Tianjin Plus. "Tianjin Plus". Tianjinplus.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  54. "Business Tianjin". Businesstianjin.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  55. Walravens, p. 90 Archived January 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine .
  56. 1 2 United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 187 Archived January 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine .
  57. United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 188 Archived January 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine .
  58. Walravens, p. 91 Archived January 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine .
  59. "At Sina Weibo's censorship hub, China's Little Brothers cleanse online chatter". Reuters. September 11, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  60. McDougall, Bonnie S. (1984). Popular Chinese literature and performing arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949–1979. University of California Press. p. 84.
  61. Michael Cooper (September 28, 2015). "Juilliard's China Plans Move Forward". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  62. "Tianjin Binhai Airport – Map, Airport China, China Airport, Tianjing Binhai International Airport". Airport-china.com. May 1, 1950. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  63. "Souvenirs de Chine: The story of a Belgian engineer and doctors in China 1898-1908".
  64. "UrbanRail.Net > Asia > China > TIANJIN (Tientsin) Subway".
  65. "New Beijing-Tianjin intercity train numbering system". Shike.org.cn. July 31, 2008. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
  66. "天津公交". Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010. Tianjin Bus Company official website. (in Chinese)
  67. "Refugee Review Tribunal Australia – RRT Research Response". April 16, 2007. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  68. China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  69. Raphael Israeli (2002). Islam in China: Religion, Ethnicity, Culture, and Politics. Lexington Books. p. 105. ISBN   9780739103753.
  70. Ruth Rogaski (2004). Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-Port China . University of California Press. pp.  56, 171, 245. ISBN   9780520930605.
  71. Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila S., eds. (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. p. 484. ISBN   9780195309911.
  72. Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman, ed. (2002). Chinese Architecture (illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. p.  36. ISBN   9780300095593.
  73. "Cook Ding's Kitchen: The World of Martial Arts That Has Long Since Passed". cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  74. "Cook Ding's Kitchen: Master Zhou: The Man, The Artist, The Teacher". cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  75. "The Martial Spirit of Tianjin – An Interview with Nitzan Oren By Jonathan Bluestein. – Masters of the IMA". Masters of the IMA. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  76. "Great Wall MBA Program". Okcu.edu. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  77. "Tianjin No. 1 High School". Tjyz.org. Archived from the original on April 29, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  78. "Tianjin Xinhua High School". Xinhuaedu.cn. Archived from the original on May 20, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  79. Tianjin Shiyan High School Archived August 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  80. "Tianjin Foreign Languages School (TFLS)". Tjfls.cn. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  81. "Tianjin No. 4 High School". Tj4z.cn. March 28, 2012. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  82. "Tianjin Second Nankai High School". Tj.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  83. "Tianjin No. 47 High School". Tj47zx.org. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  84. "Tianjin No. 7 High School". Tjqz.org. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  85. "Tianjin No. 5 High School". Tj5ms.cn. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  86. "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  87. "Sister Partnerships by US State – Asia Matters for America".
  88. Corfield, Justin (2013). "Sister Cities". Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang. London: Anthem Press. p. 196. ISBN   978-0-85728-234-7.
  89. "Twinnings". www.larnaka.org.cy. Archived from the original on April 8, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  90. "jonkoping.se". Archived from the original on August 22, 2016.
  91. Cali, Casa Editorial El País. "Cali firmó un "pacto de hermandad" con Tianjin, ciudad de la República de China". elpais.com.co (in Spanish). Retrieved March 24, 2022.

Sources

Further reading