United States Department of Commerce

Last updated

United States Department of Commerce
Seal of the United States Department of Commerce.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Flag of the United States Department of Commerce.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Commerce Building view from Mall 2.jpg
The Herbert C. Hoover Building, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Agency overview
FormedFebruary 14, 1903;117 years ago (1903-02-14)
Jurisdiction United States of America
Headquarters Herbert C. Hoover Building
1401 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C., U.S.
38°53′39″N77°0′58″W / 38.89417°N 77.01611°W / 38.89417; -77.01611 Coordinates: 38°53′39″N77°0′58″W / 38.89417°N 77.01611°W / 38.89417; -77.01611
Employees46,608 (2018) [1]
Annual budgetUS$9.67 billion (2018)
US$14.2 billion (est. 2010)
US$9.3 billion (est. 2011)
US$8.6 billion (2014) [2]
Agency executives
Website www.commerce.gov
Footnotes

    In the United States, the Department of Commerce is an executive department of the federal government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, and helping to set industrial standards. This organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and block harmful trade practices of other nations. [3] The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, DC.

    Contents

    History

    Organizational history

    The department was originally created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor. [4]

    The United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, and the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939. In 1940, the Weather Bureau (now the National Weather Service) was transferred from the Agriculture Department, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency. [4]

    In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished. The United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961, pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 129; 22 U.S.C. 2121 note) [5] The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation. The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) was created on March 5, 1969, originally established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was created on October 3, 1970. [4]

    2020 data breach

    In 2020, the Department of Commerce suffered a data breach following a cyberattack likely conducted by a nation state adversary, possibly Russia. [6] [7]

    Herbert Hoover as secretary of commerce

    Assistants William McCracken (left) and Walter Drake (right) with Secretary Hoover (center) HooverCommerce1926.jpg
    Assistants William McCracken (left) and Walter Drake (right) with Secretary Hoover (center)

    Herbert Hoover, 1921–28 was by far the most active secretary in the history of the department. [8]

    After his election as president in 1920, Warren G. Harding rewarded Hoover for his support, offering to appoint him as either Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Commerce. Secretary of Commerce was considered a minor Cabinet post, with limited and vaguely defined responsibilities, but Hoover, emphasizing his identity as a businessman, accepted the position. In sharp contrast to the Interior Department, there were no scandals at Commerce. [9]

    Hoover envisioned the Commerce Department as the hub of the nation's growth and stability. [10] His experience mobilizing the war-time economy convinced him that the federal government could promote efficiency by eliminating waste, increasing production, encouraging the adoption of data-based practices, investing in infrastructure, and conserving natural resources. Contemporaries described Hoover's approach as a "third alternative" between "unrestrained capitalism" and socialism, which was becoming increasingly popular in Europe. [11] Hoover sought to foster a balance among labor, capital, and the government, and for this he has been variously labeled a "corporatist" or an associationalist. [12]

    Hoover demanded, and received, authority to coordinate economic affairs throughout the government. He created many sub-departments and committees, overseeing and regulating everything from manufacturing statistics to air travel. In some instances he "seized" control of responsibilities from other Cabinet departments when he deemed that they were not carrying out their responsibilities well; some began referring to him as the "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments." [10] In response to the Depression of 1920–21, he convinced Harding to assemble a presidential commission on unemployment, which encouraged local governments to engage in countercyclical infrastructure spending. He endorsed much of Mellon's tax reduction program, but favored a more progressive tax system and opposed the treasury secretary's efforts to eliminate the estate tax. [13]

    Radio and travel

    Herbert Hoover listening to a radio receiver HerbertClarkHoover.jpg
    Herbert Hoover listening to a radio receiver

    When Hoover joined the department, almost no families had radios; when he became president in 1929, 10 million owned one, and most of the rest listened in a nearby home, store or restaurant. Hoover's department set the policies that shape the entire new industry. Hoover's radio conferences played a key role in the organization, development, and regulation of radio broadcasting. Hoover also helped pass the Radio Act of 1927, which allowed the government to intervene and abolish radio stations that were deemed "non-useful" to the public. Hoover's attempts at regulating radio were not supported by all congressmen, and he received much opposition from the Senate and from radio station owners. [14] [15] [16]

    Hoover was also influential in the early development of air travel, and he sought to create a thriving private industry boosted by indirect government subsidies. He encouraged the development of emergency landing fields, required all runways to be equipped with lights and radio beams, and encouraged farmers to make use of planes for crop dusting. [17] He also established the federal government's power to inspect planes and license pilots, setting a precedent for the later Federal Aviation Administration. [18]

    As Commerce Secretary, Hoover hosted national conferences on street traffic collectively known as the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety. Hoover's chief objective was to address the growing casualty toll of traffic accidents, but the scope of the conferences grew and soon embraced motor vehicle standards, rules of the road, and urban traffic control. He left the invited interest groups to negotiate agreements among themselves, which were then presented for adoption by states and localities. Because automotive trade associations were the best organized, many of the positions taken by the conferences reflected their interests. The conferences issued a model Uniform Vehicle Code for adoption by the states, and a Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance for adoption by cities. Both were widely influential, promoting greater uniformity between jurisdictions and tending to promote the automobile's priority in city streets. [19]

    Other Hoover initiatives

    Hoover (left) with President Harding at a baseball game, 1921 Hoover and Harding at baseball game.jpg
    Hoover (left) with President Harding at a baseball game, 1921

    With the goal of encouraging wise business investments, Hoover made the Commerce Department a clearinghouse of information. He recruited numerous academics from various fields and tasked them with publishing reports on different aspects of the economy, including steel production and films. To eliminate waste, he encouraged standardization of products like automobile tires and baby bottle nipples. [20] [ page needed ] Other efforts at eliminating waste included reducing labor losses from trade disputes and seasonal fluctuations, reducing industrial losses from accident and injury, and reducing the amount of crude oil spilled during extraction and shipping. He promoted international trade by opening overseas offices to advise businessmen. Hoover was especially eager to promote Hollywood films overseas. [21]

    His "Own Your Own Home" campaign was a collaboration to promote ownership of single-family dwellings, with groups such as the Better Houses in America movement, the Architects' Small House Service Bureau, and the Home Modernizing Bureau. He worked with bankers and the savings and loan industry to promote the new long-term home mortgage, which dramatically stimulated home construction. [22] Other accomplishments included winning the agreement of U.S. Steel to adopt an eight-hour workday, and the fostering of the Colorado River Compact, a water rights compact among Southwestern states. [23]

    Foreign economic policy

    The department has always been involved in promoting international non-financial business. [24] It stations commercial attaches at embassies around the world. Currently the key sub agencies are the International Trade Administration, and the Bureau of Industry and Security. The ITA provides technical expertise to numerous American companies, helping them adjust to foreign specifications. It provides guidance and marketing data as well. The Office of Export Enforcement administers export controls, especially regarding the spread of nuclear technology and highly advanced electronic technology. [25] Under the administration of President Donald Trump, the policy has been to restrict high-technology flows to China. From 1949 to 1994, the department worked with the 17-nation Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls, which restricted technological flows to the Soviet Union and other communist nations. Since 1980, the Commerce Department works to neutralize the dumping of exports or the subsidies of overseas production. Along with the export controls this work continues to generate friction with other nations. [26] On July 20, 2020, the commerce department announced adding eleven Chinese firms to an export blacklist for committing human rights abuse against Uyghur Muslims and other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang by conducting genetic analysis on them. Two of the firms sanctioned were subsidiaries of BGI Group, a Chinese genetic sequencing, and biomedical firm. [27] In the same year October, the BGI Group firm was again named in the alleged exploitation of medical samples of patients testing for Covid-19 in Nevada using the 200,000 rapid testing kits donated by the United Arab Emirates under its AI and cloud computing firm, Group 42. The Emirati firm, also known as G42, has previously been named in the mass surveillance of people via an instant messaging application called ToTok, which was actually a spy application snooping on user data. [28]

    Current organization

    Structure

    Program
    Secretary of Commerce
    (Deputy Secretary of Commerce)
    Economic Development Administration
    Minority Business Development Agency
    National Technical Information Service
    National Telecommunications and Information Administration
    Office of Business Liaison
    Office of the Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration
    Office of the Chief Information Officer
    Office of Executive Secretariat
    Office of the General Counsel
    Office of Inspector General
    Office of Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs
    Office of Security
    Office of Policy and Strategic Planning
    Office of Public Affairs
    Office of White House Liaison
    Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs Bureau of the Census
    Bureau of Economic Analysis
    Economics and Statistics Administration
    Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security Bureau of Industry and Security
    Office of Export Enforcement
    Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property Patent and Trademark Office
    Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade International Trade Administration
    United States Commercial Service
    Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere National Marine Fisheries Service
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps
    National Ocean Service
    National Weather Service
    Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research
    Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Budget and finances

    The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: [29]

    ProgramFunding
    (in millions)
    Management and Finance
    Departmental Management$73.2
    Office of the Inspector General$35.5
    Operating Divisions
    Economic Development Administration$248.1
    Census Bureau$1,240.0
    Bureau of Economic Analysis$111.0
    International Trade and Investment Administration$497.3
    Bureau of Industry and Security$110.5
    Minority Business Development Agency$28.3
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration$5,684.7
    Patent and Trademark Office$3,439.5
    National Institute of Standards and Technology$904.9
    National Telecommunications and Information Administration$51
    Mandatory Spending
    Public Safety Broadband Network$2,275
    TOTAL$14,565

    Reorganization proposals

    Proposals to reorganize the department go back many decades. [3] The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had historically been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, and advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, and Department of the Treasury. The Economic Development Administration would be completely eliminated. [30]

    On January 13, 2012, President Barack Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports. The new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative, currently part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, and the Small Business Administration, which are all currently independent agencies. The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U.S. exports in five years. [31] The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; a statistical division including the United States Census Bureau and other data-collection agencies currently in the Commerce Department, and also the Bureau of Labor Statistics which would be transferred from the Department of Labor; a trade and investment policy office; and a small business development office. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. [32] Later that year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan. [33] The reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the president the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would then be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority. [34]

    The Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements. Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy, especially given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view. [31] [35] The overall plan has also been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which was abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth. [35] NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies already in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems. [36] The plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal that was released in February 2015. [37]

    See also

    Related Research Articles

    Herbert Hoover 31st president of the United States

    Herbert Clark Hoover was an American politician, businessman, and engineer, who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Before serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U.S. Food Administration, and served as the third U.S. Secretary of Commerce.

    Cabinet of the United States Advisory body to the president of the United States

    The Cabinet of the United States is a body consisting of the vice president of the United States and the heads of federal executive departments of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States which is regarded as the principal advisory body to the President of the United States. The President is not formally a member of the Cabinet. The heads of departments, appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate, are members of the Cabinet, and acting department heads also sit at Cabinet meetings whether or not they have been officially nominated for Senate confirmation. There are also other positions that have Cabinet-rank status, generally referred to as Cabinet-level positions. The President can unilaterally designate senior advisers from the Executive Office of the President or heads of other federal agencies as members of the Cabinet. The Cabinet does not have any collective executive powers or functions of its own, and no votes need to be taken. As of January 15, 2021, there were 23 members of Cabinet: the Vice President, 15 department heads, and 7 were Cabinet-level members.

    United States Secretary of Commerce Government position

    The United States secretary of commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The secretary is appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate and serves in the president's Cabinet. The secretary is concerned with promoting American businesses and industries; the department states its mission to be "to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce".

    United States Department of Labor U.S. Department that regulates workers rights and labor markets

    The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments. The department is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Labor.

    Bureau of Industry and Security

    The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that deals with issues involving national security and high technology. A principal goal for the bureau is helping stop the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, while furthering the growth of United States exports. The Bureau is led by the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security.

    Bureau of Economic Analysis US federal government agency

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the United States Department of Commerce is a U.S. government agency that provides official macroeconomic and industry statistics, most notably reports about the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States and its various units—states, cities/towns/townships/villages/counties, and metropolitan areas. They also provide information about personal income, corporate profits, and government spending in their National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs).

    International Trade Administration

    The International Trade Administration (ITA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes United States exports of nonagricultural U.S. services and goods.

    History of the United States (1918–1945)

    The history of the United States from 1918 through 1945 covers the post-World War I era, the Great Depression, and World War II. After World War I, the U.S. rejected the Treaty of Versailles and did not join the League of Nations.

    The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. They are analogous to ministries common in parliamentary or semi-presidential systems but they are led by a head of government who is also the head of state. The executive departments are the administrative arms of the President of the United States. There are currently 15 executive departments.

    United States Commercial Service

    The United States Commercial Service (CS) is the trade promotion arm of the U.S. Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration. CS is a part of the U.S. Foreign Service and its commercial officers are diplomats. The CS global network of trade professionals helps thousands of U.S. companies to export goods and services worth billions of dollars every year. CS trade specialists are located throughout the United States, as well as in U.S. embassies and consulates in over 75 countries around the world. The mission of CS is to advance and protect strategic U.S. commercial and economic interests around the world.

    Executive Schedule is the system of salaries given to the highest-ranked appointed officials in the executive branch of the U.S. government. The president of the United States appoints individuals to these positions, most with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. They include members of the president's Cabinet, several top-ranking officials of each executive department, the directors of some of the more prominent departmental and independent agencies, and several members of the Executive Office of the President.

    The Export Yellow Pages (EYP), was a multi-media trade and promotion resource for exporters that provides U.S. companies, exporters and export related service providers across all industries a convenient way to engage in export promotion and establish contacts and conduct business and trade around the globe with international buyers. Through the EYP, the Department of Commerce offers all U.S. companies and service providers a free online and print business directory listing and access to the directory and multi-media export. The Export Yellow Pages is located at http://www.exportyellowpages.com.

    Herbert C. Hoover Building United States historic place

    The Herbert C. Hoover Building is the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the United States Department of Commerce.

    United States Department of Commerce and Labor

    The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States government, which was concerned with controlling the excesses of big business.

    The U.S.–China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) is a high-level dialogue for the United States and China to discuss a wide range of regional and global strategic and economic issues between both countries. The establishment of the S&ED was announced on April 1, 2009 by U.S. President Barack Obama and Chinese President Hu Jintao. The upgraded mechanism replaced the former Senior Dialogue and Strategic Economic Dialogue started under the George W. Bush administration. The format is such that high-level representatives of both countries and their delegations will meet annually at capitals alternating between the two countries.

    The Maryland Department of Commerce is a government agency in the state of Maryland in the United States. Although its roots began in 1884, the department came to be recognized as the Department of Commerce in 2015.

    National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933

    The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) was a US labor law and consumer law passed by the 73rd US Congress to authorize the President to regulate industry for fair wages and prices that would stimulate economic recovery. It also established a national public works program known as the Public Works Administration (PWA), not to be confused with the Works Progress Administration (WPA) of 1935. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) portion was widely hailed in 1933, but by 1934 business' opinion of the act had soured. By March 1934 the “NRA was engaged chiefly in drawing up these industrial codes for all industries to adopt." However, the NIRA was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935 and not replaced.

    The National Export Initiative (NEI) is a strategy created by the Obama administration to double U.S. exports between 2010 and the end of 2014 and support 2 million domestic jobs through increased intergovernmental cooperation in export promotion. The initiative was created by Executive Order 13534 after President Barack Obama called for the doubling of U.S. exports in his 2010 State of the Union address.

    References

    1. "About the Department Of Commerce".
    2. "Department Of Commerce – FY 2014 Budget" (PDF). tamuc.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
    3. 1 2 Steve Charnovitz, "Reinventing the Commerce Dept.," Journal of Commerce, July 12, 1995.
    4. 1 2 3 "Milestones". United States Department of Commerce. July 20, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    5. "United States Travel and Tourism Administration (1961-1996)". Department of Commerce Digitization Repository Project. Pennsylvania State University. Archived from the original on September 26, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
    6. Nakashima, Ellen (December 13, 2020). "Russian government spies are behind a broad hacking campaign that has breached U.S. agencies and a top cyber firm". www.washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
    7. Bing, Christopher (December 14, 2020). "Suspected Russian hackers spied on U.S. Treasury emails - sources" via www.reuters.com.
    8. Kendrick A. Clements, The Life of Herbert Hoover: Imperfect Visionary, 1918–1928 (2010).
    9. William E. Leuchtenburg, Herbert Hoover pp. 51–52.
    10. 1 2 Leuchtenburg, Herbert Hoover pp. 53–63.
    11. Kenneth Whyte, Hoover (2017) pp. 254–57.
    12. Martin L. Fausold, The Presidency of Herbert C. Hoover (1985 p. 106.
    13. Whyte, Hoover (2017) pp. 260–64, 303–04.
    14. C. M. Jansky Jr, "The contribution of Herbert Hoover to broadcasting." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 1.3 (1957): 241–49.
    15. Louise Benjamin, "Working it out together: Radio policy from Hoover to the Radio Act of 1927." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42.2 (1998): 221–36.
    16. Mark Goodman, and Mark Gring. "The Radio Act of 1927: progressive ideology, epistemology, and praxis." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 3.3 (2000): 397–418. online
    17. Leuchtenburg 2009, pp. 53–54.
    18. Whyte 2017, p. 271.
    19. Peter D. Norton, Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City (MIT Press, 2008), pp. 178–97 ISBN   0-262-14100-0
    20. Whyte 2017, pp. 257–200.
    21. David M. Hart, "Herbert Hoover's Last Laugh: the Enduring Significance of the 'Associative State' in the United States", Journal of Policy History (1998), 10#4: 419–44,
    22. Hutchison, Janet (1997), "Building for Babbitt: the State and the Suburban Home Ideal", Journal of Policy History, 9 (2): 184–210, doi:10.1017/S0898030600005923
    23. Whyte (2017) pp. 269–71.
    24. Bruce W. Jentleson and Thomas G. Paterson, eds. Encyclopedia of US foreign relations. (1997) 1:293-95.
    25. Belay Seyoum, "Export Controls and International Business: A Study with Special Emphasis on Dual-Use Export Controls and Their Impact on Firms in the US." Journal of Economic Issues 51.1 (2017): 45–72.
    26. Yu Yongding. "Can China and the United States Avoid a Full-Blown Trade War?." US–China Economic Relations: From Conflict to Solutions (2019).
    27. "Commerce Department Adds Eleven Chinese Entities Implicated in Human Rights Abuses in Xinjiang to the Entity List". U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
    28. "US warned Nevada not to use Chinese COVID tests from UAE". AP News. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
    29. 2015 Department of Commerce Budget-in-Brief, United States Department of Commerce, Accessed July 16, 2015
    30. "Uproot and Overhaul Washington: Eliminate and Restructure Wasteful Federal Agencies". RickPerry.org, Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    31. 1 2 MacInnis, Laura (January 13, 2012). "Obama wants export agency, closing of Commerce Department". Reuters. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    32. Mervis, Jeffrey (January 13, 2012). "What Would Wiping Out the Commerce Department Mean for Science?". ScienceInsider. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    33. Schroeder, Peter (October 29, 2012). "Obama floats plan for a 'secretary of Business' if he wins second term". The Hill. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
    34. Landler, Mark; Lowrey, Annie (January 14, 2012). "Obama Bid to Cut the Government Tests Congress". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    35. 1 2 Bartlett, Bruce (January 17, 2012). "The Pros and Cons of Obama's Reorganization Plan". The New York Times. Economix. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    36. Malakoff, David (January 13, 2012). "Rough Sailing for Plan to Move NOAA?". ScienceInsider. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
    37. Hicks, Josh (February 3, 2015). "Six ways the White House budget would affect federal workers". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2015.

    Further reading