Seal of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Flag of the U.S. Department of Commerce
The Herbert C. Hoover Building, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
|Formed||February 14, 1903|
|Jurisdiction||United States of America|
|Headquarters|| Herbert C. Hoover Building |
1401 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Annual budget||US$9.67 billion (2018)|
US$14.2 billion (est. 2010)
US$9.3 billion (est. 2011)
US$8.6 billion (2014)
In the United States, the Department of Commerce is an executive department of the federal government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, and helping to set industrial standards. This organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and block harmful trade practices of other nations.The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D.C. Wilbur Ross is the current Commerce secretary.
The department was originally created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, and the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939. In 1940, the Weather Bureau (now the National Weather Service) was transferred from the Agriculture Department, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency.
In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished. The United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961 pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 129; 22 U.S.C. 2121 note)The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation. The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) was created on March 5, 1969, originally established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was created on October 3, 1970.
Herbert Hoover, 1921–28 was by far the most active secretary in the history of the department.
After his election as president in 1920, Warren G. Harding rewarded Hoover for his support, offering to appoint him as either Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Commerce. Secretary of Commerce was considered a minor Cabinet post, with limited and vaguely defined responsibilities, but Hoover, emphasizing his identity as a businessman, accepted the position. In sharp contrast to the Interior Department, there were no scandals at Commerce.
Hoover envisioned the Commerce Department as the hub of the nation's growth and stability.His experience mobilizing the war-time economy convinced him that the federal government could promote efficiency by eliminating waste, increasing production, encouraging the adoption of data-based practices, investing in infrastructure, and conserving natural resources. Contemporaries described Hoover's approach as a "third alternative" between "unrestrained capitalism" and socialism, which was becoming increasingly popular in Europe. Hoover sought to foster a balance among labor, capital, and the government, and for this he has been variously labeled a "corporatist" or an associationalist.
Hoover demanded, and received, authority to coordinate economic affairs throughout the government. He created many sub-departments and committees, overseeing and regulating everything from manufacturing statistics to air travel. In some instances he "seized" control of responsibilities from other Cabinet departments when he deemed that they were not carrying out their responsibilities well; some began referring to him as the "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments."In response to the Depression of 1920–21, he convinced Harding to assemble a presidential commission on unemployment, which encouraged local governments to engage in countercyclical infrastructure spending. He endorsed much of Mellon's tax reduction program, but favored a more progressive tax system and opposed the treasury secretary's efforts to eliminate the estate tax.
When Hoover joined the department, almost no families had radios; when he became president in 1929, 10 million owned one, and most of the rest listened in a nearby home, store or restaurant. Hoover's department set the policies that shape the entire new industry. Hoover's radio conferences played a key role in the organization, development, and regulation of radio broadcasting. Hoover also helped pass the Radio Act of 1927, which allowed the government to intervene and abolish radio stations that were deemed "non-useful" to the public. Hoover's attempts at regulating radio were not supported by all congressmen, and he received much opposition from the Senate and from radio station owners.
Hoover was also influential in the early development of air travel, and he sought to create a thriving private industry boosted by indirect government subsidies. He encouraged the development of emergency landing fields, required all runways to be equipped with lights and radio beams, and encouraged farmers to make use of planes for crop dusting.He also established the federal government's power to inspect planes and license pilots, setting a precedent for the later Federal Aviation Administration.
As Commerce Secretary, Hoover hosted national conferences on street traffic collectively known as the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety. Hoover's chief objective was to address the growing casualty toll of traffic accidents, but the scope of the conferences grew and soon embraced motor vehicle standards, rules of the road, and urban traffic control. He left the invited interest groups to negotiate agreements among themselves, which were then presented for adoption by states and localities. Because automotive trade associations were the best organized, many of the positions taken by the conferences reflected their interests. The conferences issued a model Uniform Vehicle Code for adoption by the states, and a Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance for adoption by cities. Both were widely influential, promoting greater uniformity between jurisdictions and tending to promote the automobile's priority in city streets.
With the goal of encouraging wise business investments, Hoover made the Commerce Department a clearinghouse of information. He recruited numerous academics from various fields and tasked them with publishing reports on different aspects of the economy, including steel production and films. To eliminate waste, he encouraged standardization of products like automobile tires and baby bottle nipples. [ page needed ] Other efforts at eliminating waste included reducing labor losses from trade disputes and seasonal fluctuations, reducing industrial losses from accident and injury, and reducing the amount of crude oil spilled during extraction and shipping. He promoted international trade by opening overseas offices to advise businessmen. Hoover was especially eager to promote Hollywood films overseas.
His "Own Your Own Home" campaign was a collaboration to promote ownership of single-family dwellings, with groups such as the Better Houses in America movement, the Architects' Small House Service Bureau, and the Home Modernizing Bureau. He worked with bankers and the savings and loan industry to promote the new long-term home mortgage, which dramatically stimulated home construction.Other accomplishments included winning the agreement of U.S. Steel to adopt an eight-hour workday, and the fostering of the Colorado River Compact, a water rights compact among Southwestern states.
The department has always been involved in promoting international non-financial business.It stations commercial attaches at embassies around the world. Currently the key sub agencies are the International Trade Administration, and the Bureau of Industry and Security. The ITA provides technical expertise to numerous American companies, helping them adjust to foreign specifications. It provides guidance and marketing data as well. The Office of Export Enforcement administers export controls, especially regarding the spread of nuclear technology and highly advanced electronic technology. Under the Trump administration, the policy has been to restrict high-technology flows to China. From 1949 to 1994, the Department worked with the 17-nation Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls, which restricted technological flows to the Soviet Union and other communist nations. Since 1980, the Commerce Department works to neutralize the dumping of exports or the subsidies of overseas production. Along with the export controls this work continues to generate friction with other nations.
| Secretary of Commerce |
(Deputy Secretary of Commerce)
|Economic Development Administration|
|Minority Business Development Agency|
|National Technical Information Service|
|National Telecommunications and Information Administration|
|Office of Business Liaison|
|Office of the Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration|
|Office of the Chief Information Officer|
|Office of Executive Secretariat|
|Office of the General Counsel|
|Office of Inspector General|
|Office of Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs|
|Office of Security|
|Office of Policy and Strategic Planning|
|Office of Public Affairs|
|Office of White House Liaison|
|Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs||Bureau of the Census|
|Bureau of Economic Analysis|
|Economics and Statistics Administration|
|Office of the Chief Economist|
|Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security||Bureau of Industry and Security|
|Office of Export Enforcement|
|Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property||Patent and Trademark Office|
|Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade||International Trade Administration|
|United States Commercial Service|
|Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere||National Marine Fisheries Service|
|National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|
|National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps|
|National Ocean Service|
|National Weather Service|
|Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research|
|Office of Marine and Aviation Operations|
|Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology||National Institute of Standards and Technology|
The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows:
|Management and Finance|
|Office of the Inspector General||$35.5|
|Economic Development Administration||$248.1|
|Bureau of Economic Analysis||$111.0|
|International Trade and Investment Administration||$497.3|
|Bureau of Industry and Security||$110.5|
|Minority Business Development Agency||$28.3|
|National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration||$5,684.7|
|Patent and Trademark Office||$3,439.5|
|National Institute of Standards and Technology||$904.9|
|National Telecommunications and Information Administration||$51|
|Public Safety Broadband Network||$2,275|
This section needs to be updated.March 2018)(
Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades.The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had historically been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, and advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, and Department of the Treasury. The Economic Development Administration would be completely eliminated.
On January 13, 2012, President Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports. The new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative, currently part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, and the Small Business Administration, which are all currently independent agencies. The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U.S. exports in five years.The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; a statistical division including the United States Census Bureau and other data-collection agencies currently in the Commerce Department, and also the Bureau of Labor Statistics which would be transferred from the Department of Labor; a trade and investment policy office; and a small business development office. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. Later that year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan. The reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would then be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority.
The Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements. Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy, especially given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view.The overall plan has also been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which was abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth. NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies already in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems. The plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal that was released in February 2015.
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer, businessman, and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U.S. Food Administration, and served as the 3rd U.S. Secretary of Commerce.
The United States Department of State (DOS), commonly referred to as the State Department, is a federal executive department responsible for carrying out U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department, its duties include advising the President of the United States, administering the nation's diplomatic missions, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, and representing the U.S. at the United Nations.
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The members of the Cabinet are the vice president and the Secretary of State and other heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom — if eligible — are in the presidential line of succession.
The United States Secretary of Commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The secretary is appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate and serves in the president's Cabinet. The secretary is concerned with promoting American businesses and industries; the department states its mission to be "to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce".
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments. The department is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Labor.
The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that deals with issues involving national security and high technology. A principal goal for the bureau is helping stop proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, while furthering the growth of United States exports. The Bureau is led by the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the United States Department of Commerce is a U.S. government agency that provides official macroeconomic and industry statistics, most notably reports about the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States and its various units—states, cities/towns/townships/villages/counties and metropolitan areas. They also provide information about personal income, corporate profits, and government spending in their National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs).
The International Trade Administration (ITA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes United States exports of nonagricultural U.S. services and goods.
The Oklahoma Department of Commerce is a department of the government of Oklahoma under the Oklahoma Secretary of Commerce. The Department is responsible for the supporting local communities, stimulating growth of the existing businesses, attracting new business, and promoting the development and availability of a skilled workforce. The Department is the lead agency for economic development in the state. The Department is led by and under the control of a Director appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, with the approval of the Oklahoma Senate, to serve at the pleasure of the Governor.
Executive Schedule is the system of salaries given to the highest-ranked appointed officials in the executive branch of the U.S. government. The President of the United States appoints individuals to these positions, most with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. They include members of the president's Cabinet, several top-ranking officials of each executive department, the directors of some of the more prominent departmental and independent agencies, and several members of the Executive Office of the President.
The Export Yellow Pages (EYP), was a multi-media trade and promotion resource for exporters that provides U.S. companies, exporters and export related service providers across all industries a convenient way to engage in export promotion and establish contacts and conduct business and trade around the globe with international buyers. Through the EYP, the Department of Commerce offers all U.S. companies and service providers a free online and print business directory listing and access to the directory and multi-media export. The Export Yellow Pages is located at http://www.exportyellowpages.com.
The Herbert C. Hoover Building is the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the United States Department of Commerce.
The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States government, which was concerned with controlling the excesses of big business.
The U.S.–China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) is a high-level dialogue for the United States and China to discuss a wide range of regional and global strategic and economic issues between both countries. The establishment of the S&ED was announced on April 1, 2009 by U.S. President Barack Obama and Chinese President Hu Jintao. The upgraded mechanism replaced the former Senior Dialogue and Strategic Economic Dialogue started under the George W. Bush administration. The format is such that high-level representatives of both countries and their delegations will meet annually at capitals alternating between the two countries.
The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) was a US labor law and consumer law passed by the US Congress to authorize the President to regulate industry for fair wages and prices that would stimulate economic recovery. It also established a national public works program known as the Public Works Administration (PWA), not to be confused with the Works Progress Administration (WPA) of 1935. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) portion was widely hailed in 1933, but by 1934 business' opinion of the act had soured. By March 1934 the “NRA was engaged chiefly in drawing up these industrial codes for all industries to adopt." However, the NIRA was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935 and not replaced.
The Wisconsin Department of Commerce was a department in the executive branch of the Government of Wisconsin. It was responsible for implementing and overseeing the economic development programs for Wisconsin through consultation, technical assistance, and relocation assistance. It also administered the distribution of federal economic assistance programs to local governments and businesses, and acts as a go-between for businesses and other government agencies. The department also enforced laws regarding safety and sanitation in buildings, petroleum products, and petroleum tanks. It also gave housing assistance to low income families.
Rebecca M. Blank is an American academic administrator and former government official who serves as the current chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Prior to her role in the University of Wisconsin System, Blank served in various roles in the United States Department of Commerce, including as Acting United States Secretary of Commerce.
The National Export Initiative (NEI) is a strategy created by the Obama administration to double U.S. exports between 2010 and the end of 2014 and support 2 million domestic jobs through increased intergovernmental cooperation in export promotion. The initiative was created by Executive Order 13534 after President Barack Obama called for the doubling of U.S. exports in his 2010 State of the Union address.
The United States Committee on the Marine Transportation System (CMTS) is an inter-agency committee authorized by the United States Coast Guard and the Maritime Transportation Act of 2012 to coordinate policies affecting the U.S. Marine Transportation System (MTS).
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