United States Department of Health and Human Services

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United States Department of Health & Human Services
Seal of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Flag of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
DHHS2 by Matthew Bisanz.JPG
Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Department Headquarters
Department overview
FormedApril 11, 1953;65 years ago (1953-04-11) (as Department of Health, Education, and Welfare)
May 4, 1980 (1980-05-04) (as United States Department of Health & Human Services)
Preceding agencies
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters Hubert H. Humphrey Building
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Employees79,540 (2015) [1]
Department executives
Website www.hhs.gov
The HHS headquarters in Washington, D.C. 12-07-13-washington-by-RalfR-03.jpg
The HHS headquarters in Washington, D.C.

The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". [2] Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).

Cabinet of the United States Advisory body to the President of the United States

The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause of the Constitution, is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the Vice President, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Among the senior officers of the Cabinet are the Vice President and the heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom—if eligible—are in the line of succession. Members of the Cabinet serve at the pleasure of the President, who can dismiss them at will for no cause. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are also subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors".

Federal government of the United States national government of the United States

The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and several island possessions. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.

Health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, as it may have limited value for implementation. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical, mental and social challenges throughout life.

Contents

HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, who is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The United States Public Health Service (PHS) is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate.

United States Secretary of Health and Human Services

The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with health matters. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The office was formerly Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

United States Public Health Service division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General who is responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.

The United States of America has seven federal uniformed services that commission officers as defined by Title 10 and subsequently structured and organized by Title 10, Title 14, Title 32 and Title 42 of the United States Code.

Surgeon General of the United States Head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps

The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States. The Surgeon General's office and staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General (OSG) which is housed within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.

History

Federal Security Agency

The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P.L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health, education, and social security. The first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt. [3] The new agency originally consisted of the following major components: (1) Office of the Administrator, (2) Public Health Service (PHS), (3) Office of Education, (4) Civilian Conservation Corps, and (5) Social Security Board.

Reorganization Act of 1939

The Reorganization Act of 1939, Pub.L. 76–19, 53 Stat. 561, enacted April 3, 1939, codified at 5 U.S.C. § 133, is an American Act of Congress which gave the President of the United States the authority to hire additional confidential staff and reorganize the executive branch for two years subject to legislative veto. It was the first major, planned reorganization of the executive branch of the government of the United States since 1787. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the Executive Office of the President.

Paul V. McNutt American diplomat

Paul Vories McNutt was an American diplomat and politician who served as the 34th Governor of Indiana, high commissioner to the Philippines, administrator of the Federal Security Agency, chairman of the War Manpower Commission and ambassador to the Philippines.

By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health, education, and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, Labor and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people. Consequently, in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The plan was approved April 1, 1953, and became effective on April 11, 1953.

Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a later statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code. The result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes.[ citation needed ]

List of Federal Security Agency Administrators
NameDates of service
Paul V. McNutt [4] July 13, 1939 – September 14, 1945
Watson B. Miller [4] October 11, 1945 – August 26, 1947
Oscar R. Ewing [4] August 27, 1947 – January 20, 1953
Oveta Culp Hobby [4] January 21, 1953 – April 11, 1953

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Seal of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.png
Flag of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.png
Flag of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.png
Flag of the United States Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.png
Flag of the United States Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.png
The seal of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the flag of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the flag of the U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, the flag of the U.S. Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the flag of the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913. The Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the Secretary of HEW and all components of the Agency to the Department. The first Secretary of HEW was Oveta Culp Hobby, a native of Texas, who had served as Commander of the Women's Army Corps in World War II and was editor and publisher of the Houston Post . Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as Secretary, she had been FSA Administrator since January 21, 1953.

Oveta Culp Hobby US Army officer and government official

Oveta Culp Hobby was the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first director of the Women's Army Corps, and a chairperson of the board of the Houston Post.

Womens Army Corps was the womens branch of the United States Army

The Women's Army Corps (WAC) was the women's branch of the United States Army. It was created as an auxiliary unit, the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) on 15 May 1942 by Public Law 554, and converted to an active duty status in the Army of the United States as the WAC on 1 July 1943. Its first director was Oveta Culp Hobby, a prominent woman in Texas society. The WAC was disbanded in 1978, and all units were integrated with male units.

<i>Houston Post</i> former newspaper of Houston, Texas

The Houston Post was a newspaper that had its headquarters in Houston, Texas, United States. In 1995, the newspaper shut down, and its assets were purchased by the Houston Chronicle.

The six major program-operating components of the new Department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the Food and Drug Administration, the Social Security Administration, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, and St. Elizabeth's Hospital. The Department was also responsible for three federally aided corporations: Howard University, the American Printing House for the Blind, and the Columbia Institution for the Deaf (Gallaudet College since 1954). [4]

List of Secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare [4]
NameDates of service
Oveta Culp Hobby April 11, 1953 – July 31, 1955
Marion B. Folsom August 1, 1955 – July 31, 1958
Arthur Flemming August 1, 1958 – January 19, 1961
Abraham Ribicoff January 21, 1961 – July 13, 1962
Anthony J. Celebrezze July 31, 1962 – August 17, 1965
John W. Gardner August 18, 1965 – March 1, 1968
Wilbur J. Cohen (designate)March 22, 1968 – May 16, 1968
Wilbur J. CohenMay 16, 1968 – January 20, 1969
Robert H. Finch January 21, 1969 – June 23, 1970
Elliot L. Richardson June 24, 1970 – January 29, 1973
Caspar W. Weinberger February 12, 1973 – August 8, 1975
Forrest David Mathews August 8, 1975 – January 20, 1977
Joseph A. Califano Jr. January 20, 1977 – August 3, 1979
Patricia Roberts Harris August 3, 1979 – May 4, 1980

Department of Health & Human Services

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) in 1979, [5] when its education functions were transferred to the newly created United States Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act. [6] HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, and Family Support Administration.

In 1995, the Social Security Administration was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, and established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.

The 2010 United States federal budget established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system. [7]

Organization

The Department of Health & Human Services is led by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a member of the United States Cabinet appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate. The Secretary is assisted in managing the Department by the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, who is also appointed by the President. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary are further assisted by seven Assistant Secretaries, who serve as top Departmental administrators.

As of Jan. 20, 2018, this is the top level of the organizational chart. HHS provides further organizational detail on its website.

Several agencies within HHS are components of the USPHS or Public Health Service (PHS), as noted below.

Office of Inspector General

The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) investigates criminal activity for HHS. The special agents who work for OIG have the same title series "1811", training and authority as other federal criminal investigators, such as the FBI, ATF, DEA and Secret Service. However, OIG Special Agents have special skills in investigating white collar crime related to Medicare and Medicaid fraud and abuse. Organized crime has dominated the criminal activity relative to this type of fraud.

HHS-OIG investigates tens of millions of dollars in Medicare fraud each year. In addition, OIG will continue its coverage of all 50 states and the District of Columbia by its multi-agency task forces (PSOC Task Forces) that identify, investigate, and prosecute individuals who willfully avoid payment of their child support obligations under the Child Support Recovery Act.

HHS-OIG agents also provide protective services to the Secretary of HHS, and other department executives as necessary.

In 2002, the department released Healthy People 2010, a national strategic initiative for improving the health of Americans.

With the passage of the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, and the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the Office of the Inspector General has taken an emboldened stance against healthcare related non-compliance, most notably for violations of Stark Law and the Anti-Kickback Statute. [8]

In 2015, the OIG issued a fraud alert as a warning to hospitals and healthcare systems to monitor and comply with their physician compensation arrangements. [9]

Recent years have seen dramatic increases in both the number and the amounts of Stark Law violation settlements, prompting healthcare experts to identify a need for automated solutions that manage physician arrangements by centralizing necessary information with regard to physician-hospital integration. [10] Contract management software companies such as Meditract provide options for health systems to organize and store physician contracts. Ludi Inc introduced DocTime Log®, an SaaS solution that specifically addresses this growing concern, automating physician time logging in compliance with contract terms to eliminate Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Statute violations. [11]

Former operating divisions and agencies

Relationship with state and local health departments

There are three tiers of health departments, the federal health department, state health department and local health department. In relation with state and local government, the federal government provides states with funding to ensure that states are able to retain current programs and are able to implement new programs. The coordination between all three health departments is critical to ensure the programs being implemented are well structured and suited to the corresponding level of health department. The health department at state level needs to safeguard good relations with legislators as well as governors in order to acquire legal and financial aid to guarantee the development and enhancements of the programs. Assemblies are set up to guide the relationships between state and local health departments. The state sets up the regulations and health policies whereas the local health departments are the ones implementing the health policies and services. [12] [13]

As of 2018, there are ten regional offices that have separated the states in groups of four to eight. These offices directly work with the state departments, local governments, and tribal councils. The directors from each regional office are appointed directly by the active president. The follow is a list of who runs each regional office:

Region 1: John McGough Region 6: Mervin Turner

Region 2: Dennis González Region 7: Jeff Kahrs

Region 3: Matt Baker Region 8: Brian Shiozawa

Region 4: Renee Ellmers Region 9: Unknown

Region 5: Douglas O' Brien Region 10: John R. Graham

Budget and finances

The Department of Health & Human Services was authorized a budget for fiscal year 2015 of $1.020 trillion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: [14]

ProgramFunding (in billions)
Management and Finance
Departmental Management$1.4
Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund$1.4
Operating Divisions
Food and Drug Administration $2.6
Health Resources and Services Administration $10.4
Indian Health Service $4.8
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention $6.7
National Institutes of Health $30.4
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration $3.4
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality $0.4
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services $906.8
Administration for Children and Families $51.3
Administration for Community Living $2.1
TOTAL1,020.3

Programs

The Department of Health & Human Services' administers 115 programs across its 11 operating divisions. [15] The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) aims to "protect the health of all Americans and provide essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves." [16] These federal programs consist of social service programs, civil rights and healthcare privacy programs, disaster preparedness programs, and health related research. HHS offers a variety of social service programs geared toward persons with low income, disabilities, military families, and senior citizens. [17] Healthcare rights are defined under HHS in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which protect patient's privacy in regards to medical information, protects workers health insurance when unemployed, and sets guidelines surrounding some health insurance. HHS collaborates with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and Office of Emergency Management to prepare and respond to health emergencies. [18] [19] A broad array of health related research is supported or completed under the HHS; secondarily under HHS, the Health Resources & Service Administration houses data warehouses and makes health data available surrounding a multitude of topics. [20] [21] HHS also has vast offering of health related resources and tools to help educate the public on health policies and pertinent population health information. Some examples of available resources include disease prevention, wellness, health insurance information, as well as links to healthcare providers and facilities, meaningful health related materials, public health and safety information. [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

Some highlights include:

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

This program is to ensure the act and accountability of medical professionals to respect and carry-out basic human health rights. In the United States, the government feels that it is essential for the American people to understand their civil duty and rights to all of their medical information. That includes: health insurance policies or medical records from every doctor or emergency visit in one's life. Through Health & Human services one is able to file a complaint that their HIPAA rights have been violated or a consultant that will be able to decide if their rights were violated.

Social Services

This branch has everything to do with the social justice, wellness, and care of all people throughout the United States. This includes but is not limited to people who need government assistance, foster care, unaccompanied alien children, daycares (headstart included), adoption, senior citizens, and disability programs. Social services is one of it not the largest branch of programs underneath it that has a wide variety throughout the United States at a state and local level.

Prevention and Wellness

The prevention and wellness program's main idea is to give the American people the ability to live the healthiest and best lifestyle physically that they can. They are the ones who deal with vaccines and immunizations, which fight from common diseases to deadly ones. The nutrition & fitness program that are the basics of healthy eating and regular exercise. Health screenings & family health history which are crucial in the knowledge of each individual's health and body. A severely important one especially in today's society is mental health & substance abuse in where they help people with mental illness and drug abuse. Lastly, they help with environmental health where people are researching and studying how our environments both physical and metaphorically have a short and long term effect on our health and wellness.

Strengthening Communities Fund

In June 2010, the Department of Health & Human Services created the Strengthening Communities Fund [29] as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fund was appropriated $50 million to be given as grants to organizations in the United States who were engaged in Capacity Building programs. The grants were given to two different types of capacity builders:

Biodefense

HHS plays a role in protecting the United States against bioterrorism events. In 2018, HHS released a new National Biodefense Strategy required by passage of the 2016 Biodefense Strategy Act. The Biodefense Strategy required implementation of a biodefense strategy after a 2015 Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense report found that the 2009 National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats was inadequate in protecting the U.S. The strategy adopted these five central recommendations: creating a single centralized approach to biodefense; implementing an interdisciplinary approach to biodefense that brings together policy makers, scientists, health experts, and academics; drawing up a comprehensive strategy to address human, plant, and animal health; creating a defense against global and domestic biological threats; and creating a proactive policy to combat the misuse and abuse of advanced biotechnology. [31]

HHS also runs the Biodefense Steering Committee, which works with other federal agencies including the Department of State, Department of Defense (DOD), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Environmental Protection Agency. [31] HHS specifically oversees Project BioShield, established in 2003 and operating since 2004, and its development and production of genetically based bio-weapons and vaccines. HHS together with DHS are authorized under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to deploy the weapons and vaccines produced by Project BioShield on the US general public under martial law during "emerging terrorist threats" or public health emergencies. Both HHS and DHS have similar authorities through state-based legislation adopted from Model State Emergency Health Powers Act provisions.

Criticisms and controversies

In 2016, a published US Senate report revealed that several dozen unaccompanied children from Central America, some as young as fourteen years old, were released from custody to traffickers where they were sexually assaulted, starved or forced to work for little or no pay. [32] The HHS sub agency Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) released approximately 90,000 unaccompanied children during 2013-2015 but did not track their whereabouts or properly screen families accepting these children. [33]

To prevent similar episodes, the Homeland Security and Health & Human Services Departments signed a memorandum of understanding in 2016, and agreed to establish joint procedures within one year for dealing with unaccompanied migrant children. As of 2018 they have failed to do so. Between October and December 2017, officials from ORR tried to contact 7,635 children and their sponsors. From these calls, officials learned that 6,075 children remained with their sponsors. Twenty-eight had run away, five had been removed from the United States and fifty-two had relocated to live with a non sponsor. However, officials have lost track of 1,475 children. [34] ORR claims it is not legally liable for the safety and status of the children once released from custody. [35]

DHS claims the migrating children are "terror threats", [36] [37] despite all evidence[ citation needed ] to the contrary. After falsely categorizing people as terror threats, a range of unconstitutional activities can be undertaken by HHS and DHS.[ citation needed ]

Beyond trafficking and disappearing migrating children, HHS is evidenced to be actively coercing and forcing bio-substances such as antipsychotics [38] on migrating children without consent, and under questionable medical supervision. Medical professionals state that wrongly prescribed antipsychotics are especially dangerous for children, and can cause permanent psychological damage. [39] Medical professionals also state DHS and HHS incarceration and separation policies are likewise causing irreparable mental harm to the children. [40] [41]

Children are also dying in HHS custody. [42] The forced drugging, deaths, and disappearances of migrating Mexican and Central American children might be related to DHS falsely labeling them and their families as 'terror threats' before HHS manages their incarcerations. Despite a federal court order, [43] the DHS separation practices mandated by the Trump administration's "zero-tolerance" policy [44] have not been halted, and HHS has not stopped forcing drugs on the children it incarcerates.

Freedom of Information Act processing performance

In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act (United States) (FOIA) requests published in 2015 (using 2012 and 2013 data, the most recent years available), the DHHS ranked second to last, earning an F by scoring 57 out of a possible 100 points, largely due to a low score on its particular disclosure rules. It had deteriorated from a D- in 2013. [45]

See also

Notes and references

  1. (ASFR), Office of Budget (OB), Assistant Secretary for Financial Resources (March 27, 2014). "2015 Budget in Brief". Archived from the original on May 2, 2015.
  2. "About HHS". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  3. "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. A Common Thread of Service: An Historical Guide to HEW. DHEW Publication No. (OS) 73-45". July 1, 1972. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Preliminary inventory of the records of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (PI 181, Record Group 235), National Archives and Records Service, 1975.
  5. "Office of the Law Revision Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives, Title 20, Section 3508". house.gov. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  6. Full text of the Department of Education Organization Act Archived May 7, 2018, at the Wayback Machine , P.L. 96-88.
  7. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved March 6, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Becker's Hospital Review". Archived from the original on August 29, 2015.
  9. "Becker's Hospital Review" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 1, 2015.
  10. "Becker's Hospital Review". Archived from the original on July 14, 2015.
  11. "Ludi, Inc. Closes $1M in Series A Financing". Business Wire . Archived from the original on September 10, 2015.
  12. "Policy Statement Development Process". American Public Health Association. Archived from the original on October 1, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  13. "The State Health Department". American public health department. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  14. 2015 Department of Health & Human Services Budget-in-Brief Archived March 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine , pg 10, United States Department of Health & Human Services, Accessed July 14, 2015.
  15. Budget and Performance Archived April 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . HHS.gov. Retrieved on April 15, 2014.
  16. (ASPA), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (January 29, 2015). "Programs & Services". HHS.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  17. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Social Services". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  18. "Preparedness Home - PHE". www.phe.gov. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017.
  19. "Office of Emergency Management - PHE". www.phe.gov. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017.
  20. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Research". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  21. "HealthData.gov". www.healthdata.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  22. (ASPA), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (January 29, 2015). "Programs & Services". HHS.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  23. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Prevention & Wellness". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  24. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Health Insurance". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  25. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (April 9, 2015). "Providers & Facilities". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  26. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (March 3, 2015). "Featured Topic Sites". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  27. (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Public Health & Safety". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  28. "Home - Office of Child Support Enforcement - Administration for Children and Families". Archived from the original on August 18, 2015.
  29. "Strengthening Communities Fund". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013.
  30. "Strengthening Communities Fund: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Implementation Plan" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. May 24, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013.
  31. 1 2 "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Multi-Disciplinary Threats". The Pandora Report. 2018-10-04. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  32. "Almost 1,500 Migrant Children Placed in Homes by the U.S. Government Went Missing Last Year". Time. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  33. "U.S. Placed Immigrant Children With Traffickers, Report Says". The New York Times. 2016-01-28. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  34. "Federal Agencies Lost Track of Nearly 1,500 Migrant Children Placed With Sponsors". The New York Times. 2018-04-26. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  35. CNN, Dakin Andone,. "US lost track of 1,500 immigrant children, but says it's not 'legally responsible'". CNN. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  36. Salvador Rizzo, January 7, 2019
  37. Ackerman, Spencer (January 10, 2019). "DHS Accused of Lying, Again, About a Terrorism-Immigration Link" . Retrieved March 7, 2019 via www.thedailybeast.com.
  38. Caroline Chen, Jess Ramirez (July 20, 2018). "Immigrant Shelters Drug Traumatized Teenagers Without…". ProPublica. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  39. Chan, Tara Francis. "Migrant children say they've been forcibly drugged, handcuffed, and abused in US government detention". Business Insider. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  40. "Children Separated From Parents". Psychology Today. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  41. "Doctors Concerned About 'Irreparable Harm' To Separated Migrant Children". NPR.org. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  42. Merchant, Nomaan (December 27, 2018). "Deaths of 2 children raise doubts about US border agency". AP NEWS. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  43. Editorial Board, June 27, 2018
  44. "Attorney General Announces Zero-Tolerance Policy for Criminal Illegal Entry". www.justice.gov. April 6, 2018. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  45. Making the Grade: Access to Information Scorecard 2015 Archived March 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine March 2015, 80 pages, Center for Effective Government, retrieved March 21, 2016.

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William H. Stewart was an American pediatrician and epidemiologist. He was appointed tenth Surgeon General of the United States from 1965 to 1969.

In the United States, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is a generic term for the oversight division of a federal or state agency aimed at preventing inefficient or illegal operations within their parent agency. Such offices are attached to many federal executive departments, independent federal agencies, as well as state and local governments. Each office includes an inspector general and employees charged with identifying, auditing, and investigating fraud, waste, abuse, embezzlement and mismanagement of any kind within the executive department.

A health department or health ministry is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry. Subnational entities, such as states, counties and cities, often also operate a health department of their own. Health departments perform food inspections and other health related inspections, vaccination programs, free STD and HIV tests, tobacco enforcement and cessation programs, and other medical assistance programs. Health departments also compile statistics about health issues of their area.The role of a health department may vary from one country to the other, but their primary objective is always the same; safeguarding and promoting health. In 1986, several of the world's national health departments met to establish an international guideline by which health departments operate. The meeting was in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and hence the guidelines established are known as the Ottawa Charter. The Ottawa Charter was designed to 'achieve Health for All'.

United States Office of Research Integrity

The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) is a U.S. government agency that focuses on research integrity, especially in health. It was created when the Office of Scientific Integrity (OSI) in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Office of Scientific Integrity Review (OSIR) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health merged in May 1992. The Office of Research Integrity oversees and directs Public Health Service (PHS) research integrity activities on behalf of the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the exception of the regulatory research integrity activities of the Food and Drug Administration.

Assistant Secretary for Health USHHS primary advisor on US public health

The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) serves as the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services's primary advisor on matters involving the nation's public health and, if serving as an active member in the regular corps, is the highest ranking uniformed officer in the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC). The ASH oversees all matters pertaining to the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS), the main division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), for the Secretary as well as provide strategic and policy direction for the PHSCC. The PHS comprises almost all the agency divisions of the HHS as well as the PHSCC, a uniformed service of more than 6,700 health professionals who serve at the HHS, other federal agencies, and/or are assigned details to the armed forces. The ASH is a civilian or a uniformed member of the regular corps and is nominated for appointment by the President. The nominee must also be confirmed by the Senate. The ASH serves a four-year term of office at the pleasure of the President. If the appointee is a serving member of the regular corps, he or she is also appointed as a four-star admiral in the regular corps. The President may also nominate a civilian appointee to also be appointed a direct commission into the regular corps if the nominee so chooses. As such the position of ASH is the only office in the PHS that merits a four-star grade in the regular corps. The Assistant Secretary's office and staff are known as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH). The current Assistant Secretary for Health is Admiral Brett Giroir.

Project Bioshield Act

The Project Bioshield Act was an act passed by the United States Congress in 2004 calling for $5 billion for purchasing vaccines that would be used in the event of a bioterrorist attack. This was a ten-year program to acquire medical countermeasures to biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents for civilian use. A key element of the Act was to allow stockpiling and distribution of vaccines which had not been tested for safety or efficacy in humans, due to ethical concerns. Efficacy of such agents cannot be directly tested in humans without also exposing humans to the chemical, biological, or radioactive threat being treated, so testing follows the FDA Animal Rule for pivotal animal efficacy.

Federal law enforcement in the United States Wikimedia list article

The federal government of the United States empowers a wide range of law enforcement agencies to maintain law and public order related to matters affecting the country as a whole.

The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is charged with identifying and combating waste, fraud, and abuse in the HHS’s more than 300 programs, including Medicare and programs conducted by agencies within HHS, such as the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institutes of Health. Since 2004, Daniel R. Levinson has served as HHS’s Inspector General, a presidentially appointed, nonpartisan position.

The Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE) is a United States government office responsible for overseeing the U.S. child support program. Child support is the obligation on parents to provide financial support for their children. OCSE was established with the Federal Government’s enactment of Child Support Enforcement and Paternity Establishment Program (CSE) in 1975, which was enacted to reduce welfare expenses by collecting child support from non-custodial parents.

Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013

The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a law enacted by the 113th United States Congress. The Act amends the Public Health Service Act in order to extend, fund, and improve several programs designed to prepare the United States and health professionals in the event of a pandemic, epidemic, or biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear accident or attack. The Act clarifies the authority of different American officials, makes it easier to temporarily reassign personnel to respond to emergency situations, and alters the process for testing and producing medical countermeasures. The Act is focused on improving preparedness for any public health emergency.

The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) is the principal advisory group to the United States Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on policy development and provides coordination and support for HHS’s strategic and policy planning, planning and development of legislation, program evaluation, data gathering, policy-related research, and regulatory program. ASPE refers both to the position, the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, and the office directed by that position. Since its authorization in 1965, ASPE has played an instrumental role as an internal strategy group, think tank, and incubator supporting the priorities and needs of the Secretary, and consequently, the Department as a whole.

Strengthening Public Health Emergency Response Act of 2015

The Strengthening Public Health Emergency Response Act of 2015, H.R. 3299, is a bill introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives that would streamline government decisions and provide incentives for vaccines and treatment of dangerous pathogens and diseases. The bill was introduced by Representatives Susan Brooks (R-IN) and Anna Eshoo (D-CA).

Robert Kadlec

Robert P. Kadlec is an American physician and career officer in the United States Air Force who currently serves as Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Services.