Presidential Medal of Freedom

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Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom.svg
TypeMedal
Awarded for"An especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors." [1] [2]
Presented bythe President of the United States of America
Total recipients647; an average of fewer than 11 per year since 1993
Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction (ribbon).svg Presidential Medal of Freedom (ribbon).svg
Service ribbon of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
(left: Medal with Distinction)
Precedence
Next (higher)None
Equivalent Congressional Gold Medal
Next (lower) Presidential Citizens Medal

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the president of the United States to recognize people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors." The Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal are the highest civilian awards of the United States. The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy, superseding the Medal of Freedom that was established by President Harry S. Truman in 1945 to honor civilian service during World War II.

Contents

History of the award

Graphical representation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction as worn with white tie PMOFwD1.jpg
Graphical representation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction as worn with white tie

Similar in name to the Medal of Freedom, [1] but much closer in meaning and precedence to the Medal for Merit, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was formerly the supreme civilian decoration in precedence in the United States, whereas the Medal of Freedom was inferior in precedence to the Medal for Merit; the Medal of Freedom was awarded by any of three Cabinet secretaries, whereas the Medal for Merit was awarded by the president, as is the Presidential Medal of Freedom. [3]

President John F. Kennedy established the current decoration in 1963 through Executive Order 11085, with unique and distinctive insignia, vastly expanded purpose, and far higher prestige. [2] [4] It was the first U.S. civilian neck decoration and, in the grade of Awarded With Distinction, is the only U.S. sash and star decoration (the Chief Commander degree of the Legion of Merit which may only be awarded to foreign heads of stateis a star decoration but without a sash). The executive order calls for the medal to be awarded annually on or around July 4, and at other convenient times as chosen by the president, [3] but it has not been awarded every year (e.g., 2001, 2010). Recipients are selected by the president, either on the president's own initiative or based on recommendations. The order establishing the medal also expanded the size and the responsibilities of the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board so it could serve as a major source of such recommendations.

The medal may be awarded to an individual more than once; Colin Powell received two awards, his second being With Distinction; [5] Ellsworth Bunker received both of his awards With Distinction. It may also be awarded posthumously; examples (in chronological order) include John Wayne, John F. Kennedy, Pope John XXIII, Lyndon Johnson, Paul "Bear" Bryant, Thurgood Marshall, Cesar Chavez, Walter Reuther, Roberto Clemente, Jack Kemp, Harvey Milk, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, Elouise Cobell, Grace Hopper, [6] Antonin Scalia, Elvis Presley and Babe Ruth. [7] (Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner, civil rights workers murdered in 1964, were awarded their medals in 2014, 50 years later.)

Insignia

Medal and accoutrements including undress ribbon, miniature, and lapel badge Presidential-medal-of-freedom.jpg
Medal and accoutrements including undress ribbon, miniature, and lapel badge

The badge of the Presidential Medal of Freedom is in the form of a golden star with white enamel, with a red enamel pentagon behind it; the central disc bears thirteen gold stars on a blue enamel background (taken from the Great Seal of the United States) within a golden ring. Golden North American bald eagles with spread wings stand between the points of the star. It is worn around the neck on a blue ribbon with white edge stripes. Women may choose to wear the award on a bow on the left chest (See award being given to Margaret Thatcher).

A special rarely given grade of the medal, known as the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction, [8] has a larger execution of the same medal design worn as a star on the left chest along with a sash over the right shoulder (similar to how the insignia of a Grand Cross is worn), with its rosette (blue with white edge, bearing the central disc of the medal at its center) resting on the left hip. When the medal With Distinction is awarded, the star may be presented descending from a neck ribbon and can be identified by its larger size than the standard medal (compare the size of medals in pictures below).

Both medals may also be worn in miniature form on a ribbon on the left chest, with a silver North American bald eagle with spread wings on the ribbon, or a golden North American bald eagle for a medal awarded With Distinction. In addition, the medal is accompanied by a service ribbon for wear on military service uniform, a miniature medal pendant for wear on mess dress or civilian formal wear, and a lapel badge for wear on civilian clothes (all shown in the accompanying photograph of the full presentation set).

Recipients

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Executive Order 9586, signed July 6, 1945; Federal Register 10 FR 8523, July 10, 1945
  2. 1 2 Executive Order 11085, signed February 22, 1960; Federal Register 28
  3. 1 2 "U.S. Senate: Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". 17 November 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  4. "President Kennedy's Executive Order 11085: Presidential Medal of Freedom - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". www.jfklibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  5. Clinton, W. J. (September 30, 1993). "Remarks on the Retirement of General Colin Powell in Arlington, Virginia". University of California, Santa Barbara: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 18, 2016. In recognition of your legacy and service, of your courage and accomplishment, today, General Powell, I was honored to present you with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with distinction. I want to tell all those here in attendance that this was the second Medal of Freedom you have received, the first from President Bush in 1991. And today, you became only the second American citizen in the history of the Republic to be the recipient of two Medals of Freedom.
  6. US White House (November 16, 2016). "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". whitehouse.gov . Retrieved 22 Nov 2016 via National Archives.
  7. Stracqualursi, Veronica. "Trump to award Medal of Freedom to Elvis, Babe Ruth, among others". CNN. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  8. Torreon, Barbara Salazar (31 Mar 2004). A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. RS20884. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service – Library of Congress (United States Government). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-09. There are two degrees of the Medal, the higher being the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction.