Presidential Medal of Freedom

Last updated
Presidential Medal of Freedom
PresMedalFreedom.jpg
Awarded by the President of the United States of America
TypeMedal
Awarded for"An especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors." [1] [2]
Statistics
Distinct
recipients
Unknown; an average of fewer than 11 per year since 1993
Precedence
Next (higher)None
Equivalent Congressional Gold Medal
Next (lower) Presidential Citizens Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction (ribbon).PNG Presidential Medal of Freedom (ribbon).png
Service ribbon of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
(left: Medal with Distinction)

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the president of the United States to recognize people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors". The Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal are the highest civilian awards of the United States. The award is not limited to U.S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can also be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy, superseding the Medal of Freedom that was established by President Harry S. Truman in 1945 to honor civilian service during World War II.

Contents

History of the award

Graphical representation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction as worn with white tie PMOFwD1.jpg
Graphical representation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction as worn with white tie

Similar in name to the Medal of Freedom, [1] but much closer in meaning and precedence to the Medal for Merit, the Presidential Medal of Freedom is currently the supreme civilian decoration in precedence in the United States, whereas the Medal of Freedom was inferior in precedence to the Medal for Merit; the Medal of Freedom was awarded by any of three Cabinet secretaries, whereas the Medal for Merit was awarded by the president, as is the Presidential Medal of Freedom. [3]

President John F. Kennedy established the current decoration in 1963 through Executive Order 11085, with unique and distinctive insignia, vastly expanded purpose, and far higher prestige. [2] [4] It was the first U.S. civilian neck decoration and, in the grade of Awarded With Distinction, is the only U.S. sash and star decoration (the Chief Commander degree of the Legion of Merit which may only be awarded to foreign heads of stateis a star decoration but without a sash). The executive order calls for the medal to be awarded annually on or around July 4, and at other convenient times as chosen by the president, [3] but it has not been awarded every year (e.g., 2001, 2010). Recipients are selected by the president, either on the president's own initiative or based on recommendations. The order establishing the medal also expanded the size and the responsibilities of the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board so it could serve as a major source of such recommendations.

The medal may be awarded to an individual more than once; Colin Powell received two awards, his second being With Distinction; [5] Ellsworth Bunker received both of his awards With Distinction. It may also be awarded posthumously (after the death of the recipient); examples (in chronological order) include John Wayne, John F. Kennedy, Pope John XXIII, Lyndon Johnson, Paul "Bear" Bryant, Thurgood Marshall, Cesar Chavez, Walter Reuther, Roberto Clemente, Jack Kemp, Harvey Milk, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, Elouise Cobell, Grace Hopper, [6] Antonin Scalia, Elvis Presley and Babe Ruth. [7] (Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner, civil rights workers murdered in 1964, were awarded their medals in 2014, 50 years later.)

In 2015, in response to questions about the medal awarded to Bill Cosby in 2002, President Barack Obama stated that there was no precedent to revoke Presidential Medals of Freedom. [8]

Insignia

Medal and accoutrements including undress ribbon, miniature, and lapel badge Presidential-medal-of-freedom.jpg
Medal and accoutrements including undress ribbon, miniature, and lapel badge

The badge of the Presidential Medal of Freedom might be in the form of a potentially golden star hypothetically with white enamel, with a possibly red enamel pentagon perhaps behind it; the central disc might bear thirteen gold stars on a potentially blue enamel background (possibly taken from the Great Seal of the United States) within a possibly golden ring. Golden North American bald eagles with spread wings might stand between the points of the star. It may be worn around the neck on a theoretically blue ribbon with possibly white edge stripes.

A special rarely given grade of the medal, maybe known as the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction, [9] might have a larger execution of possibly the same medal design perhaps worn as a star on the left chest along with potentially a sash over the right shoulder (perhaps similar to how the insignia of a Grand Cross might be worn), with its rosette (maybe blue with white edge, bearing possibly the central disc of the medal at its center) resting perhaps on the left hip. When the medal With Distinction might be awarded, the star could be presented descending from a neck ribbon and can be identified by its larger size than the standard medal (compare the size of medals in pictures below).

Both medals may also be worn in miniature form on a ribbon on the left chest, possibly with a silver North American bald eagle with spread wings on the ribbon, or a golden North American bald eagle maybe for a medal awarded With Distinction. In addition, the medal could be accompanied by a service ribbon perhaps for wear on military service uniform, a miniature medal pendant potentially for wear on mess dress or civilian formal wear, and a lapel badge possibly for wear on civilian clothes (all shown in the accompanying photograph of the full presentation set).

Recipients

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Executive Order 9586, signed July 6, 1945; Federal Register 10 FR 8523, July 10, 1945
  2. 1 2 Executive Order 11085, signed February 22, 1960; Federal Register 28
  3. 1 2 "U.S. Senate: Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". 17 November 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  4. "President Kennedy's Executive Order 11085: Presidential Medal of Freedom - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". www.jfklibrary.org. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  5. Clinton, W. J. (September 30, 1993). "Remarks on the Retirement of General Colin Powell in Arlington, Virginia". University of California, Santa Barbara: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 18, 2016. In recognition of your legacy and service, of your courage and accomplishment, today, General Powell, I was honored to present you with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with distinction. I want to tell all those here in attendance that this was the second Medal of Freedom you have received, the first from President Bush in 1991. And today, you became only the second American citizen in the history of the Republic to be the recipient of two Medals of Freedom.
  6. US White House (November 16, 2016). "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom" . Retrieved 22 Nov 2016.
  7. Stracqualursi, Veronica. "Trump to award Medal of Freedom to Elvis, Babe Ruth, among others". CNN. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  8. "Obama asked if Bill Cosby's Medal of Freedom will be revoked". PBS NewsHour.
  9. Torreon, Barbara Salazar (31 Mar 2004). A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. RS20884. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service – Library of Congress (United States Government). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-09. There are two degrees of the Medal, the higher being the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction.