List of United States senators from Massachusetts

Last updated

Current delegation

Below is a chronological listing of the United States senators from Massachusetts . According to the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution adopted in 1913, U.S. senators are popularly elected for a six-year term. Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1, and terms begin on January 3, about two months after the vote. Before 1914, and the enforcement of the Seventeenth Amendment, the state's U.S. senators were chosen by the Massachusetts General Court, and before 1935, their terms began March 4.

Contents

The current senators are Democrats Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey. Ted Kennedy was Massachusetts's longest-serving senator, serving from 1962 until his death in 2009.

Mid-term vacancy appointment processes

Through the 20th century, mid-term vacancies were filled with the governor's appointee, with the appointment expiring at the next biennial state election. In 2004, the Democratic-controlled state legislature changed the vacancy-filling process, mandating that a special election occur, which removed the governor's appointment power. This statute was enacted over the veto by the governor, Mitt Romney. The leadership of the Massachusetts legislature at the time was concerned that the Republican Governor Mitt Romney would appoint a Republican if Democratic Senator John Kerry were elected president of the United States in the 2004 election. [1] [2] [3] [4] Generally, the law requires a special election within 145 to 160 days from the date of the filing of a Senate resignation. The law contemplates resignations that become effective some period of time after the filing of the resignation, so long as the election occurs after effective date of the resignation. [5]

While terminally ill with brain cancer, Ted Kennedy requested that the Massachusetts legislature change the law to allow an interim appointment. Kennedy died shortly thereafter, and the legislature quickly passed a bill providing for an interim appointment. [6] On September 24, 2009, Governor Deval Patrick signed the bill, and appointed Paul G. Kirk, who had previously served as one of Kennedy's congressional aides and as chairman of the Democratic National Committee.

List of senators

Class 1

Class 1 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 2006, 2012, 2010 (special election), and 2018. The next election will be in 2024.

C

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 2008, 2013 (special election), 2014, and 2020. The next election will be in 2026.

#SenatorPartyDates in officeElectoral historyTTElectoral historyDates in officePartySenator#
1 Portrait of Tristram Dalton, 1st US Senator from Massachusetts.jpg
Tristram Dalton
Pro-
Admin.
Mar 4, 1789 –
Mar 3, 1791
Elected in 1788.
Lost re-election.
1 1st 1 Elected in 1788.Mar 4, 1789 –
Jun 1, 1796
Pro-
Admin.
Portrait of Caleb Strong (1745-1819) (frame cropped).jpg
Caleb Strong
1
2 George Cabot.jpg
George Cabot
Pro-
Admin.
Mar 4, 1791 –
Jun 9, 1796
Elected in 1790.
Resigned.
2 2nd
3rd 2 Re-elected in 1793.
Resigned.
Federalist 4th Federalist
VacantJun 9, 1796 –
Jun 11, 1796
VacantVacantJun 1, 1796 –
Jun 11, 1796
Vacant
3 Benjamin Goodhue, 1748-1814, from painting at Essex Institute by George Southward, photo by Frank Cousins, c. 1865-1914, from the Digital Commonwealth - commonwealth 2b88rh309.jpg
Benjamin Goodhue
Federalist Jun 11, 1796 –
Nov 8, 1800
Elected to finish Cabot's term. Elected to finish Strong's term.
Retired to run for the U.S. House of Representatives.
Jun 11, 1796 –
Mar 3, 1799
Federalist TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Theodore Sedgwick
2
Also elected to full term in 1796.
Resigned.
3 5th
6th 3 Elected in 1798. [7]
Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Mar 4, 1799 –
May 30, 1800
Federalist Samuel Dexter.jpg
Samuel Dexter
3
VacantMay 31, 1800 –
Jun 5, 1800
Vacant
Elected to finish Dexter's term. [8]
Resigned.
Jun 6, 1800 –
Mar 3, 1803
Federalist DFoster.jpg
Dwight Foster
4
VacantNov 8, 1800 –
Nov 14, 1800
Vacant
4 Jonathan Mason, Senator from Massachusetts, by American school of the 19th century.jpg
Jonathan Mason
Federalist Nov 14, 1800 –
Mar 3, 1803
Elected to finish Goodhue's term.
7th
VacantMar 2, 1803 –
Mar 3, 1803
Vacant
5 John Quincy Adams cropped.jpg
John Quincy Adams
Federalist Mar 4, 1803 –
Jun 8, 1808
Elected in 1803. [9]
Resigned, having lost re-election to the next term.
4 8th Elected to finish Foster's term.Mar 4, 1803 –
Mar 3, 1811
Federalist Timothy-Pickering.jpg
Timothy Pickering
5
9th 4 Re-elected in 1805. [10]
Lost re-election.
10th
6 JamesLloyd.jpg
James Lloyd
Federalist Jun 9, 1808 –
May 1, 1813
Elected to finish Adams's term, having already been elected to the next term.
Elected in 1808. [11]
Resigned.
5 11th
12th 5 State Senate failed to elect.Mar 4, 1811 –
Jun 28, 1811
Vacant
Elected in 1811, to finish the vacant term.
Retired or lost re-election.
Jun 29, 1811 –
Mar 3, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
JosephBradleyVarnum.jpg
Joseph Bradley Varnum
6
13th
VacantMay 1, 1813 –
May 5, 1813
Vacant
7 ChristopherGoreByTrumbull.jpg
Christopher Gore
Federalist May 5, 1813 –
May 30, 1816
Appointed to finish Lloyd's term.
Elected to full term in 1815.
Resigned.
6 14th
VacantMay 31, 1816 –
Jun 11, 1816
Vacant
8 Eli P. Ashmun Federalist Jun 12, 1816 –
May 10, 1818
Elected to finish Gore's term.
Resigned.
15th 6 Elected in 1816.
Resigned to run for Mayor of Boston.
Mar 4, 1817 –
May 30, 1822
Federalist Harrison Gray Otis by Chester Harding, 1833, oil on canvas, from the National Portrait Gallery - NPG-7700056A 2.jpg
Harrison Gray Otis
7
VacantMay 11, 1818 –
Jun 4, 1818
Vacant
9 PrentissMellen.jpg
Prentiss Mellen
Federalist Jun 5, 1818 –
May 15, 1820
Elected to finish Ashmun's term.
Resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine.
16th
VacantMay 16, 1820 –
Jun 12, 1820
Vacant
10 ElijahMills.jpg
Elijah H. Mills
Federalist Jun 12, 1820 –
Mar 3, 1827
Elected to finish Mellen's term.
Re-elected in 1820.7 17th
VacantMay 30, 1822 –
Jun 5, 1822
Vacant
Elected to finish Otis's term.Jun 5, 1822 –
May 23, 1826
Federalist JamesLloyd.jpg
James Lloyd
8
18th 7 Re-elected in 1822.
Resigned.
National
Republican
19th National
Republican
VacantMay 23, 1826 –
May 31, 1826
Vacant
Elected to finish Lloyd's term.May 31, 1826 –
Mar 3, 1835
National
Republican
Nathaniel Silsbee.png
Nathaniel Silsbee
9
VacantMar 4, 1827 –
Jun 8, 1827
Vacant8 20th
11 Francis Alexander - Daniel Webster - Google Art Project.jpg
Daniel Webster
National
Republican
Jun 8, 1827 –
Feb 22, 1841
Elected late in 1827.
21st 8 Re-elected in 1828.
Retired.
22nd
Re-elected in 1833.9 23rd
24th 9 Elected in 1835.
Resigned to become Governor of Massachusetts.
Mar 4, 1835 –
Jan 5, 1841
National
Republican
John Davis daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg
John Davis
10
Whig 25th Whig
Re-elected in 1839.
Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
10 26th
VacantJan 5, 1841 –
Jan 13, 1841
Vacant
Elected to finish Davis's term.Jan 13, 1841 –
Mar 16, 1845
Whig IsaacBates.jpg
Isaac C. Bates
11
12 RufusChoate Southworth Hawes-crop.png
Rufus Choate
Whig Feb 23, 1841 –
Mar 3, 1845
Elected to finish Webster's term.
Retired.
27th 10 Elected to full term in 1841.
Died.
28th
13 DanielWebster.jpg
Daniel Webster
Whig Mar 4, 1845 –
Jul 22, 1850
Elected in 1845.
Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State again.
11 29th
VacantMar 16, 1845 –
Mar 24, 1845
Vacant
Elected to finish Bates's term.Mar 24, 1845 –
Mar 3, 1853
Whig John Davis (Massachusetts Governor).jpg
John Davis
12
30th 11 Re-elected in 1847.
Retired.
31st
VacantJul 23, 1850 –
Jul 30, 1850
Vacant
14 Robert Charles Winthrop - Brady-Handy (cropped).jpg
Robert Charles Winthrop
Whig Jul 30, 1850 –
Feb 1, 1851
Appointed to continue Webster's term.
Lost election to finish Webster's term.
15 RRantoul.jpg
Robert Rantoul Jr.
Democratic Feb 1, 1851 –
Mar 3, 1851
Elected to finish Webster's term.
Retired.
VacantMar 4, 1851 –
Apr 24, 1851
The legislature initially deadlocked on who should succeed Daniel Webster. Sumner was eventually elected late.12 32nd
16 Charles Sumner - Brady-Handy.jpg
Charles Sumner
Free Soil Apr 24, 1851 –
Mar 11, 1874
33rd 12 Elected in 1853.
Resigned.
Mar 4, 1853 –
Jun 1, 1854
Whig Edward Everett.jpg
Edward Everett
13
VacantJun 1, 1854 –
Jun 3, 1854
Vacant
Appointed to continue Everett's term.
Successor was elected.
Jun 3, 1854 –
Jan 31, 1855
Whig JuliusRockwell.jpg
Julius Rockwell
14
Elected to finish Everett's term.Jan 31, 1855 –
Mar 3, 1873
Free Soil Henry Wilson, US Vice President, photo portrait seated.jpg
Henry Wilson
15
34th Republican
Republican Re-elected in 1857.13 35th
36th 13 Re-elected in 1859.
37th
Re-elected in 1863.14 38th
39th 14 Re-elected in 1865.
40th
Re-elected in 1869.
Died.
15 41st
42nd 15 Re-elected in 1871.
Resigned to become the Vice President of the United States.
Liberal Republican 43rd VacantMar 3, 1873 –
Mar 17, 1873
Vacant
Elected to finish Wilson's term.
Lost renomination.
Mar 17, 1873 –
Mar 3, 1877
Republican George Boutwell, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
George S. Boutwell
16
VacantMar 12, 1874 –
Apr 16, 1874
Vacant
17 William B. Washburn - Brady-Handy.jpg
William B. Washburn
Republican Apr 17, 1874 –
Mar 3, 1875
Elected to finish Sumner's term.
Retired.
18 HLDawes.jpg
Henry L. Dawes
Republican Mar 4, 1875 –
Mar 3, 1893
Elected in 1875.16 44th
45th 16 Elected in 1877.Mar 4, 1877 –
Sep 30, 1904
Republican George Frisbie Hoar - Brady-Handy.jpg
George Frisbie Hoar
17
46th
Re-elected in 1881.17 47th
48th 17 Re-elected in 1883.
49th
Re-elected in 1887.
Retired.
18 50th
51st 18 Re-elected in 1889.
52nd
19 HenryCabotLodgeSr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican Mar 4, 1893 –
Nov 9, 1924
Elected in 1893.19 53rd
54th 19 Re-elected in 1895.
55th
Re-elected in 1899.20 56th
57th 20 Re-elected in 1901.
Died.
58th
VacantSep 30, 1904 –
Oct 12, 1904
Vacant
Appointed to continue Hoar's term.Oct 12, 1904 –
Mar 3, 1913
Republican Winthrop Murray Crane.jpg
Winthrop M. Crane
18
Re-elected in 1905. [12] 21 59th
60th 21 Re-elected in 1907.
Retired.
61st
Re-elected in 1911.22 62nd
63rd 22 Elected in 1913.Mar 4, 1913 –
Mar 3, 1919
Republican John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
John W. Weeks
19
64th
Re-elected in 1916.23 65th
66th 23 Elected in 1918.Mar 4, 1919 –
Mar 3, 1925
Democratic David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
David I. Walsh
20
67th
Re-elected in 1922.
Died.
24 68th
VacantNov 9, 1924 –
Nov 13, 1924
Vacant
20 Senator Wm. M. Butler of Mass., (11-28-24) LCCN2016849799 (cropped).jpg
William M. Butler
Republican Nov 13, 1924 –
Dec 6, 1926
Appointed to continue Lodge's term.
69th 24 Elected in 1924.
Retired.
Mar 4, 1925 –
Mar 3, 1931
Republican Frederick Huntington Gillett.png
Frederick H. Gillett
21
21 David Ignatius Walsh.jpg
David I. Walsh
Democratic Dec 6, 1926 –
Jan 3, 1947
Elected to finish Lodge's term.
70th
Re-elected in 1928.25 71st
72nd 25 Elected in 1930.
Retired.
Mar 4, 1931 –
Jan 3, 1937
Democratic MarcusACoolidge.jpg
Marcus A. Coolidge
22
73rd
Re-elected in 1934.26 74th
75th 26 Elected in 1936.Jan 3, 1937 –
Feb 3, 1944
Republican Henry Cabot Lodge II.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
23
76th
Re-elected in 1940.27 77th
78th 27 Re-elected in 1942.
Resigned to return to active duty in the U.S. Army.
VacantFeb 4, 1944 –
Feb 7, 1944
Vacant
Appointed to continue Lodge's term.
Did not run for election to finish the term.
Feb 8, 1944 –
Dec 19, 1944
Republican CharlesSinclairWeeks.jpg
Sinclair Weeks
24
Elected to finish Lodge's term.
Didn't take seat until Jan 4, 1945 in order to remain Governor of Massachusetts.
Dec 19, 1944 –
Jan 3, 1967
Republican Leverett Saltonstall cph.3b10555.jpg
Leverett Saltonstall
25
79th
22 HenryCabotLodgeJr.jpg
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
Republican Jan 3, 1947 –
Jan 3, 1953
Elected in 1946.
Lost re-election.
28 80th
81st 28 Re-elected in 1948.
82nd
23 John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy Democratic Jan 3, 1953 –
Dec 22, 1960
Elected in 1952.29 83rd
84th 29 Re-elected in 1954.
85th
Re-elected in 1958.
Resigned to become U.S. President.
30 86th
VacantDec 22, 1960 –
Dec 27, 1960
Vacant
24 SmithBen(D-MA).jpg
Benjamin Smith
Democratic Dec 27, 1960 –
Nov 7, 1962
Appointed to continue John Kennedy's term.
Did not run for election to finish the term.
87th 30 Re-elected in 1960.
Retired.
25 Ted Kennedy, official photo portrait.jpg
Ted Kennedy
Democratic Nov 7, 1962 –
Aug 25, 2009
Elected to finish his brother's term.
88th
Re-elected in 1964.31 89th
90th 31 Elected in 1966.Jan 3, 1967 –
Jan 3, 1979
Republican Edward brooke senator.jpg
Edward Brooke
26
91st
Re-elected in 1970.32 92nd
93rd 32 Re-elected in 1972.
Lost re-election.
94th
Re-elected in 1976.33 95th
96th 33 Elected in 1978.
Retired and resigned early to give successor preferential seniority.
Jan 3, 1979 –
Jan 2, 1985
Democratic Senator Paul Tsongas.jpg
Paul Tsongas
27
97th
Re-elected in 1982.34 98th
Appointed to finish Tsongas's term, having already been elected to the next term.Jan 2, 1985 –
Feb 1, 2013
Democratic JohnKerry.jpg
John Kerry
28
99th 34 Elected in 1984.
100th
Re-elected in 1988.35 101st
102nd 35 Re-elected in 1990.
103rd
Re-elected in 1994.36 104th
105th 36 Re-elected in 1996.
106th
Re-elected in 2000.37 107th
108th 37 Re-elected in 2002.
109th
Re-elected in 2006.
Died.
38 110th
111th 38 Re-elected in 2008.
Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
VacantAug 25, 2009 –
Sep 24, 2009
Vacant
26 Paul Kirk Official Photo.jpg
Paul G. Kirk
Democratic Sep 24, 2009 –
Feb 4, 2010
Appointed to continue Ted Kennedy's term.
Did not run for election to finish the term. [13]
27 Sbrownofficial.jpg
Scott Brown
Republican Feb 4, 2010 –
Jan 3, 2013
Elected to finish Kennedy's term.
Lost re-election.
112th
28 Elizabeth Warren--2016 Official Portrait--(cropped).jpg
Elizabeth Warren
Democratic Jan 3, 2013 –
Present
Elected in 2012.39 113th
Appointed to continue Kerry's term.
Did not run for election to finish the term. [14]
Feb 1, 2013 –
Jul 16, 2013
Democratic Mo Cowan, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Mo Cowan
29
Elected to finish Kerry's term.Jul 16, 2013 –
Present
Democratic Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Ed Markey
30
114th 39 Re-elected in 2014.
115th
Re-elected in 2018.40 116th
117th 40 Re-elected in 2020.
118th
To be determined in the 2024 election.41 119th
120th 41To be determined in the 2026 election.
#SenatorPartyYears in officeElectoral historyT TElectoral historyYears in officePartySenator#
Class 1 Class 2

Living former senators

As of December 2022, there are four living former U.S. senators from Massachusetts. The most recent senator to die was Edward Brooke (served 1967–1979) on January 3, 2015. The most recently serving senator to die was Ted Kennedy (served 1962–2009), who died in office on August 25, 2009.

SenatorTerm of officeDate of birth (and age)
John Kerry January 2, 1985 – February 1, 2013December 11, 1943 (age 78)
Paul G. Kirk September 24, 2009 – February 4, 2010January 18, 1938 (age 84)
Scott Brown February 4, 2010 – January 3, 2013September 12, 1959 (age 63)
Mo Cowan February 1, 2013 — July 16, 2013April 4, 1969 (age 53)

Superlatives

Longest service

SenatorFirst servedLast servedLength of service
Ted Kennedy November 7, 1962August 25, 200946 years, 291 days
(17,093 days)
Henry Cabot Lodge March 4, 1893November 9, 192431 years, 250 days
(11,572 days)
John Kerry January 2, 1985February 1, 201328 years, 30 days
(10,257 days)
George Frisbie Hoar March 4, 1877September 30, 190427 years, 210 days
(10,071 days)
David I. Walsh March 4, 1919March 3, 1925Combined total: 26 years, 27 days
(9,517 days)
December 6, 1926January 3, 1947

Shortest service

SenatorFirst servedLast servedLength of service
Robert Rantoul, Jr. February 1, 1851March 3, 18511 month and 2 days
(30 days)
Paul G. Kirk September 24, 2009February 4, 20104 months, 1 week and 4 days
(133 days)
Mo Cowan February 1, 2013July 16, 20135 months, 2 weeks and 1 day
(165 days)
Robert Charles Winthrop July 30, 1850February 1, 18516 months and 2 days
(186 days)
Julius Rockwell June 3, 1854January 31, 18557 months and 4 weeks
(242 days)

Youngest at beginning of service

SenatorDate of birthFirst servedAge
Ted Kennedy February 22, 1932November 7, 196230 years, 8 months and 16 days
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. July 5, 1902January 3, 193734 years, 5 months and 29 days
John F. Kennedy May 29, 1917January 3, 195335 years, 7 months and 5 days
John Quincy Adams July 11, 1767March 4, 180335 years, 7 months and 21 days
Samuel Dexter May 14, 1761March 4, 179937 years, 9 months and 18 days

Oldest at end of service

SenatorDate of birthLast servedAge
Frederick H. Gillett October 16, 1851March 3, 193179 years, 4 months and 15 days
George Frisbie Hoar August 29, 1826September 30, 190478 years, 1 month and 1 day
Ted Kennedy February 22, 1932August 25, 200977 years, 6 months and 3 days
Henry L. Dawes October 30, 1816March 3, 189376 years, 4 months and 3 days
Ed Markey July 11, 1946Present76 years, 4 months and 22 days

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">1803 United States gubernatorial elections</span>

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References

  1. Belluck, Pam (June 25, 2004). "Massachusetts Politicians Fight Over a Kerry Victory". The New York Times . Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  2. Zezima, Katie (July 2, 2004). "National Briefing: Massachusetts: Senate Approves Interim-Appointment Bill". The New York Times . Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  3. Greenberger, Scott S. (July 31, 2004). "Romney veto overridden: Governor can no longer fill vacancies in the US Senate". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  4. Anderson, Rob (July 16, 2004). "Devil in the Details: After Kerry, The Deluge". The American Prospect. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  5. "Chapter 236 of the Acts of 2004". Acts of 2004 (Session Laws). The General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. July 30, 2004. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
  6. Viser, Matt (September 23, 2009). "Legislature gives final approval to bill to fill Kennedy seat". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
  7. "Massachusetts 1798 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University . Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). June 20, 1798.
  8. "Massachusetts 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University . Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Hampshire Gazette (Northhampton). June 11, 1800. The Kentucky Gazette (Lexington, KY). Jul 3, 1800.
  9. "Massachusetts 1803 U.S. Senate, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University . Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). Feb 5, 1803. The Independent Chronicle (Boston, MA). Feb 7, 1803. Columbian Centinel. Massachusetts Federalist (Boston, MA). Feb 9, 1803. Hampshire Gazette (Northampton, MA). Feb 9, 1803. Boston Gazette (Boston, MA). Feb 10, 1803. Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). Mar 1, 1803. Frederick-Town Herald (Fredericktown, MD). Mar 5, 1803.
  10. "Massachusetts 1805 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University . Retrieved January 29, 2018., citing The Providence Phoenix (Providence, RI). Feb 9, 1805.
  11. "Massachusetts 1808 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University . Retrieved February 3, 2018., citing The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA). Jun 11, 1808.
  12. 1 2 The World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1906. New York: The Press Publishing Co. New York World. 1905. p.  108.
  13. "Paul Kirk officially appointed state's interim senator". September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
  14. Battenfeld, Joe; Chabot, Hillary; Cassidy, Chris (January 30, 2013). "Gov names adviser Mo Cowan to interim Senate post". Boston Herald. Retrieved January 30, 2013.