49th United States Congress

Last updated
49th United States Congress
48th  
  50th
USCapitol1906.jpg

March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1887
Members76 senators
325 representatives
8 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
Senate President Thomas A. Hendricks (D)
(until November 25, 1885)
Vacant
(from November 25, 1885)
House Majority Democratic
House Speaker John Carlisle (D)
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1885 – April 2, 1885
1st: December 7, 1885 – August 5, 1886
2nd: December 6, 1886 – March 3, 1887

The 49th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1885, to March 4, 1887, during the first two years of Grover Cleveland's first presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

Contents

Major events

First presidential inauguration of Grover Cleveland, March 4, 1885, on the East Portico of the U.S. Capitol. "Fellow-Citizens: In the presence of this vast assemblage of my countrymen I am about to supplement and seal by the oath which I shall take the manifestation of the will of a great and free people...." Cleveland Inauguration 1885.jpg
First presidential inauguration of Grover Cleveland, March 4, 1885, on the East Portico of the U.S. Capitol. "Fellow-Citizens: In the presence of this vast assemblage of my countrymen I am about to supplement and seal by the oath which I shall take the manifestation of the will of a great and free people…."

Major legislation

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Readjuster
(RA)
Republican
(R)
End of previous congress 36 2 38760
Begin 34 2 37 73 3
End 40 760
Final voting share44.7% 2.6% 52.6%
Beginning of next congress 36 1 38751

House of Representatives

House seats by party holding plurality in state
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
80+% to 100% Democratic
80+% to 100% Republican
60+% to 80% Democratic
60+% to 80% Republican
Up to 60% Democratic
Up to 60% Republican 49 us house membership.png
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Readjuster
(RA)
Greenback
(GB)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of previous congress 197 4 2 113 7 [lower-alpha 1] 3232
Begin 181 1 1 140 0 323 2
End 180 138 3205
Final voting share56.3% 0.3% 0.3% 43.1% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 168 0 1 150 53241

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1886; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1888; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1890.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by district.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
Vacated byReason for vacancySubsequentDate of successor's installation
New Hampshire
(3)
VacantAppointed to fill vacancy in term. Henry W. Blair (R)March 5, 1885
Illinois
(3)
VacantLegislature failed to elect, with several delays in election process held from February 18 to May 19. Incumbent Logan eventually chosen to retake seat. John A. Logan (R)May 19, 1885
Oregon
(3)
VacantFailure to elect. John H. Mitchell (R)November 18, 1885
Arkansas
(2)
Augustus H. Garland (D)Resigned March 6, 1885, after being appointed United States Attorney General. Successor was elected. James H. Berry (D)March 20, 1885
Delaware
(1)
Thomas F. Bayard (D)Resigned March 6, 1885, after being appointed United States Secretary of State. Successor was elected. George Gray (D)March 18, 1885
Mississippi
(2)
Lucius Q. C. Lamar II (D)Resigned March 6, 1885, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Interior. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Edward C. Walthall (D)March 9, 1885
California
(1)
John F. Miller (R)Died March 8, 1886. Successor was appointed. George Hearst (D)March 23, 1886
Tennessee
(1)
Howell E. Jackson (D)Resigned April 14, 1886, after being appointed judge for the United States Circuit Court for the Sixth Circuit. Successor was appointed. Washington C. Whitthorne (D)April 16, 1886
California
(1)
George Hearst (D)Successor was elected August 4, 1886. Abram Williams (R)August 4, 1886
New Hampshire
(2)
Austin F. Pike (R)Died October 8, 1886. Successor was appointed. Person C. Cheney (R)November 24, 1886
Illinois
(3)
John A. Logan (R)Died December 26, 1886. Successor was elected. Charles B. Farwell (R)January 19, 1887

House of Representatives

DistrictVacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate successor seated
Pennsylvania 19th VacantElected to finish term of Rep. William A. Duncan resigned during previous congress John A. Swope (D)November 3, 1885
Arkansas 3rd VacantElected to finish term of Rep. James K. Jones resigned during previous congress Thomas C. McRae (D)December 7, 1885
New York 8th Samuel S. Cox (D)Resigned May 20, 1885, after being appointed Minister to the Ottoman Empire Timothy J. Campbell (D)November 3, 1885
Illinois 5th Reuben Ellwood (R)Died July 1, 1885 Albert J. Hopkins (R)December 7, 1885
Wisconsin 5th Joseph Rankin (D)Died January 24, 1886 Thomas R. Hudd (D)March 8, 1886
Louisiana 2nd Michael Hahn (R)Died March 15, 1886 Nathaniel D. Wallace (D)December 9, 1886
New York 9th Joseph Pulitzer (D)Resigned April 10, 1886 Samuel S. Cox (D)November 2, 1886
Maryland 3rd William H. Cole (D)Died July 8, 1886 Harry W. Rusk (D)November 2, 1886
New York 15th Lewis Beach (D)Died August 10, 1886 Henry Bacon (D)December 6, 1886
New York 28th John Arnot Jr. (D)Died November 20, 1886Vacant until next Congress
Wisconsin 8th William T. Price (R)Died December 6, 1886 Hugh H. Price (R)January 18, 1887
New York 12th Abraham Dowdney (D)Died December 10, 1886Vacant until next Congress
New York 10th Abram Hewitt (D)Resigned December 30, 1886, after being elected Mayor of New York Vacant until next Congress
North Carolina 5th James W. Reid (D)Resigned December 31, 1886Vacant until next Congress
New Jersey 3rd Robert S. Green (D)Resigned January 17, 1887, after being elected Governor of New Jersey Vacant until next Congress
Rhode Island 2nd William A. Pirce (R)Seat declared vacant January 25, 1887, due to election irregularities Charles H. Page (D)February 21, 1887

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (5 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

Notes

  1. Independent, Independent Democratic, Independent Republican, and Anti-Monopoly

See also

Related Research Articles

51st United States Congress 1889-1891 U.S. Congress

The 51st United States Congress, referred to by some critics as the Billion Dollar Congress, was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C., from March 4, 1889, to March 4, 1891, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Benjamin Harrison.

53rd United States Congress 1893-1895 U.S. Congress

The 53rd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1893, to March 4, 1895, during the first two years of Grover Cleveland's second presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890.

56th United States Congress 1899–1901 legislative term

The 56th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1899, to March 4, 1901, during the third and fourth years of William McKinley's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White of North Carolina, who served his second and final term as a Representative in this Congress, and would be the last black member of Congress until 1928, and the last black member of Congress from the South until 1972.

57th United States Congress 1901-1903 U.S. Congress

The 57th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1901, to March 4, 1903, during the final six months of U.S. President William McKinley's presidency, and the first year and a half of the first administration of his successor, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

61st United States Congress 1909-1911 U.S. Congress

The 61st United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1909, to March 4, 1911, during the first two years of William H. Taft's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

43rd United States Congress 1873-1875 U.S. Congress

The 43rd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1873, to March 4, 1875, during the fifth and sixth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

60th United States Congress 1907-1909 U.S. Congress

The 60th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1907, to March 4, 1909, during the last two years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

55th United States Congress 1897-1899 U.S. Congress

The 55th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1897, to March 4, 1899, during the first two years of William McKinley's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White, a Republican from the state of North Carolina.

50th United States Congress 1887-1889 U.S. Congress

The 50th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1887, to March 4, 1889, during the third and fourth years of Grover Cleveland's first presidency. The president vetoed 212 pieces of legislation, the greatest number in a single session of Congress.

44th United States Congress 1875-1877 U.S. Congress

The 44th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875, to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority. The Senate maintained a Republican majority.

62nd United States Congress 1911-1913 U.S. Congress

The 62nd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1911, to March 4, 1913, during the final two years of William H. Taft's presidency.

40th United States Congress 1867-1869 U.S. Congress

The 40th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1867, to March 4, 1869, during the third and fourth years of Andrew Johnson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority. In the Senate, the Republicans had the largest majority a party has ever held.

41st United States Congress 1869-1871 U.S. Congress

The 41st United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871, during the first two years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

42nd United States Congress 1871-1873 U.S. Congress

The 42nd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1871, to March 4, 1873, during the third and fourth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

45th United States Congress 1877-1879 U.S. Congress

The 45th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1877, to March 4, 1879, during the first two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

46th United States Congress 1879-1881 U.S. Congress

The 46th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1879, to March 4, 1881, during the last two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency.

47th United States Congress 1881-1883 U.S. Congress

The 47th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1883, during the six months of James Garfield's presidency, and the first year and a half of Chester Arthur's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. The House had a Republican majority; the Senate was evenly divided.

52nd United States Congress 1891-1893 U.S. Congress

The 52nd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1891, to March 4, 1893, during the final two years of Benjamin Harrison's presidency.

58th United States Congress 1903-1905 U.S. Congress

The 58th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC, from March 4, 1903, to March 4, 1905, during the third and fourth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

59th United States Congress 1905–1907 U.S. Congress

The 59th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1905, to March 4, 1907, during the fifth and sixth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

References

  1. "THE 25th PRESIDENTIAL INAUGURATION / Grover Cleveland / March 4, 1885". United States Congress Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Archived from the original on July 5, 2021. Retrieved July 5, 2021.