55th United States Congress

Last updated
55th United States Congress
54th  
  56th
USCapitol1906.jpg
March 4, 1897 – March 4, 1899
Senate President Garret Hobart (R)
Senate President pro tem William P. Frye (R)
House Speaker Thomas B. Reed (R)
Members90 senators
357 members of the House
3 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Republican
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1897 – March 10, 1897
1st: March 15, 1897 – July 24, 1897
2nd: December 6, 1897 – July 8, 1898
3rd: December 5, 1898 – March 3, 1899

The Fifty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1897, to March 4, 1899, during the first two years of William McKinley's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White, a Republican from the state of North Carolina.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

William McKinley 25th president of the United States

William McKinley Jr. was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During his presidency, McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver.

Contents

Major events

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Spanish–American War Conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States

The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U.S. predominance in the Caribbean region, and resulted in U.S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U.S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.

USS <i>Maine</i> (ACR-1) 19th-century battleship of the United States Navy

USS Maine (ACR-1) was a United States Navy ship that sank in Havana Harbor in February 1898, contributing to the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April. American newspapers, engaging in yellow journalism to boost circulation, claimed that the Spanish were responsible for the ship's destruction. The phrase "Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!" became a rallying cry for action. Although the Maine explosion was not a direct cause, it served as a catalyst that accelerated the events leading up to the war.

Major legislation

War Revenue Act of 1898

The War Revenue Act of 1898 was legislation signed into law in the United States on June 13, 1898, which created a wide range of taxes to raise revenue for the American prosecution of the Spanish–American War. The legislation established the predecessor to the estate tax, and twice the Supreme Court of the United States issued rulings about the law.

The Dingley Act of 1897, introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley, Jr., of Maine, raised tariffs in United States to counteract the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates. Came into effect under William McKinley the first year that he was in office. The McKinley administration wanted to slowly bring back the protectionism that was proposed by the Tariff of 1890.

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i>

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

Treaties ratified

The Treaty of Paris of 1898 was a treaty signed by Spain and the United States on December 10, 1898, that ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the United States to Spain. The Treaty of Paris came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged.

Guam Island territory of the United States of America

Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States, along with the Northern Mariana Islands. The capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, and they are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to other Austronesian natives of Eastern Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Guam has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Senate composition by state
2 Democrats (12 states)
2 Republicans (14 states)
2 Silver (1 state)
1 Democrat and 1 Republican (9 states)
1 Republican and 1 Silver-Republican (4 states)
1 Republican and 1 Populist (4 states)
1 Populist and 1 Silver-Republican (1 state) Membership of the 55th United States Senate by state.svg
Senate composition by state
  2 Democrats (12 states)
  2 Republicans (14 states)
  2 Silver (1 state)
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican (9 states)
  1 Republican and 1 Silver-Republican (4 states)
  1 Republican and 1 Populist (4 states)
  1 Populist and 1 Silver-Republican (1 state)
Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Populist
(P)
Republican
(R)
Silver
Republican

(SR)
Silver
(S)
End of previous congress 40 4 44 0 2900
Begin 33 5 43 5 2 88 2
End 34 44 900
Final voting share37.8% 5.6% 48.9% 5.6% 2.2%
Beginning of next congress 26 4 51 3 2864

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Populist
(P)
Republican
(R)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Silver
Republican

(SR)
Silver
(S)
End of previous congress 94 9 252 0 1 03561
Begin 126 22 202 1 3 1 355 2
End 122 201 3507
Final voting share34.9% 6.3% 57.4% 0.3% 0.9% 0.3%
Beginning of next congress 163 6 183 0 2 13552

Leadership

Senate

Garret Hobart U.S. Vice President

Garret Augustus Hobart was the 24th vice president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1899. He was the sixth American vice president to die in office.

President pro tempore of the United States Senate second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate

The President pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a President pro tempore to act in the Vice President's absence. Unlike the Vice President, the President pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the President pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the Vice President's absence, the President pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. Senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.

William P. Frye American politician

William Pierce Frye was an American politician from the Maine. Frye, a member of the Republican Party, spent most of his political career as a legislator, serving in the Maine House of Representatives and then U.S. House of Representatives, before being elected to the U.S. Senate, where he served for 30 years; dying in office. Frye was a member of the Frye political family, and was the grandfather of Wallace H. White, Jr. and the son of John March Frye. He was also a prominent member of the Peucinian Society tradition.

House of Representatives

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives position

The speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution. The speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, and is simultaneously the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head. Speakers also perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the speaker usually does not personally preside over debates. That duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the speaker regularly participate in floor debates.

Thomas Brackett Reed U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the House

Thomas Brackett Reed, occasionally ridiculed as Czar Reed, was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889–1891 and also from 1895–1899. He was a powerful leader of the Republican Party, and during his tenure as Speaker of the House, he served with greater influence than any Speaker who came before, and he forever increased its power and influence for those who succeeded him in the position.

Charles H. Grosvenor Union Army general

Charles Henry Grosvenor was a multiple-term U.S. Representative from Ohio, as well as a brigade commander in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1898; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1900; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1902.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
VacatorReason for vacancySubsequentDate of successor's installation
Ohio
(1)
John Sherman (R)Resigned March 4, 1897 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Elected to fill remainder of term.
Mark Hanna (R)March 5, 1897
Florida
(3)
VacantFailure to elect.
Successor elected May 14, 1897. [1]
Stephen R. Mallory (D)May 15, 1897
Oregon
(3)
VacantFailure to elect.
Successor elected May 15, 1897.
Joseph Simon (R)May 15, 1897
South Carolina
(3)
Joseph H. Earle (D)Died May 20, 1897.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected.
John L. McLaurin (D)June 1, 1897
Tennessee
(2)
Isham G. Harris (D)Died July 8, 1897.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected.
Thomas B. Turley (D)July 20, 1897
Mississippi
(1)
James Z. George (D)Died August 14, 1897.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected.
Hernando Money (D)October 8, 1897
Mississippi
(2)
Edward C. Walthall (D)Died April 21, 1898.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected.
William V. Sullivan (D)May 31, 1898
Vermont
(3)
Justin S. Morrill (R)Died December 28, 1898.
Successor was appointed.
Jonathan Ross (R)January 11, 1899

House of Representatives

DistrictPreviousReason for changeSubsequentDate of successor's installation
Pennsylvania 25th VacantRep.-elect James J. Davidson died before being seated. Showalter was elected to finish term. Joseph B. Showalter (R)April 20, 1897
Missouri 1st VacantRep.-elect Richard P. Giles died before being seated. Lloyd was elected to finish term. James T. Lloyd (D)June 1, 1897
Maine 3rd Seth L. Milliken (R)Died April 18, 1897 Edwin C. Burleigh (R)June 21, 1897
Indiana 4th William S. Holman (D)Died April 22, 1897. Francis M. Griffith (D)December 6, 1897
South Carolina 6th John L. McLaurin (D)Resigned May 31, 1897 after being appointed to the U.S. Senate James Norton (D)December 6, 1897
Illinois 6th Edward D. Cooke (R)Died June 24, 1897 Henry S. Boutell (R)November 23, 1897
Massachusetts 1st Ashley B. Wright (R)Died August 14, 1897 George P. Lawrence (R)November 2, 1897
New York 3rd Francis H. Wilson (R)Resigned September 30, 1897 to become Postmaster of Brooklyn, New York Edmund H. Driggs (D)December 6, 1897
Alabama 4th Thomas S. Plowman (D)Lost contested election February 9, 1898 William F. Aldrich (R)February 9, 1898
Virginia 4th Sidney P. Epes (D)Lost contested election March 23, 1898 Robert T. Thorp (R)March 23, 1898
Massachusetts 13th John Simpkins (R)Died March 27, 1898 William S. Greene (R)May 31, 1898
Virginia 2nd William A. Young (D)Lost contested election April 26, 1898 Richard A. Wise (R)April 26, 1898
Mississippi 2nd William V. Sullivan (D)Resigned May 31, 1898 after being appointed to the U.S. Senate Thomas Spight (D)July 5, 1898
Ohio 19th Stephen A. Northway (R)Died September 8, 1898 Charles W. F. Dick (R)November 8, 1898
Mississippi 6th William F. Love (D)Died October 16, 1898 Frank A. McLain (D)December 12, 1898
Pennsylvania 23rd William A. Stone (R)Resigned November 9, 1898 to run for Governor of Pennsylvania William H. Graham (R)November 29, 1898
New York 34th Warren B. Hooker (R)Resigned November 10, 1898 after being appointed judge for the New York Supreme Court Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Tennessee 4th Benton McMillin (D)Resigned January 6, 1899 after being elected Governor of Tennessee Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New Jersey 4th Mahlon Pitney (R)Resigned January 10, 1899 after being elected to the New Jersey Senate Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Maine 2nd Nelson Dingley Jr. (R)Died January 13, 1899Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Texas 9th Joseph D. Sayers (D)Resigned January 16, 1899 after being elected Governor of Texas Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 2nd Mahlon Pitney (R)Died February 26, 1899Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Texas 4th John W. Cranford (D)Died March 3, 1899Seat remained vacant until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (6 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Related Research Articles

51st United States Congress

The Fifty-first United States Congress, referred to by some critics as the Billion Dollar Congress, was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C., from March 4, 1889, to March 4, 1891, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Benjamin Harrison.

53rd United States Congress

The Fifty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1893, to March 4, 1895, during the first two years of Grover Cleveland's second presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

68th United States Congress

The Sixty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1923, to March 4, 1925, during the last months of Warren G. Harding's presidency, and the first years of the administration of his successor, Calvin Coolidge. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Decennial Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

56th United States Congress 1899–1901 legislative term

The Fifty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1899, to March 4, 1901, during the third and fourth years of William McKinley's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority. There was one African-American member, George Henry White of North Carolina, who served his second and final term as a Representative in this Congress, and would be the last black member of Congress until 1928, and the last black member of Congress from the South until 1972.

57th United States Congress

The Fifty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1901, to March 4, 1903, during the final six months of U.S. President William McKinley's presidency, and the first year and a half of the first administration of his successor, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

61st United States Congress

The Sixty-first United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1909, to March 4, 1911, during the first two years of William H. Taft's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

43rd United States Congress

The Forty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1873, to March 4, 1875, during the fifth and sixth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

60th United States Congress

The Sixtieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1907, to March 4, 1909, during the last two years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

50th United States Congress

The Fiftieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1887, to March 4, 1889, during the third and fourth years of Grover Cleveland's first presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

44th United States Congress

The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875, to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority. The Senate maintained a Republican majority.

63rd United States Congress

The Sixty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1913, to March 4, 1915, during the first two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

41st United States Congress

The Forty-first United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871, during the first two years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

42nd United States Congress

The Forty-second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1871, to March 4, 1873, during the third and fourth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

45th United States Congress

The Forty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1877, to March 4, 1879, during the first two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

46th United States Congress

The Forty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1879, to March 4, 1881, during the last two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency.

47th United States Congress

The Forty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1883, during the first and only year of James Garfield's presidency, and the first two years of his successor, Chester Arthur's tenure. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. The House had a Republican majority; the Senate was evenly divided.

49th United States Congress

The Forty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1885, to March 4, 1887, during the first two years of Grover Cleveland's first presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

52nd United States Congress

The Fifty-second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1891, to March 4, 1893, during the third and fourth years of Benjamin Harrison's presidency.

58th United States Congress

The Fifty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC, from March 4, 1903, to March 4, 1905, during the third and fourth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

59th United States Congress

The Fifty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1905, to March 4, 1907, during the fifth and sixth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

References

    1. 1 2 "MALLORY ELECTED SENATOR". The New York Times. May 15, 1897. p. 12.