65th United States Congress

Last updated
65th United States Congress
64th  
  66th
USCapitol1906.jpg
March 4, 1917 – March 4, 1919
Senate President Thomas R. Marshall (D)
Senate President pro tem Willard Saulsbury, Jr. (D)
House Speaker Champ Clark (D)
Members96 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Democratic
House Majority Democratic (coalition)
Sessions
Special: March 5, 1917 – March 16, 1917
1st: April 2, 1917 – October 6, 1917
2nd: December 3, 1917 – November 21, 1918
3rd: December 2, 1918 – March 3, 1919

The Sixty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1917, to March 4, 1919, during the fifth and sixth years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. The Senate had a Democratic majority, and the House had a Republican plurality but the Democrats remained in control with the support of the Progressives and Socialist Representative Meyer London.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Woodrow Wilson 28th president of the United States

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman, lawyer, and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921, and was the leading architect of the League of Nations. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He also led the United States into World War I in 1917, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism."

Contents

Major events

1918 flu pandemic SpanishFluWardWalterReed.jpg
1918 flu pandemic
Jeannette Rankin American congresswoman for Montana

Jeannette Pickering Rankin was an American politician and women's rights advocate, and the first woman to hold federal office in the United States. She was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican from Montana in 1916, and again in 1940. As of 2019, she remains the only woman Montana has elected to Congress.

Women in the United States House of Representatives Wikimedia list article

Women have served in the United States House of Representatives since the 1917 entrance of Jeannette Rankin from Montana, a member of the Republican Party. Over 300 (325) women have since served as U.S. Representatives. As of January 2019, there are 102 women in the U.S. House of Representatives, making women 23.4% of the total of U.S. Representatives. Of the 325 women in the US House 222 have been Democrats and 103 have been Republicans.

Cloture, closure, or, informally, a guillotine is a motion or process in parliamentary procedure aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. The cloture procedure originated in the French National Assembly, from which the name is taken. Clôture is French for "the act of terminating something". It was introduced into the Parliament of the United Kingdom by William Ewart Gladstone to overcome the obstructionism of the Irish Parliamentary Party and was made permanent in 1887. It was subsequently adopted by the United States Senate and other legislatures. The name cloture remains in the United States; in Commonwealth countries it is usually closure or, informally, guillotine; in the United Kingdom closure and guillotine are distinct motions.

Major legislation

After war was declared, war bond posters demonized Germany WWIHunNatlArchives.jpg
After war was declared, war bond posters demonized Germany
United States declaration of war on Germany (1917)

On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked a special joint session of the United States Congress for a declaration of war against the German Empire. Congress responded with the declaration on April 6.

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i> An official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.

Constitutional amendments

Prohibition in the United States Constitutional ban on alcoholic beverages

Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.

State legislature (United States) legislature of a U.S. state

A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U.S. states. The formal name varies from state to state. In 25 states, the legislature is simply called the Legislature, or the State Legislature, while in 19 states, the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota and Oregon designate the legislature the Legislative Assembly.

Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally. Ratification defines the international act in which a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, and in the case of multilateral treaties, the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation.

Party summary

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
End of previous congress 55 41960
Begin 54 42 96 0
End 51 45
Final voting share53.1% 46.9%
Beginning of next congress 47 49960

House of Representatives

AffiliationParty
(Shading indicates control)
Total
Democratic (D) Progressive (Prog) Socialist (Soc) Prohibition (Proh) Republican (R)OtherVacant
End of previous Congress 2274112001 [lower-alpha 1] 4341
Begin21331121604341
End2112124287
Final voting share50.2%0.2%49.5%0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 1910112381 [lower-alpha 2] 4323

Leadership

Senate

Vice President of the United States Second highest executive office in United States

The vice president of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U.S. federal government, after the president of the United States, and ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The vice president is also an officer in the legislative branch, as president of the Senate. In this capacity, the vice president is empowered to preside over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote. The vice president also presides over joint sessions of Congress.

Thomas R. Marshall 19th and 20th-century American politician and 28th Vice President of the United States

Thomas Riley Marshall was an American politician who served as the 28th vice president of the United States from 1913 to 1921 under President Woodrow Wilson. A prominent lawyer in Indiana, he became an active and well known member of the Democratic Party by stumping across the state for other candidates and organizing party rallies that later helped him win election as the 27th governor of Indiana. In office, he proposed a controversial progressive change to the Constitution of Indiana; the Republican Party used the state courts to block the constitutional reform attempt.

President pro tempore of the United States Senate second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate

The president pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the vice president of the United States is the president of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a president pro tempore to act in the vice president's absence. Unlike the vice president, the president pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the president pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the vice president's absence, the president pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the vice president nor the president pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Members

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Because of the 17th Amendment, starting in 1914 U.S. Senators were directly elected instead of by the state legislatures. However, this did not affect the terms of U.S. Senators whose terms had started before that Amendment took effect, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1918; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1920; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1922.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

StateSenatorReason for VacancySuccessorDate of Successor's Installation
Oregon
(2)
Harry Lane (D)Died May 23, 1917.
Successor was appointed.
Charles L. McNary (R)May 29, 1917
Wisconsin
(3)
Paul O. Husting (D)Died October 21, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Irvine Lenroot (R)April 18, 1918
Nevada
(3)
Francis G. Newlands (D)Died December 24, 1917.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected.
Charles Henderson (D)January 12, 1918
Idaho
(3)
James H. Brady (R)Died January 13, 1918.
Successor appointed and subsequently elected.
John F. Nugent (D)January 22, 1918
New Jersey
(2)
William Hughes (D)Died January 30, 1918.
Successor appointed February 23, 1918 and elected November 5, 1918.
David Baird Sr. (R)February 23, 1918
Louisiana
(3)
Robert F. Broussard (D)Died April 12, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Walter Guion (D)April 22, 1918
Missouri
(3)
William J. Stone (D)Died April 14, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Xenophon P. Wilfley (D)April 30, 1918
South Carolina
(2)
Benjamin Tillman (D)Died July 3, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Christie Benet (D)July 6, 1918
New Hampshire
(3)
Jacob H. Gallinger (R)Died August 17, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
Irving W. Drew (R)September 2, 1918
Kentucky
(2)
Ollie M. James (D)Died August 28, 1918.
Successor was appointed.
George B. Martin (D)September 17, 1918
Louisiana
(3)
Walter Guion (D)Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. Edward Gay (D)November 6, 1918
Missouri
(3)
Xenophon P. Wilfley (D)Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. Selden P. Spencer (R)November 6, 1918
New Hampshire
(3)
Irving W. Drew (R)Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. George H. Moses (R)November 6, 1918
Oregon
(2)
Charles L. McNary (R)Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. Frederick W. Mulkey (R)November 6, 1918
South Carolina
(2)
Christie Benet (D)Interim appointee replaced by elected successor. William P. Pollock (D)November 6, 1918
Oregon
(2)
Frederick W. Mulkey (R)Resigned December 17, 1918, to give successor preferential seniority.
Successor was appointed.
Charles L. McNary (R)December 18, 1918

House of Representatives

DistrictVacatorReason for VacancySuccessorDate of Successor's Installation
New York 15th VacantRep. Michael F. Conry died during previous congress.
Successor was elected.
Thomas F. Smith (D)April 12, 1917
New Hampshire 1st Cyrus A. Sulloway (R)Died March 11, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Sherman E. Burroughs (R)May 29, 1917
Pennsylvania 28th Orrin D. Bleakley (R)Resigned April 3, 1917, after being convicted and fined under the Federal Corrupt Practices Act.
Successor was elected.
Earl H. Beshlin (D)November 6, 1917
North Dakota 1st Henry T. Helgesen (R)Died April 10, 1917.
Successor was elected.
John M. Baer (R)July 20, 1917
Massachusetts 6th Augustus P. Gardner (R)Resigned May 15, 1917, to join the U.S. Army.
Successor was elected.
Willfred W. Lufkin (R)November 6, 1917
Indiana 6th Daniel W. Comstock (R)Died May 19, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Richard N. Elliott (R)June 29, 1917
Connecticut 4th Ebenezer J. Hill (R)Died September 27, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Schuyler Merritt (R)November 6, 1917
Illinois 4th Charles Martin (D)Resigned October 28, 1917.
Successor was elected.
John W. Rainey (D)April 2, 1918
Michigan 2nd Mark R. Bacon (R)Lost contested election December 13, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Samuel Beakes (D)December 13, 1917
Georgia 4th William C. Adamson (D)Resigned December 18, 1917.
Successor was elected.
William C. Wright (D)January 6, 1918
Ohio 14th Ellsworth R. Bathrick (D)Died December 23, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Martin L. Davey (D)November 5, 1918
New York 7th John J. Fitzgerald (D)Resigned December 31, 1917.
Successor was elected.
John J. Delaney (D)March 5, 1918
New York 8th Daniel J. Griffin (D)Resigned December 31, 1917, after being elected Sheriff of Kings County, New York.
Successor was elected.
William E. Cleary (D)March 5, 1918
New York 22nd Henry Bruckner (D)Resigned December 31, 1917.
Successor was elected.
Anthony J. Griffin (D)March 5, 1918
New York 21st George M. Hulbert (D)Resigned January 1, 1918, to become Commissioner of Docks and director of the Port of New York.
Successor was elected.
Jerome F. Donovan (D)March 5, 1918
New Jersey 5th John H. Capstick (R)Died March 17, 1918.
Successor was elected.
William F. Birch (R)November 5, 1918
Virginia 1st William A. Jones (D)Died April 17, 1918.
Successor was elected.
S. Otis Bland (D)July 2, 1918
Wisconsin 11th Irvine Lenroot (R)Resigned April 17, 1918, after being elected to the U.S. Senate.
Successor was elected.
Adolphus P. Nelson (R)November 5, 1918
Wisconsin 6th James H. Davidson (R)Died August 6, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Florian Lampert (R)November 5, 1918
Maryland 2nd Fred Talbott (D)Died October 5, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Carville Benson (D)November 5, 1918
Missouri 10th Jacob E. Meeker (R)Died October 16, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Frederick Essen (R)November 5, 1918
Illinois 17th John Allen Sterling (R)Died October 17, 1918.
Successor was elected.
Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Virginia 6th Carter Glass (D)Resigned December 6, 1918, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury. James P. Woods (D)February 25, 1919
Pennsylvania At-large John R. K. Scott (R)Resigned January 5, 1919.Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
New York 4th Harry H. Dale (D)Resigned January 6, 1919, after being appointed judge of magistrate court.Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Alaska Territory Charles A. Sulzer (D)Lost contested election January 7, 1919. James Wickersham (R)January 7, 1919
Pennsylvania 22nd Edward E. Robbins (R)Died January 25, 1919.Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Missouri 5th William P. Borland (D)Died February 20, 1919.Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
North Carolina 10th Zebulon Weaver (D)Lost contested election March 1, 1919.
Successor was elected.
James J. Britt (R)March 1, 1919
Kentucky 8th Harvey Helm (D)Died March 3, 1919.Seat remained vacant until next Congress.
Texas 12th James C. Wilson (D)Resigned March 3, 1919, to become judge of United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas.Seat remained vacant until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (6 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

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References

  1. Hiram Johnson (R-California) didn't take his seat until March 16, 1917, as he wanted to remain Governor of California. However, he was still elected and qualified as Senator.