86th United States Congress

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86th United States Congress
85th  
  87th
USCapitol1956.jpg
January 3, 1959 (1959-01-03) – January 3, 1961 (1961-01-03)
Senate President Richard Nixon (R)
Senate President pro tem Carl Hayden (D)
House Speaker Sam Rayburn (D)
Members96 (then increasing to 100) senators
435 (then temporarily increasing to 437)
members of the House
Senate Majority Democratic
House Majority Democratic
Sessions
1st: January 7, 1959 – September 15, 1959
2nd: January 6, 1960 – September 1, 1960

The Eighty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1959, to January 3, 1961, during the last two years of the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventeenth Census of the United States in 1950. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. When Alaska and Hawaii were admitted as states in 1959, the membership of the House temporarily increased to 437 (seating one member from each of those newly admitted states and leaving the apportionment of the other 435 seats unchanged); it would remain at 437 until reapportionment resulting from the 1960 census.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the Lower House of the United States Congress, the Senate being the Upper House. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Contents

Major events

Fidel Castro Former First Secretary of the Communist Party and President of Cuba

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. A Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, Castro also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout society.

Abraham Lincoln 16th president of the United States

Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman, politician, and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

Fredric March American actor

Fredric March was an American actor, regarded as "one of Hollywood's most celebrated, versatile stars of the 1930s and 1940s". He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931) and The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), as well as the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play for Years Ago (1947) and Long Day's Journey into Night (1956).

Major legislation

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.

<i>United States Statutes at Large</i>

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, and codification.

Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960

Narcotics Manufacturing Act of 1960 is a federal declaration affirming the United States commitment to international convention protocols constricting the non-medical and non-scientific manufacturing of narcotic drugs. The Act of Congress recognizes the Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs and 1948 Protocol establishing deterrents for the chemical synthesis and dispensation of illicit drugs. The public law exemplifies a scientific class of narcotic drugs produced from the natural product of the coca leaf and opium poppy.

Constitutional amendments

The official Joint Resolution of Congress proposing what became the 23rd Amendment as contained in the National Archives 23rd Amendment Pg1of1 AC.jpg
The official Joint Resolution of Congress proposing what became the 23rd Amendment as contained in the National Archives
United States presidential election type of election in the United States

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include capital districts, and they exist in various countries worldwide.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Treaties

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan Japan US Treaty of Mutual Security and Cooperation 19 January 1960.jpg
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan

States admitted

Party summaries

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 50 45 951
Begin 64 34 98 0
End 66 100
Final voting share66.0% 34.0%
Beginning of the next congress 65 35 1000

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 437. The increase over the usual 435 members was due to the admission of Alaska and Hawaii, whose seats were temporary until reapportionment following the 1960 Census.

Leadership

Congressional Leaders
VP-Nixon.png
Senate President
Richard Nixon (R)
Carl Hayden.jpg
Senate President pro tempore
Carl Hayden
Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn.jpg
House Speaker
Sam Rayburn

Senate

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Caucuses

Members

Senate

Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1960; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1962; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1964.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

Senate

State
(class)
VacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Hawaii
(1)
New seatsHawaii achieved statehood August 21, 1959. Hiram Fong (R)August 21, 1959
Hawaii
(3)
Oren E. Long (D)
North Dakota
(1)
William Langer (R)Died November 8, 1959. Clarence N. Brunsdale (R)November 19, 1959
Oregon
(2)
Richard L. Neuberger (D)Died March 9, 1960 Hall S. Lusk (D)March 16, 1960
North Dakota
(1)
Clarence N. Brunsdale (R)Successor elected June 28, 1960.
Successor qualified August 8, 1960.
Quentin N. Burdick (D)August 8, 1960
Missouri
(3)
Thomas C. Hennings, Jr. (D)Died September 13, 1960 Edward V. Long (D)September 23, 1960
Oregon
(2)
Hall S. Lusk (D)Successor elected November 8, 1960 Maurine Brown Neuberger (D)November 9, 1960
Massachusetts
(1)
John F. Kennedy (D)Resigned December 22, 1960, after being elected President of the United States Benjamin A. Smith II (D)December 27, 1960

House of Representatives

DistrictVacatorReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 1]
Missouri 4th George H. Christopher (D)Died January 23, 1959 William J. Randall (D)March 3, 1959
New York 43rd Daniel A. Reed (R)Died February 19, 1959 Charles Goodell (R)May 26, 1959
Ohio 6th James G. Polk (D)Died April 28, 1959 Ward Miller (R)November 8, 1960
Hawaii Territory At-large John A. Burns (D)Hawaii achieved statehood.Seat eliminated August 21, 1959
Hawaii At-large New seatHawaii achieved statehood August 21, 1959 Daniel Inouye (D)August 21, 1959
Illinois 12th Charles A. Boyle (D)Died November 4, 1959VacantNot filled this term
Iowa 4th Steven V. Carter (D)Died November 4, 1959 John H. Kyl (R)December 15, 1959
Pennsylvania 17th Alvin Bush (R)Died November 5, 1959 Herman T. Schneebeli (R)April 26, 1960
New York 23rd Isidore Dollinger (D)Resigned December 31, 1959 Jacob H. Gilbert (D)March 8, 1960
Pennsylvania 18th Richard M. Simpson (R)Died January 7, 1960 Douglas H. Elliott (R)April 26, 1960
North Carolina 12th David M. Hall (D)Died January 29, 1960 Roy A. Taylor (D)June 25, 1960
Washington 3rd Russell V. Mack (R)Died March 28, 1960 Julia Butler Hansen (D)November 8, 1960
Pennsylvania 18th Douglas H. Elliott (R)Died June 19, 1960 J. Irving Whalley (R)November 8, 1960
North Dakota At-large Quentin N. Burdick (D)Resigned August 8, 1960, after becoming U.S. Senator VacantNot filled this term
Massachusetts 5th Edith Nourse Rogers (R)Died September 10, 1960
Wyoming At-large Edwin K. Thomson (R)Died December 9, 1960
New York 5th Albert H. Bosch (R)Resigned December 31, 1960, after being elected judge of Court of Queens County

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (2 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

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References

Specific citations
  1. "Nation Honor Lincoln On Sesquicentennial" (PDF). Yonkers Herald-Statesman . Northern Illinois University Libraries. Associated Press. February 11, 1959. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2013. Congress gets into the act tomorrow, when a joint session will be held. Carl Sandburg, famed Lincoln biographer, will give and address, and actor Fredric March will read the Gettysburg Address.
General references