List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives

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Below is a list of special elections to the United States House of Representatives. Such elections are called by state governors to fill vacancies that occur when a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the biennial general election. Winners of these elections serve the remainder of the term and are usually candidates in the next general election for their districts.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the Lower House of the United States Congress, the Senate being the Upper House. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Governor (United States) position of the head of the government of a state or territory of the United States

In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein. As such, governors are responsible for implementing state laws and overseeing the operation of the state executive branch. As state leaders, governors advance and pursue new and revised policies and programs using a variety of tools, among them executive orders, executive budgets, and legislative proposals and vetoes. Governors carry out their management and leadership responsibilities and objectives with the support and assistance of department and agency heads, many of whom they are empowered to appoint. A majority of governors have the authority to appoint state court judges as well, in most cases from a list of names submitted by a nominations committee.

A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation's primary legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections.

Contents

In the United States, these contests have been called "special elections" because they do not occur on Election Day like regular congressional elections. Despite their name, however, special elections to the U.S. House happen quite often. Furthermore, one published study shows that special elections are explained by the same factors as regular congressional elections. [1] Special elections to the U.S. House of Representatives have occurred at least once in all states except Iowa and Idaho. A few special elections for territorial delegates to Congress have also been held.

Election Day (United States) day for the general elections of public officials in the US

In the United States, Election Day is the day set by law for the general elections of federal public officials. It is statutorily set as "the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November" or "the first Tuesday after November 1". The earliest possible date is November 2, and the latest possible date is November 8.

A 2016 study of special elections to the United States House of Representatives found "that while candidate characteristics affect special election outcomes, presidential approval is predictive of special election outcomes as well. Furthermore, we find that the effect of presidential approval on special election outcomes has increased in magnitude from 1995 to 2014, with the 2002 midterm representing an important juncture in the nationalization of special elections." [2]

List of special elections

DistrictCon-
gress [lower-alpha 1]
Date [lower-alpha 2] OriginalWinnerCause of vacancy
New Hampshire at-large 1st June 22, 1789 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin West [lower-alpha 4] (Pro-Admin) Abiel Foster (Pro-Admin)Declined to serve.
Virginia 9 1st July 1790 [lower-alpha 3] Theodorick Bland (Anti-Admin) William B. Giles (Anti-Admin)Died.
Connecticut at-large 1st December 16, 1790 [lower-alpha 3] Pierpont Edwards [lower-alpha 5] (Pro-Admin) Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Admin)Resigned.
New York 1 2nd April 26–28, 1791 [lower-alpha 3] James Townsend [lower-alpha 5] (Pro-Admin) Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Admin)Died.
Connecticut at-large 2nd September 19, 1791 [lower-alpha 3] Roger Sherman (Pro-Admin) Amasa Learned (Pro-Admin)Representative-elect resigned to become the United States Senator from Connecticut.
Maryland 3 2nd October 26–29, 1791 [lower-alpha 3] William Pinkney (Pro-Admin) John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin)Resigned.
Georgia 1 2nd July 9, 1792 [lower-alpha 3] Anthony Wayne (Anti-Admin) John Milledge (Anti-Admin)Removed during a debate over his residency qualifications.
Maryland 2 2nd January 7–10, 1793 [lower-alpha 3] Joshua Seney (Anti-Admin) William Hindman (Pro-Admin)Resigned to take up his new duties as a judge of the state court for the district of Baltimore.
Connecticut at-large 3rd April 8, 1793 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Jonathan Sturges [lower-alpha 5] (Pro-Admin) Uriah Tracy (Pro-Admin)Resigned to become Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
Connecticut at-large 3rd September 16, 1793 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin Huntington (Pro-Admin) Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin)Representative-elect resigned.
Connecticut at-large 3rd November 11, 1793 [lower-alpha 3] Stephen M. Mitchell (Pro-Admin)
Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin)
Joshua Coit (Pro-Admin)
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Admin)
Representative-elect resigned to become the United States Senator from Connecticut and Ingersoll declined to take his seat.
Maryland 2 3rd May 5, 1794 [lower-alpha 3] John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) Gabriel Duvall (Anti-Admin)Resigned.
South Carolina 5 3rd October 13–14, 1794 Alexander Gillon (Anti-Admin) Robert Goodloe Harper (P)Died October 6, 1794.
Maryland 3 3rd December 8, 1794 Uriah Forrest (P) Benjamin Edwards (P)Resigned.
New Jersey at-large 3rd January 11, 1795 Abraham Clark (Pro-Admin) Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Admin)Died September 15, 1794.
South Carolina 2 4th January 19–20, 1795 [lower-alpha 3] John Barnwell [lower-alpha 5] (F) Wade Hampton (DR)Declined to serve.
Connecticut at-large 4th April 13, 1795 [lower-alpha 3] Jonathan Trumbull [lower-alpha 5] (F) Nathaniel Smith (F)Elected U.S. Senator.
North Carolina 4 4th August 13–14, 1795 [lower-alpha 3] Alexander Mebane (DR) Absalom Tatom (DR)Representative-elect died July 5, 1795.
Maryland 2 4th April 18, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Gabriel Duvall (DR) Richard Sprigg (DR)Resigned March 28, 1796, after election to the Maryland Supreme Court.
Massachusetts 10 4th September 12, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin Goodhue (F) Samuel Sewall (F)Resigned to retire from public life.
Connecticut at-large 4th September 19, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] James Hillhouse (F) James Davenport (F)Elected U.S. Senator May 12, 1796; resigned in the fall of 1796
Maryland 3 4th October 3, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Jeremiah Crabb (F) William Craik (F)Resigned in 1796 after June 1.
Pennsylvania 5 4th October 11, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Daniel Hiester (DR) George Ege (F)Resigned and moved to Hagerstown, Maryland.
Rhode Island at-large 4th November 15, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F)Resigned in October 1796.
Massachusetts 1 4th November 21, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Theodore Sedgwick (F) Thomson J. Skinner (DR)Resigned in early June 1796 after election as U.S. Senator.
North Carolina 4 4th November 23, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Absalom Tatom (DR) William Strudwick (F)Resigned June 1, 1796 (the last day of the 1st Session of the 4th Congress).
Connecticut at-large 4th December 5, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Uriah Tracy (F) Samuel W. Dana (F)Resigned October 13, 1796, after election as U.S. Senator.
Rhode Island at-large 5th November 15, 1796 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F)Resigned in October 1796.
Connecticut at-large 5th April 10, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] Uriah Tracy [lower-alpha 5] (F)
Zephaniah Swift (F)
John Allen (F)
James Davenport (F)
Representative-elect resigned October 13, 1796, after election as U.S. Senator
Swift declined reelection, retiring from Congress March 3, 1797.
Vermont 2 5th May 23, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] Daniel Buck (F) Lewis R. Morris (F)Representative-elect declined to serve.
Massachusetts 11 5th August 4, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] Theophilus Bradbury (F) Bailey Bartlett (F)Resigned July 24, 1797 to become Judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 5th August 28, 1797 Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F)Smith was named United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire.
Rhode Island at-large 5th August 29, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] Elisha R. Potter (F) Thomas Tillinghast (F)Resigned in July 1797.
South Carolina 1 5th September 4–5, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] William L. Smith (F) Thomas Pinckney (F)Resigned July 10, 1797 to become Minister to Portugal & Spain.
Connecticut at-large 5th September 18, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] James Davenport (F) William Edmond (F)Died August 3, 1797. [3]
Pennsylvania 5 5th October 10, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] George Ege (F) Joseph Hiester (DR)Resigned in October 1797.
New Hampshire at-large 5th October 30, 1797 [lower-alpha 3] Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F)Resigned June 26, 1797
North Carolina 10 5th August 2, 1798 [lower-alpha 3] Nathan Bryan (DR) Richard D. Spaight (DR)Died June 4, 1798.
Pennsylvania 1 5th October 9, 1798 [lower-alpha 3] John Swanwick (DR) Robert Waln (F)Died August 1, 1798.
Pennsylvania 4 5th October 9, 1798 [lower-alpha 3] Samuel Sitgreaves (F) Robert Brown (DR)Resigned in 1798.
Connecticut at-large 5th October 22, 1798 [lower-alpha 3] Joshua Coit (F) Jonathan Brace (F)Died September 5, 1798.
Virginia 9 5th November 1, 1798 [lower-alpha 3] William B. Giles (DR) Joseph Eggleston (DR)Resigned October 2, 1798, on the grounds of ill health, and in disgust at the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Maryland 7 6th November 29, 1798 [lower-alpha 3] Joshua Seney [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Joseph H. Nicholson (DR)Died October 20, 1798.
Connecticut at-large 6th September 16, 1799 [lower-alpha 3] John Allen (F) Elizur Goodrich (F)Representative-elect declined to serve.
New Hampshire at-large 6th November 18, 1799 [lower-alpha 3] Peleg Sprague (F) James Sheafe (F)Representative-elect declined to serve.
New York 1 6th December 27–29, 1799 [lower-alpha 3] Jonathan N. Havens (DR) John Smith (DR)Representative-elect died October 25, 1799.
Virginia 13 6th June 7, 1800 John Marshall (F) Littleton W. Tazewell (DR)Resigned to become United States Secretary of State.
New Hampshire at-large 6th August 25, 1800 William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F)Resigned to accept appointment as New Hampshire Attorney General.
Connecticut at-large 6th September 15, 1800 [lower-alpha 3] Jonathan Brace (F) John C. Smith (F)Resigned in May 1800.
Massachusetts 10 6th October 20, 1800 [lower-alpha 3] Samuel Sewall (F) Nathan Read (F)Resigned January 10, 1800 to serve as a judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 6th October 27, 1800 [lower-alpha 3] William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F)Resigned to become New Hampshire Attorney General.
Massachusetts 3 6th December 15, 1800 [lower-alpha 3] Samuel Lyman (F) Ebenezer Mattoon (F)Resigned November 6, 1800.
Massachusetts 4 6th December 15, 1800 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Dwight Foster (F) Levi Lincoln (DR)Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 8 6th January 15, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Thomas Hartley (F) John Stewart (DR)Died December 21, 1800.
Georgia at-large 7th March 23, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] James Jones [lower-alpha 5] (DR) John Milledge (DR)Died January 11, 1801.
Connecticut at-large 7th April 9, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] Elizur Goodrich [lower-alpha 5] (F) Calvin Goddard (F)Resigned after appointment as collector of customs for the Port of New Haven.
Massachusetts 14 7th June 22, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] George Thatcher [lower-alpha 4] (F) Richard Cutts (DR)Declined to seek re-election after accepting a judicial appointment.
North Carolina 8 7th August 6–7, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] David Stone [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Charles Johnson (DR)Resigned to return to the North Carolina Superior Court.
Massachusetts 4 7th June 22, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] Levi Lincoln (DR) Seth Hastings (F)Representative-elect appointed U.S. Attorney General
Massachusetts 14 7th June 22, 1801 George Thatcher (F) Richard Cutts (DR)Thatcher declined to serve in the 7th Congress.
Connecticut at-large 7th September 21, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] William Edmond [lower-alpha 4] (F) Benjamin Tallmadge (F)Declined to seek renomination.
Massachusetts 12 7th September 25, 1801 Silas Lee (F)VacantResigned after appointment as U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine.
North Carolina 8 7th August 6, 1801 David Stone (F) Charles Johnson (DR)Resigned before the start of the 7th Congress upon election to the Senate.
New York 5 7th October 6–8, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] Thomas Tillotson [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Theodorus Bailey (DR)Resigned after appointment as Secretary of State of New York.
New York 6 7th October 6–8, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] John Bird [lower-alpha 4] (F) John P. Van Ness (DR)Resigned July 25, 1801.
Pennsylvania 4 7th October 13, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] Peter Muhlenberg (DR) Isaac Van Horne (DR)Representative-elect resigned March 4, 1801, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 12 7th October 13, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] Albert Gallatin (DR) William Hoge (DR)Representative-elect resigned in May 1801 to become U.S. Treasury Secretary.
Tennessee at-large 7th October 29–30, 1801 [lower-alpha 3] William C. C. Claiborne [lower-alpha 4] (DR) William Dickson (DR)Resigned to become Governor of Mississippi Territory.
Maryland 2 7th March 2, 1802 [lower-alpha 3] Richard Sprigg (DR) Walter Bowie (DR)Resigned April 11, 1802.
Georgia at-large 7th April 5, 1802 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin Taliaferro (DR) David Meriwether (DR)Resigned.
South Carolina 4 7th April 12–13, 1802 [lower-alpha 3] Thomas Sumter (DR) Richard Winn (DR)Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Massachusetts 12 7th July 29, 1802 [lower-alpha 3] None Samuel Thatcher (F)Failure to elect after four ballots when no candidate won 50% of votes required.
New Hampshire at-large 7th August 30, 1802 [lower-alpha 3] Joseph Peirce (F) Samuel Hunt (F)Resigned.
North Carolina 8 7th October 15, 1802 [lower-alpha 3] Charles Johnson (DR) Thomas Wynns (DR)Died July 23, 1802.
New York 7 8th April 26–28, 1803 [lower-alpha 3] John Cantine [lower-alpha 5] (F) Josiah Hasbrouck (DR)Representative-elect declined to serve.
Connecticut at-large 8th September 5, 1803 [lower-alpha 3] Elias Perkins [lower-alpha 4] (F) Simeon Baldwin (F)Re-elected, but declined to serve.
New York 6 8th September 14–16, 1803 [lower-alpha 3] Isaac Bloom [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Daniel C. Verplanck (DR)Died.
Georgia at-large 8th October 3, 1803 [lower-alpha 3] John Milledge [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Joseph Bryan (DR)Milledge was elected Governor of Georgia
New York 1 8th April 24–26, 1804 [lower-alpha 3] John Smith (DR) Samuel Riker (DR)Resigned.
New York 2 9th September 11–13, 1804 [lower-alpha 3] Daniel D. Tompkins [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Gurdon S. Mumford (DR)Representative-elect resigned.
Massachusetts 12 8th September 17, 1804 [lower-alpha 3] Thomson J. Skinner (DR) Simon Larned (DR)Resigned.
Pennsylvania 10 8th November 2, 1804 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] William Hoge (DR) John Hoge (DR)Resigned October 15, 1804.
Virginia 13 8th October 1804 [lower-alpha 3] John Johns Trigg (DR) Christopher H. Clark (DR)Died.
Maryland 4 8th October 1, 1804 [lower-alpha 3] Daniel Hiester (DR) Roger Nelson (DR)Died.
Virginia 5 8th November 13, 1804 [lower-alpha 3] Andrew Moore (DR) Alexander Wilson (DR)Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
New York 3 8th January 2–4, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) George Clinton (DR)Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
South Carolina 8 9th September 26–27, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] John B. Earle [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Elias Earle (DR)Retired before the start of the 9th Congress.
North Carolina 5 9th August 8, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] James Gillespie [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Thomas Kenan (DR)Died.
Connecticut at-large 9th September 16, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Calvin Goddard [lower-alpha 4] (F)
Roger Griswold [lower-alpha 4] (F)
Timothy Pitkin (F)
Lewis B. Sturges (F)
Resigned before the start of the 9th Congress.
Delaware at-large 9th October 1, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] James A. Bayard (F) James M. Broom (F)Representative-elect resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 4 9th October 8, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] John A. Hanna (DR) Robert Whitehill (DR)Representative-elect died July 23, 1805.
Pennsylvania 11 9th October 8, 1805 [lower-alpha 3] John B. Lucas (DR) Samuel Smith (DR)Representative-elect resigned.
North Carolina 10 9th January 23–24, 1806 [lower-alpha 3] Nathaniel Alexander [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Evan S. Alexander (DR)Resigned to serve as Governor of North Carolina.
Georgia at-large 9th September 1, 1806 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Joseph Bryan (DR) Dennis Smelt (DR)Resigned.
Connecticut at-large 9th September 15, 1806 [lower-alpha 3] John C. Smith (F) Theodore Dwight (F)Resigned.
Maryland 7 9th September 27/October 4, 1806 [lower-alpha 3] Joseph H. Nicholson (DR) Edward Lloyd (DR)Resigned.
Virginia 13 9th November 1806 [lower-alpha 3] Christopher H. Clark (DR) William A. Burwell (DR)Resigned.
Pennsylvania 1 9th November 27, 1806 [lower-alpha 3] Michael Leib (DR) John Porter (DR)Resigned and returned to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
Georgia at-large 9th December 1, 1806 [lower-alpha 3] Thomas Spalding (DR) William W. Bibb (DR)Resigned.
South Carolina 6 10th June 1–2, 1807 [lower-alpha 3] Levi Casey [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Joseph C. Calhoun (DR)Died.
Massachusetts 12 10th July 13, 1807 [lower-alpha 3] Barnabas Bidwell [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Ezekiel Bacon (DR)Resigned to become Massachusetts Attorney General.
Delaware at-large 10th October 6, 1807 [lower-alpha 3] James M. Broom (F) Nicholas Van Dyke (F)Representative-elect resigned.
North Carolina 7 10th February 1, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] John Culpepper (F) John Culpepper (F)Seat declared vacant from January to February 1808.
New Jersey at-large 10th March 8–9, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] Ezra Darby (DR) Adam Boyd (DR)Died.
New York 12 10th April 26–28, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] David Thomas (DR) Nathan Wilson (DR)Resigned to become New York State Treasurer.
Massachusetts 2 10th May 4, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] Jacob Crowninshield (DR) Joseph Story (DR)Died.
Rhode Island at-large 10th August 30, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] Nehemiah Knight (DR) Richard Jackson Jr. (F)Died.
Vermont 1 10th September 6, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] James Witherell (DR) Samuel Shaw (DR)Resigned to become a judge in the Michigan Territory.
Virginia 17 10th September 8, 12, 26, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] John Claiborne (DR) Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR)Died.
Pennsylvania 1 10th October 11, 1808 [lower-alpha 3] Joseph Clay (DR) Benjamin Say (DR)Resigned after March 28, 1808.
Pennsylvania 1 11th October 10, 1809 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Benjamin Say (DR) Adam Seybert (DR)Resigned in June 1809.
Virginia 21 11th December 1809 [lower-alpha 3] Wilson C. Nicholas (DR) David S. Garland (DR)Resigned.
New York 2 11th April 24–26, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] William Denning [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Samuel L. Mitchill (DR)Resigned.
Kentucky 5 11th August 6, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] Benjamin Howa (DR) William T. Barry (DR)Resigned, later became Governor of Louisiana Territory.
Connecticut at-large 11th September 17, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] Samuel W. Dana (F) Ebenezer Huntington (F)Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Maryland 4 11th October 1, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] Roger Nelson (DR) Samuel Ringgold (DR)Resigned.
New Jersey at-large 11th October 30–31, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] James Cox (DR) John A. Scudder (DR)Died.
Massachusetts 10 11th October 8, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Jabez Upham (F) Joseph Allen (F)Resigned.
Massachusetts 11 11th October 8, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] William Stedman (F) Abijah Bigelow (F)Resigned.
Virginia 1 11th November 1810 [lower-alpha 3] John G. Jackson (DR) William McKinley (DR)Resigned after being wounded in a duel.
Maryland 7 11th November 15, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] John Brown (DR) Robert Wright (DR)Resigned before the close of the 11th Congress to accept a position as clerk of the county court of Queen Anne's County.
South Carolina 1 11th December 31, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Robert Marion (DR) Langdon Cheves (DR)Resigned.
Maryland 7 12th November 15, 1810 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 7] John Brown [lower-alpha 5] (DR)Robert Wright (DR)(Same reason in the entry of Maryland's 7th district for the 11th Congress.)
Maryland 6 12th October 2, 1811 [lower-alpha 3] John Montgomery [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Stevenson Archer (DR)Resigned to become Attorney General of Maryland.
Massachusetts 4 12th November 4, 1811 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Joseph B. Varnum [lower-alpha 4] (DR) William M. Richardson (DR)Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Massachusetts 17 12th April 6, 1812 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Barzillai Gannett [lower-alpha 4] (DR) Francis Carr (DR)Resigned.
Georgia at-large 12th October 5, 1812 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Howell Cobb (DR) William Barnett (DR)Resigned before October 1812 to accept a captain's commission in the U.S. Army.
New York 6 12th December 15–17, 1812 [lower-alpha 3] Robert L. Livingston (F) Thomas P. Grosvenor (F)Resigned to accept commission as a lieutenant colonel.
North Carolina 3 12th January 11, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] Thomas Blount (DR) William Kennedy (DR)Died February 7, 1812.
Pennsylvania 13 13th February 16, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] John Smilie [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Isaac Griffin (DR)Died December 30, 1812.
Ohio 6 13th April 20, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] John S. Edwards [lower-alpha 5] (F) Reasin Beall (DR)Representative-elect died.
New York 15 13th April 27–29, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] William Dowse [lower-alpha 5] (F) John M. Bowers [lower-alpha 8] (F)Representative-elect died.
Kentucky 8 13th April 29, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] John Simpson [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Stephen Ormsby (DR)Died January 22, 1813.
Pennsylvania 15 13th May 4, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Abner Lacock [lower-alpha 5] (DR) Thomas Wilson (DR)Resigned March 3, 1813, due to election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 3 13th May 10, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] Duncan McArthur [lower-alpha 4] (DR) William Creighton (DR)Representative-elect resigned to stay in the state militia.
Pennsylvania 5 13th May 11, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Robert Whitehill (DR) John Rea (DR)Representative-elect died April 8, 1813.
Pennsylvania 3 13th October 12, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] John Gloninger (F) Edward Crouch (DR)Resigned August 2, 1813.
Pennsylvania 7 13th October 12, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] John M. Hyneman (DR) Daniel Udree (DR)Resigned August 2, 1813.
Georgia at-large 13th December 13, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] William W. Bibb (DR) Alfred Cuthbert (DR)Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
New York 2 13th December 28–30, 1813 [lower-alpha 3] Egbert Benson (F) William Irving (DR)Resigned
Kentucky 2 13th February 28, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] Henry Clay (DR) Joseph H. Hawkins (DR)Resigned and traveled to Europe for the War of 1812 negotiations.
Massachusetts 4 13th May 23, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] William M. Richardson (DR) Samuel Dana (DR)Resigned.
Virginia 11 13th June 1814 [lower-alpha 3] John Dawson (DR) Philip P. Barbour (DR)Died.
Massachusetts 12 13th August 4, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] Daniel Dewey (F) John W. Hulbert (F)Resigned to become associate judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 13th August 29, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] Samuel Smith (F)Vacant [lower-alpha 9] Failure to elect (see note).
Tennessee 5 13th September 15–16, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] Felix Grundy (DR) Newton Cannon (DR)Resigned.
New Jersey 3 13th October 10–11, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] Jacob Hufty [lower-alpha 10] (F) Thomas Bines (DR)Died May 20, 1814.
Ohio 6 13th October 11, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Reasin Beall (DR) David Clendenin (DR)Resigned June 7, 1814.
Pennsylvania 2 13th October 11, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] Jonathan Roberts (DR) Samuel Henderson (F)Resigned February 24, 1814, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 3 13th October 12, 1814 [lower-alpha 3] [lower-alpha 6] James Whitehill (DR) Amos Slaymaker (F)Resigned September 1, 1814, to engage in mercantile pursuits.
New York 6 14th April 1815 Jonathan Fisk (DR) James W. Wilkin (DR)Resigned to become U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York.
New York 12 14th April 1815 Benjamin Pond (DR) Asa Adgate (DR)Died October 14, 1814.
Virginia 15 14th October 1815 Matthew Clay (DR) John Kerr (DR)Died May 27, 1815.
Pennsylvania 1 14th October 10, 1815 Jonathan Williams (DR) John Sergeant (F)Died May 16, 1815.
Pennsylvania 3 14th October 10, 1815 Amos Ellmaker (DR) James M. Wallace (DR)Resigned July 3, 1815, before qualifying, to become President Judge of the 12th Judicial District.
Pennsylvania 9 14th October 10, 1815 David Bard (DR) Thomas Burnside (DR)Died March 12, 1815.
Tennessee 2 14th December 7–8, 1815 John Sevier (DR) William G. Blount (DR)Died September 24, 1815.
North Carolina 6 14th January 22, 1816 Nathaniel Macon (DR) Weldon N. Edwards (DR)Resigned after being elected to the Senate.
Maryland 5 14th January 27, 1816 Nicholas R. Moore (DR) Samuel Smith (DR)Resigned in 1815 before the start of the 15th Congress.
New York 20 14th September 1816 Enos T. Throop (DR) Daniel Avery (DR)Resigned after losing re-election campaign.
Maryland 5 14th September 3, 1816 William Pinkney (DR) Peter Little (DR)Pinkney was named Minister to Russia
Pennsylvania 9 14th October 8, 1816 Thomas Burnside (DR) William P. Maclay (DR)Resigned in April 1816 to become a judge.
Virginia 18 14th October 10–28, 1816 Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Thomas M. Nelson (DR)Died July 4, 1816.
Kentucky 1 14th December 2, 1816 James Clark (DR) Thomas Fletcher (DR)Resigned to become circuit court judge.
Maryland 3 14th December 2, 1816 Alexander C. Hanson (F) George Peter (F)Resigned after being elected to the Senate.
Massachusetts 11 14th December 2, 1816 Elijah Brigham (F) Benjamin Adams (F)Died.
North Carolina 8 14th December 2, 1816 Richard Stanford (DR) Samuel Dickens (DR)Died April 16, 1816.
Ohio 1 14th October 8, 1816 John McLean (DR) William Henry Harrison (DR)Resigned in April 1816 to become Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Georgia at-large 14th December 1816 Alfred Cuthbert (DR) Zadock Cook (DR)Resigned.
Pennsylvania 10 15th October 14, 1817 David Scott (DR) John Murray (DR)Resigned to become a judge.
Connecticut at-large 15th December 1, 1817 Sylvanus Blackus (F)
Charles Dennison (F)
Ebenezer Huntington (F)
Nathaniel Terry (F)
Died February 15, 1817.
New York 4 15th December 1, 1817 Henry B. Lee (DR) James Tallmadge Jr. (DR)Representative-elect died February 18, 1817
North Carolina 7 15th January 1, 1818 Alexander McMillan (F) James Stewart (F)Representative-elect McMillan died some time before Congress assembled.
South Carolina 6 15th February 9, 1818 John C. Calhoun (DR) Eldred Simkins (DR)Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Pennsylvania 6 15th March 3, 1818 John Ross (DR) Thomas J. Rogers (DR)Resigned February 24, 1818, to become President Judge of the 7th Judicial District of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania 6 15th October 13, 1818 Samuel D. Ingham (DR) Samuel Moore (DR)Resigned July 6, 1818.
Massachusetts 20 15th November 4, 1818 Albion Parris (DR) Enoch Lincoln (DR)Resigned to become a judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maine.
North Carolina 11 15th November 7, 1818 Daniel M. Forney (DR) William Davidson (F)Resigned.
Connecticut at-large 15th November 16, 1818 Uriel Holmes (F) Sylvester Gilbert (DR)Resigned.
Pennsylvania 4 15th November 16, 1818 Jacob Spangler (DR) Jacob Hostetter (DR)Resigned April 20, 1818, to become Surveyor General of Pennsylvania.
Louisiana at-large 15th November 16, 1818 Thomas B. Robertson (DR) Thomas Butler (DR)Resigned.
Virginia 19 15th November 16, 1818 Peterson Goodwyn (DR) John Pegram (DR)Died February 21, 1818.
Georgia at-large 15th January 4, 1819 John Forsyth (DR) Robert R. Reid (DR)Resigned upon being elected to the Senate.
Georgia at-large 16th January 4, 1819 John Forsyth (DR) Robert R. Reid (DR)Resigned upon being elected to the Senate.
New Jersey at-large 16th February 1–2, 1820 John Condit (DR) Charles Kinsey (DR)Resigned November 4, 1819 to become Assistant Collector of the Port of New York.
Massachusetts 13 16th August 21, 1820 Edward Dowse (DR) William Eustis (DR)Resigned.
Pennsylvania 5 16th October 10, 1820 David Fullerton (DR) Thomas G. McCullough (F)Resigned May 15, 1820.
Maine 1 16th November 7, 1820 John Holmes (DR) Joseph Dane (F)Holmes was elected as one of the first two Senators from Maine.
Virginia 1 16th November 13, 1820 James Pindall (F) Edward B. Jackson (DR)Resigned.
Virginia 10 16th November 13, 1820 George F. Strother (DR) Thomas L. Moore (DR)Resigned.
Virginia 20 16th November 13, 1820 James Johnson (DR) John C. Gray (DR)Resigned to become collector of customs in Norfolk.
Pennsylvania 7 16th December 26, 1820 Joseph Hiester (DR) Daniel Udree (DR)Resigned in December 1820 after elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
North Carolina 4 16th February 7, 1821 Jesse Slocumb (DR) William S. Blackledge (DR)Died December 20, 1820.
New Jersey at-large 17th October 8–9, 1821 John Linn (DR) Lewis Condict (DR)Died January 5, 1821.
Ohio 4 17th October 9, 1821 John C. Wright (DR) David Chambers (DR)Resigned March 3, 1821.
Pennsylvania 5 17th October 9, 1821 James Duncan (DR) John Findlay (DR)Resigned in April 1821.
Pennsylvania 10 17th October 9, 1821 William Cox Ellis (F) Thomas Murray Jr. (DR)Resigned July 20, 1821.
New York 6 17th November 6–8, 1821 Selah Tuthill (DR) Charles Borland Jr. (DR)Died September 7, 1821.
South Carolina 9 17th December 3, 1821 John S. Richards (DR) James Blair (DR)Representative-elect Richards declined to serve.
Kentucky 8 17th January 2, 1822 Wingfield Bullock (DR) James D. Breckinridge (DR)Died October 13, 1821.
New York 9 17th February 25–27, 1822 Solomon Van Rensselaer (DR) Stephen Van Rensselaer (F)Resigned.
Delaware at-large 17th October 1, 1822 Caesar A. Rodney (DR) Daniel Rodney (F)Resigned January 24, 1822, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 1 17th October 1, 1822 William Milnor (F) Thomas Forrest (F)Resigned May 8, 1822.
Pennsylvania 6 17th October 1, 1822 Samuel Moore (DR) Samuel D. Ingham (DR)Resigned May 20, 1822.
Pennsylvania 14 17th October 1, 1822 Henry Baldwin (DR) Walter Forward (DR)Died May 8, 1822.
Indiana at-large 17th December 2, 1822 William Hendricks (DR) Jonathan Jennings (DR)Resigned to run for Governor of Indiana.
Maine 2 17th December 2, 1822 Ezekiel Whitman (F) Mark Harris (DR)Resigned June 1, 1822.
Pennsylvania 7 17th December 10, 1822 Ludwig Worman (F) Daniel Udree (F)Died October 17, 1822.
South Carolina 9 17th December 11, 1822 James Blair (DR) John Carter (DR)Resigned.
South Carolina 2 17th January 6, 1823 William Lowndes (DR) James Hamilton Jr. (DR)Resigned May 8, 1822, due to ill health.
Maryland 5 17th January 8, 1823 Samuel Smith (DR) Isaac McKim (DR)Resigned December 22, 1822, after being elected to the Senate.
Maryland 5 18th January 8, 1823 Samuel Smith (DR) Isaac McKim (Jackson Republican)Resigned December 22, 1822, after being elected to the Senate.
New York 28 18th December 1, 1823 William B. Rochester (Adams Republican) William Woods (Adams Republican)Resigned to become Judge of New York's Eighth Circuit Court.
Virginia 13 18th April 8, 1824 [lower-alpha 11] William Lee Ball (Crawford Republican) John Taliaferro (Crawford Republican)Died February 29, 1824.
Pennsylvania 8 18th October 12, 1824 Thomas J. Rogers (Jackson Republican) George Wolf (Jackson Republican)Resigned April 20, 1824.
Pennsylvania 13 18th October 12, 1824 John Tod (Jackson Republican) Alexander Thomson (Jackson Republican)Resigned due to becoming the Presiding Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin County.
Massachusetts 10 18th December 13, 1824 None [lower-alpha 12] John Bailey (DR)(See note.)
Vermont at-large 18th December 13, 1824 [lower-alpha 6] Charles Rich (DR) Henry Olin (DR)Died October 15, 1824.
Indiana 1 18th December 23, 1824 [lower-alpha 6] William Prince (DR) Jacob Call (Jackson Republican)Died September 8, 1824.
North Carolina 2 18th January 6, 1825 Hutchins Gordon Burton (Crawford Republican) George Outlaw (Crawford Republican)Resigned after being elected Governor of North Carolina.
Georgia at-large 18th February 7, 1825 Thomas W. Cobb (Crawford Republican) Richard Henry Wilde (Crawford Republican)Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 16 19th October 11, 1825 James Allison Jr. (J) Robert Orr Jr. (J)Resigned.
Pennsylvania 18 19th March 14, 1826 Patrick Farrelly (J) Thomas H. Sill (Anti-J)Died January 12, 1826.
Maine 5 19th September 11, 1826 Enoch Lincoln (DR) James W. Ripley (J)Resigned.
Ohio 10 19th October 10, 1826 David Jennings (Anti-J) Thomas Shannon (Anti-J)Resigned May 25, 1826.
Pennsylvania 2 19th October 10, 1826 Joseph Hemphill (J) Thomas Kittera (Anti-J)Resigned May 1, 1826.
Pennsylvania 7 19th October 10, 1826 Henry Wilson (J) Jacob Krebs (J)Died August 14, 1826.
Pennsylvania 13 19th October 10, 1826 Alexander Thomson (J) Chauncey Forward (J)Resigned May 1, 1826.
Maine 1 20th September 10, 1827 William Burleigh (Anti-J) Rufus McIntire (J)Died July 2, 1827.
Georgia 1 20th October 1, 1827 Edward Fenwick Tattnall [lower-alpha 13] (J) George Rockingham Gilmer (J)(See note.)
Delaware at-large 20th October 2, 1827 Louis McLane (F) Kensey Johns Jr. (F)Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 8 20th October 9, 1827 William Wilson (Anti-J) William Stanbery (J)Died June 6, 1827.
Pennsylvania 2 20th October 9, 1827 None [lower-alpha 14] John Sergeant (Anti-J)The vote in the previous general election was tied.
Georgia 2 20th November 17, 1827 John Forsyth (J) Richard Henry Wilde (J)Resigned to serve as Governor of Georgia.
New Jersey at-large 20th November 3–4, 1828 George Holcombe (J) James F. Randolph (Anti-J)Died January 4, 1828.
New Jersey at-large 20th November 3–4, 1828 Hedge Thompson (Anti-J) Thomas Sinnickson (Anti-J)Died July 23, 1828.
Ohio 6 20th December 2, 1828 William Creighton (Anti-J) Francis Swaine Muhlenberg (Anti-J)Resigned.
Maine 4 21st July 20, 1829 Peleg Sprague (Anti-J) George Evans (Anti-J)Resigned after election to U.S. Senate
Pennsylvania 8 21st October 13, 1829 Samuel D. Ingham (J)
George Wolf (J)
Peter Ihrie Jr. (J)
Samuel A. Smith (J)
Ingham became U.S. Treasury Secretary March 6, 1829
Wolf was elected Governor of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania 16 21st December 15, 1829 William Wilkins (J) Harmar Denny (Anti-M)Resigned.
Ohio 11 21st October 11, 1830 John M. Goodenow (J) Humphrey H. Leavitt (J)Resigned April 9, 1830; chosen to be a Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Maine 5 21st December 6, 1830 James W. Ripley (J) Cornelius Holland (J)Resigned to resume practice of law.
Vermont 2 22nd November 1, 1831 Rollin Carolas Mallary (Anti-J) William Slade (Anti-M)Died April 15, 1831.
Pennsylvania 11 22nd November 22, 1831 William Ramsey (J) Robert McCoy (J)Died September 29, 1831.
Vermont 1 22nd January 1, 1833 Jonathan Hunt (Anti-J) Hiland Hall (Anti-J)Died May 15, 1832.
Pennsylvania 1 23rd October 8, 1833 Joel B. Sutherland (J) Joel B. Sutherland (J) [lower-alpha 15] Resigned March 5, 1833, to become Associate Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia.
Ohio 19 23rd October 14, 1834 Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Daniel Kilgore (J)Resigned July 10, 1834, to become Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio.
Ohio 1 23rd November 8, 1834 Robert T. Lytle (J) Robert T. Lytle (J)Resigned March 10, 1834.
Vermont 5 23rd November 10, 1834 Benjamin F. Deming (Anti-M) Henry Fisk Janes (Anti-M)Died July 11, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
Seat A
23rd December 1, 1834 William W. Ellsworth (Anti-J) Joseph Trumbull (Anti-J)Resigned July 8, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
Seat B
23rd December 1, 1834 Jabez W. Huntington (Anti-J) Phineas Miner (Anti-J)Resigned August 16, 1834 to become judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors.
Connecticut at-large
Seat C
23rd December 1, 1834 Samuel A. Foot (Anti-J) Ebenezer Jackson Jr. (Anti-J)Resigned May 9, 1834 to become Governor of Connecticut.
Pennsylvania 24 24th October 11, 1836 John Banks (Anti-M) John J. Pearson (Anti-J)Resigned April 2, 1836.
Pennsylvania 13 24th November 4, 1836 Jesse Miller (J) James Black (J)Resigned October 30, 1836.
New Jersey at-large 24th November 15–16, 1836 Philemon Dickerson (J) William Chetwood (W)Resigned November 3, 1836 to become Governor of New Jersey.
Pennsylvania 3 25th June 29, 1837 Francis J. Harper (D) Charles Naylor (W)Died March 18, 1837.
Ohio 17 25th November 30, 1837 Andrew W. Loomis (W) Charles D. Coffin (W)Resigned October 20, 1837.
Pennsylvania 9 25th March 8, 1838 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) George M. Keim (D)Resigned February 9, 1838 to become U.S. Minister to Austria.
Maine 3 25th April 28, 1838 Jonathan Cilley (D) Edward Robinson (W)Killed February 24, 1838.
Maine 5 25th May 29, 1838 Timothy J. Carter (D) Virgil D. Parris (D)Died March 14, 1838.
Ohio 16 25th October 9, 1838 Elisha Whittlesey (W) Joshua Reed Giddings (W)Resigned July 9, 1838.
Ohio 19 25th November 5, 1838 Daniel Kilgore (D) Henry Swearingen (D)Resigned July 4, 1838.
Pennsylvania 14 26th November 20, 1839 William W. Potter (D) George McCulloch (D)Died October 28, 1839.
Ohio 4 26th October 13, 1840 Thomas Corwin (W) Jeremiah Morrow (W)Resigned May 30, 1840, to run for Governor of Ohio.
Pennsylvania 22 26th October 13, 1840 Richard Biddle (Anti-M) Henry M. Brackenridge (W)Resigned May 13, 1840.
Pennsylvania 13 26th November 20, 1840 William S. Ramsey (D) Charles McClure (D)Died October 17, 1840.
Pennsylvania 13 27th May 4, 1841 William S. Ramsey (D) Amos Gustine (D)Died October 17, 1840.
Pennsylvania 20 27th May 25, 1841 Enos Hook (D) Henry W. Beeson (D)Resigned April 18, 1841.
Maine 4 27th May 31, 1841 George Evans (W) David Bronson (W)Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 18 27th June 8, 1841 Charles Ogle (W) Henry Black (W)Died May 10, 1841.
Pennsylvania 2 27th October 12, 1841 John Sergeant (W) Joseph Reed Ingersoll (W)Resigned September 15, 1841.
Pennsylvania 18 27th December 21, 1841 Henry Black (W) James M. Russell (W)Died November 28, 1841.
Pennsylvania 17 27th March 1, 1842 Davis Dimock Jr. (D) Almon Heath Read (D)Died January 13, 1842.
Ohio 16 27th April 26, 1842 Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Joshua Reed Giddings (W)Resigned March 22, 1842, in response to being censured for his work against slavery.
Pennsylvania 21 27th May 20, 1842 Joseph Lawrence (W) Thomas M. T. McKennan (W)Died April 17, 1842.
Massachusetts 1 27th June 3, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Nathan Appleton (W)Resigned when he was widowed.
November 14, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W)Nathan Appleton (W)Resigned September 28, 1842.
Pennsylvania 21 28th March 15, 1844 William Wilkins (D) Cornelius Darragh (W)Resigned February 14, 1844 to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Pennsylvania 13 28th April 9, 1844 Henry Frick (W) James Pollock (W)Died March 1, 1844.
Ohio 10 28th October 8, 1844 Heman A. Moore (D) Alfred P. Stone (D)Died April 3, 1844.
Ohio 21 28th October 8, 1844 Henry R. Brinkerhoff (D) Edward S. Hamlin (D)Died April 30, 1844.
Pennsylvania 12 28th October 8, 1844 Almon Heath Read (D) George Fuller (D)Died June 3, 1844.
New Jersey 2 29th October 7–8, 1845 Samuel G. Wright (W) George Sykes (D)Died July 30, 1845.
Georgia 3 29th January 5, 1846 None [lower-alpha 16] George W. Towns (D)(See note.)
Ohio 7 30th November 8, 1847 Thomas L. Hamer (D) Jonathan D. Morris (D)Died December 2, 1846.
Pennsylvania 6 30th February 23, 1848 John W. Hornbeck (W) Samuel A. Bridges (D)Died June 16, 1848.
Ohio 6 31st October 9, 1849 Rodolphus Dickinson (D) Amos E. Wood (D)Died March 20, 1849.
Vermont 3 31st November 7, 1849 George Perkins Marsh (W) James Meacham (W)Resigned to become U.S. Minister Resident to the Ottoman Empire.
Georgia 1 31st February 4, 1850 Thomas Butler King (W) Joseph Webber Jackson (D)Resigned.
Massachusetts 1 31st August 22, 1850 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Samuel A. Eliot (W)Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New Hampshire 3 31st October 8, 1850 James Wilson II (W) George W. Morrison (D)Resigned September 9, 1850.
Pennsylvania 15 31st October 8, 1850 Henry Nes (W) Joel B. Danner (D)Died September 10, 1850.
Ohio 6 31st December 23, 1850 Amos E. Wood (D) John Bell (D)Died November 19, 1850.
Pennsylvania 11 31st December 31, 1850 Chester P. Butler (W) John Brisbin (W)Died October 5, 1850.
Maine 4 32nd June 25, 1852 Charles Andrews (D) Isaac Reed (W)Died April 30, 1852.
Pennsylvania 8 33rd February 4, 1854 Henry A. Muhlenberg (D) J. Glancy Jones (D)Died January 9, 1854.
Massachusetts 1 33rd April 17, 1854 Zeno Scudder (W) Thomas D. Eliot (W)Retired because of leg injury.
Vermont 1 34th September 2, 1856 James Meacham (O) George Tisdale Hodges (R)Died August 23, 1856.
Pennsylvania 12 35th October 13, 1857 John G. Montgomery (D) Paul Leidy (D)Died April 24, 1857.
Pennsylvania 8 35th November 30, 1858 J. Glancy Jones (D) William H. Keim (R)Resigned October 30, 1858.
Ohio 14 36th October 11, 1859 Cyrus Spink (R) Harrison G. O. Blake (R)Died May 31, 1859.
Pennsylvania 8