24th United States Congress

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24th United States Congress
23rd  
  25th
USCapitol1827A.gif

March 4, 1835 – March 4, 1837
Members52 senators
242 representatives
3 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Jacksonian
Senate President Martin Van Buren (J)
House Majority Jacksonian
House Speaker James K. Polk (J)
Sessions
1st: December 7, 1835 – July 4, 1836
2nd: December 5, 1836 – March 3, 1837

The 24th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1835, to March 4, 1837, during the seventh and eighth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority.

Contents

Tensions with France

Throughout 1835 relations between the United States and France reached an all-time low. Andrew Jackson had America's ambassador to France travel aboard a gunboat and after negotiations broke down had the American ambassador recalled back to the United States and forced the French ambassador to leave. President Jackson and the French government traded threats and insults throughout the duration of the year. In this conflict President Jackson got support from many members of the House of Representatives. In late November 1835 Linn Boyd, Albert G. Hawes, Richard M. Johnson, John E. Coffee, Seaton Grantland, Charles Eaton Haynes, Jabez Young Jackson, George Welshman Owens, Thomas Glascock, William Schley, Reuben Chapman, Joshua L. Martin, Joab Lawler, Jesse Atherton Bynum, Jesse Speight, James Iver McKay, Micajah Thomas Hawkins, William Montgomery, Henry William Connor and James Rogers (congressman) all put in writing that if President Jackson were to formally declare war on France he would have their full support. Shortly after this when the government of the United Kingdom sought to intervene, the same twenty Congressmen signed a letter stating that they welcomed the "wholesome and moderating influence" of British Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, British foreign secretary Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston and the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Charles Grant, 1st Baron Glenelg, who the letter referred to as "our thoughtful cousins." The same document referred to the France's leader Louis Philippe I as "dastardly and pusinallimous." [1] [2] Senators Bedford Brown, Robert J. Walker, Felix Grundy, John Pendleton King and Alfred Cuthbert all wrote to President Jackson saying that they felt the same way as the aforementioned twenty members of the house "with respects to our relations with Britain and France" and "any potential war" that might break out between the United States and France. [2] In a series of popular outbursts in July 1836, effigies of Louis Philippe I were burnt in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi. [3] In October 1836 it became known the French were "backing down," celebrations that were "overtly triumphant" and "distinctly anti-French" were held throughout Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi during the last two weeks of October 1836. [4]

Major events

Major legislation

Treaties

States admitted and territories formed

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

During this congress two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Arkansas and Michigan. [7] [8]

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
National
Republican

(NR)
Jacksonian
(J)
Nullifier
(N)
End of previous congress 26 20 2480
Begin 24 21 2 47 1
End 19 31 520
Final voting share36.5% 59.6% 3.8%
Beginning of next congress 19 [lower-alpha 1] 33 [lower-alpha 2] 0520

House of Representatives

During this congress one House seat was added for each of the new states of Arkansas and Michigan. [7] [8]

Party
(shading shows control)
TotalVacant
National
Republican

(NR)
Anti-
Masonic

(AM)
Jacksonian
(J)
Nullifier
(N)
States'
Rights

(SR)
End of previous congress 64 26 141 8 02391
Begin 75 16 140 7 0 238 2
End 79 15 139 1 2411
Final voting share32.8% 6.2% 57.7% 2.9% 0.4%
Beginning of next congress 100 [lower-alpha 3] 7 121 [lower-alpha 4] 6 02340

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1838; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1840; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1836.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

Senate changes
State
(class)
Vacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 5]
Louisiana
(2)
VacantSenator-elect Charles E.A. Gayarre had resigned on account of ill-health.
Successor was elected January 13, 1836.
Robert C. Nicholas (J)January 13, 1836
Connecticut
(1)
Nathan Smith (NR)Died December 6, 1835
Successor was elected December 21, 1835.
John M. Niles (J)December 21, 1835.
Illinois
(3)
Elias Kane (J)Died December 12, 1835
Successor was appointed December 30, 1835.
William Lee D. Ewing (J)December 30, 1835
Virginia
(1)
John Tyler (NR)Resigned February 29, 1836
Successor was elected March 4, 1836.
William C. Rives (J)March 4, 1836
Maine
(1)
Ether Shepley (J)Resigned March 3, 1836
Successor was appointed December 7, 1836.
Judah Dana (J)December 7, 1836
New Hampshire
(3)
Isaac Hill (J)Resigned May 30, 1836, to become Governor of New Hampshire.
Successor was elected June 8, 1836.
John Page (J)June 8, 1836
Delaware
(1)
Arnold Naudain (NR)Resigned June 16, 1836
Successor was elected June 17, 1836.
Richard H. Bayard (NR)June 17, 1836
Virginia
(2)
Benjamin W. Leigh (NR)Resigned July 4, 1836
Successor was elected December 12, 1836.
Richard E. Parker (J)December 12, 1836
Arkansas
(2)
New seatsArkansas was admitted to the Union.
Its new Senators were elected September 18, 1836.
William S. Fulton (J)September 18, 1836.
Arkansas
(3)
Ambrose H. Sevier (J)September 18, 1836.
Maryland
(3)
Robert H. Goldsborough (NR)Died October 5, 1836
Successor was elected December 31, 1836.
John S. Spence (NR)December 31, 1836
North Carolina
(3)
Willie P. Mangum (NR)Resigned November 26, 1836
Successor was elected December 5, 1836.
Robert Strange (J)December 5, 1836
Delaware
(2)
John M. Clayton (NR)Resigned December 29, 1836
Successor was elected January 9, 1837.
Thomas Clayton (NR)January 9, 1837
Louisiana
(3)
Alexander Porter (NR)Resigned January 5, 1837, due to ill health.
Successor was elected January 12, 1837.
Alexandre Mouton (J)January 12, 1837
Michigan
(1)
New seatsMichigan was admitted to the Union.
Its new Senators were elected January 6, 1837.
Lucius Lyon (J)January 26, 1837.
Michigan
(2)
John Norvell (J)January 26, 1837.

House of Representatives

House changes
DistrictVacated byReason for changeSuccessorDate of successor's
formal installation [lower-alpha 5]
South Carolina 6 VacantRep. Warren R. Davis died during previous congress Waddy Thompson Jr. (NR)Seated September 10, 1835
Georgia at-large VacantRep. James M. Wayne resigned in previous congress Jabez Y. Jackson (J)Seated October 5, 1835
Georgia at-large William Schley (J)Resigned July 1, 1835 when nominated for Governor of Georgia. Jesse F. Cleveland (J)Seated October 5, 1835
Georgia at-large James C. Terrell (J)Resigned July 8, 1835, due to ill health Hopkins Holsey (J)Seated October 5, 1835
Georgia at-large John W. A. Sanford (J)Resigned July 25, 1835, to assist in the Cherokee Indian removal Thomas Glascock (J)Seated October 5, 1835
New York 3 Campbell P. White (J)Resigned October 2, 1835 Gideon Lee (J)Seated November 4, 1835
Connecticut at-large Zalmon Wildman (J)Died December 10, 1835 Thomas T. Whittlesey (J)Seated April 29, 1836
South Carolina 4 James H. Hammond (N)Resigned February 26, 1836, because of ill health Franklin H. Elmore (N)Seated December 10, 1836
New York 17 Samuel Beardsley (J)Resigned March 29, 1836 Rutger B. Miller (J)Seated November 9, 1836
North Carolina 12 James Graham (NR)Seat declared vacant March 29, 1836 James Graham (NR)Seated December 5, 1836
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks (AM)Resigned March 31, 1836 John J. Pearson (NR)Seated December 5, 1836
South Carolina 8 Richard I. Manning (J)Died May 1, 1836 John P. Richardson (J)Seated December 19, 1836
Arkansas Territory at-large Ambrose H. Sevier (J)Seat was eliminated when Arkansas achieved statehood June 15, 1836
Connecticut at-large Andrew T. Judson (J)Resigned July 4, 1836 to become judge of the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut. Orrin Holt (J)Seated December 5, 1836
Mississippi at-large David Dickson (NR)Died July 31, 1836 Samuel J. Gholson (J)Seated December 1, 1836
Arkansas at-large VacantArkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836 Archibald Yell (J)Seated August 1, 1836
Georgia at-large George W. Towns (J)Resigned September 1, 1836 Julius C. Alford (NR)Seated January 2, 1837
New York 30 Philo C. Fuller (NR)Resigned September 2, 1836 John Young (NR)Seated November 9, 1836
Georgia at-large John E. Coffee (J)Died September 25, 1836 William C. Dawson (NR)Seated November 7, 1836
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller (J)Resigned October 30, 1836 James Black (J)Seated December 5, 1836
New Jersey at-large Philemon Dickerson (J)Resigned November 3, 1836 to become Governor of New Jersey. William Chetwood (NR)Seated December 5, 1836
Indiana 6 George L. Kinnard (J)Died November 26, 1836 William Herod (NR)Seated January 25, 1837
Virginia 2 John Y. Mason (J)Resigned January 11, 1837VacantNot filled this congress
Michigan Territory at-large George Wallace Jones (J)Seat was eliminated when Michigan achieved statehood January 26, 1837
Michigan at-large VacantMichigan was admitted to the Union on January 26, 1837 Isaac E. Crary (J)Seated January 26, 1837
Wisconsin Territory at-large VacantWisconsin Territory was organized on April 3, 1836 George Wallace Jones (J)Seated January 26, 1837

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. as Whigs
  2. as Democrats
  3. as Whigs
  4. as Democrats
  5. 1 2 When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.

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References

  1. Andrew Jackson's Presidency by Christine Zuchora-Walske pg. 78
  2. 1 2 Andrew Jackson Versus France American Policy toward France, 1834-36 by Robert Charles Thomas - Tennessee Historical Quarterly - Vol. 35, No. 1 (SPRING 1976), pp. 51-64
  3. America and French Romanticism During the July Monarchy by Seymour Drescher - American Quarterly Vol. 11, No. 1 (Spring, 1959), pp. 3-20 (18 pages)
  4. The Foreign Policy of Andrew Jackson. By John M. Belohlavek. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985) Journal of American History, Volume 73, Issue 3, December 1986, Page 749
  5. "Cong. Globe, 24th Cong., 2nd Sess. 166 (1837)". A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress . Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  6. "The Senate Elects a Vice President". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  7. 1 2 5  Stat.   50
  8. 1 2 5  Stat.   144