Governor of Georgia

Last updated

Governor of Georgia
Seal of Georgia.svg
Brian Kemp 2023.jpg
Brian Kemp
since January 14, 2019
Government of Georgia
Residence Georgia Governor's Mansion
Term length Four years, renewable once consecutively
Inaugural holder Archibald Bulloch
FormationJuly 12, 1775
Salary$175,000 (2021) [1]
Website Official website

The governor of Georgia is the head of government of Georgia and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor also has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either veto or approve bills passed by the Georgia Legislature, and the power to convene the legislature. [2] The current governor is Republican Brian Kemp, who assumed office on January 14, 2019.


There have officially been 77 governors of the state of Georgia, including 11 who served more than one distinct term (John Houstoun, George Walton, Edward Telfair, George Mathews, Jared Irwin, David Brydie Mitchell, George Rockingham Gilmer, M. Hoke Smith, Joseph Mackey Brown, John M. Slaton, and Eugene Talmadge, with Herman Talmadge serving two de facto distinct terms). The early days were chaotic, with several gaps and schisms in the state's power structure, as the state capital of Savannah was captured during the American Revolutionary War. [3] After independence was achieved, the office was solidly Democratic-Republican until the 1830s, when the office began to be contested by Democrats and Whigs for a few decades. The state seceded and was part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, after which it had several governors appointed by the president of the United States and the military occupation. During Reconstruction, it had two Republican governors, but after local rule was re-established, Democrats would be the only party elected for the next 131 years.

The longest-serving governors are George Busbee, Joe Frank Harris, Zell Miller, Sonny Perdue, and Nathan Deal, each of whom served two full four-year terms; Joseph E. Brown, governor during the Civil War, was elected four times, serving seven and a half years. The shortest term of the post-revolutionary period is that of Matthew Talbot, who served 13 days after succeeding his predecessor who died in office. One man, Eugene Talmadge, died before taking office in his third distinct term, leading to a dispute in which three people claimed the office.


The office of the governor inside the Georgia state capitol building The office of the governor inside the Georgia state capitol building.jpg
The office of the governor inside the Georgia state capitol building

Georgia was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and ratified the Constitution of the United States on January 2, 1788. [4] It seceded from the Union on January 19, 1861, [5] and was a founding member of the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861. [6] Following the end of the American Civil War, Georgia during Reconstruction was part of the Third Military District, which exerted control over governor appointments and elections. [7] Georgia was readmitted to the Union on July 25, 1868, [8] expelled from Congress for failures in Reconstruction on March 3, 1869, [9] and again readmitted on July 15, 1870. [10]

Selection and length of term

In Georgia's Rules and Regulations of 1776, considered by some to be the first constitution, the chief executive was a president chosen by the legislature every six months. [11] This was quickly superseded by the 1777 constitution, which called for a governor to be chosen by the legislature each year, [12] with a term limited to one year out of every three. [13] The governor's term was lengthened to two years in the 1789 constitution, [14] and an 1824 amendment provided for popular election of the governor. [15] While the 1861 secessionist constitution kept the office the same, the 1865 constitution, following Georgia's surrender, limited governors to two consecutive terms of two years each, allowing them to serve again after a gap of four years. [16] The Reconstruction constitution of 1868 increased the governor's term to four years. [17] The 1877 constitution, after the end of Reconstruction, returned the office to the provisions of the 1865 constitution. [18] An amendment in 1941 lengthened terms to four years, but governors could no longer succeed themselves, having to wait four years to serve again. [19] The constitution does not specify when terms start, only that the governor is installed at the next session of the General Assembly. [20] The current constitution of 1983 allows governors to succeed themselves once before having to wait four years to serve again. [21]


Anyone who seeks to be elected Governor of Georgia must meet the following qualifications: [22]


Originally, in the event of a vacancy, the president of the executive council acted as governor. [23] This was changed in 1798 to the president of the senate. [24] The 1945 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor, who would act as governor if that office became vacant; [25] in 1983, this was changed so that the lieutenant governor now becomes governor in the event of a vacancy. [26]

Three governors controversy

In December 1946, Governor-elect Eugene Talmadge died before assuming office. Talmadge's son, Herman, was appointed governor by the State Legislature. This was challenged by the Lieutenant Governor-elect Melvin Thompson, who maintained that the state constitution authorized him to assume the office upon the death of the governor. Outgoing governor Ellis Arnall announced that he would not relinquish the office until it was clear who the new governor was. The political turmoil that ensued became known as the "three governors controversy". In January 1947, while all three governors occupied different portions of the State Capitol, Secretary of State Ben W. Fortson Jr., took the Great Seal of the State of Georgia and hid it. [27] This prevented any of the claimants to the governorship from executing any business until the Supreme Court of Georgia could make a ruling on the rightful winner. Thompson was eventually declared "acting governor" until a special election could be held to fill the remainder of the original term. [28] Herman Talmadge won the special election and served out the remaining portion of his father's term.

Exceptions and omissions

The revolutionary government was thrown into disarray by the capture of Savannah in 1778, which led to several governments with varying levels of influence; they would reunite in 1780. The Official and Statistical Register of Georgia ignores the Council of Safety of William Ewen in favor of Archibald Bulloch's government, and omits the government of William Glascock and Seth John Cuthbert. The Register includes colonial governors in its numbering, listing Archibald Bulloch as the 7th governor. [29]


Article V, Section 1, Paragraph V of the Constitution of Georgia provides a plan of succession in the event of the death or incapacitation of the Governor. The first successor would be the Lieutenant Governor, followed by the Speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives. [30]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Governor of Texas</span> Head of state and of government of the U.S. state of Texas

The Governor of Texas heads the state government of Texas and is the highest elected official in the state. The governor is the leader of the executive and legislative branches of the state government and is the commander in chief of the Texas Military. The current governor is Greg Abbott, who took office in 2015.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">California State Legislature</span> Legislative branch of the state government of California

The California State Legislature is a bicameral state legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members; and an upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The California state legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The houses are distinguished by the colors of the carpet and trim of each house. The Senate is distinguished by the color red and the Assembly by the color green, inspired by the United Kingdom's House of Lords and House of Commons respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Georgia General Assembly</span> Legislative branch of the state government of Georgia

The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Georgia. It is bicameral, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

The history of Georgia in the United States of America spans pre-Columbian time to the present-day U.S. state of Georgia. The area was inhabited by Native American tribes for thousands of years. A modest Spanish presence was established in the late 16th century, mostly centered on Catholic missions. The Spanish had largely withdrawn from the territory by the early 18th century, although they had settlements in nearby Florida. They had little influence historically in what would become Georgia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seal of Georgia</span> Official government emblem of the U.S. state of Georgia

The Great Seal of the State of Georgia is a device that has historically been used to authenticate government documents executed by the state of Georgia. The first great seal of the state was specified in the State Constitution of 1777, and its current form was adopted in 1799 with alterations in 1914. Its specifications are currently spelled out by statute.

The Constitution of the State of Georgia is the governing document of the U.S. State of Georgia. The constitution outlines the three branches of government in Georgia. The legislative branch is embodied in the bicameral General Assembly. The executive branch is headed by the Governor. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court. Besides providing for the organization of these branches, the Constitution carefully outlines which powers each branch may exercise.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nevada Legislature</span> Legislative branch of the state government of Nevada

The Nevada Legislature is a bicameral body, consisting of the lower house, the Assembly, with 42 members, and the upper house, the Senate, with 21. With a total of 63 seats, the Legislature is the third-smallest bicameral state legislature in the United States, after Alaska's and Delaware's (62). The Nevada State Legislature as of 2019 is the first majority female State Legislature in the history of the United States. As of 2022, the Democratic Party controls both houses of the Nevada State Legislature. In the 2022 Nevada elections, which were a part of the midterm elections for that year, the Democratic Party obtained a supermajority in the lower house of the state legislature. As for the upper house of the state legislature, the elections provided the Democratic Party with thirteen of the twenty-one seats—amounting to a partisan composition of 61.9 percent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lieutenant Governor of Alabama</span>

The lieutenant governor of Alabama is the president of the Alabama Senate, elected to serve a four-year term. The office was created in 1868, abolished in 1875, and recreated in 1901. According to the current constitution, should the governor be out of the state for more than 20 days, the lieutenant governor becomes acting governor, and if the governor dies, resigns or is removed from office, the lieutenant governor ascends to the governorship. Earlier constitutions said the powers of the governor devolved upon the successor, rather than them necessarily becoming governor, but the official listing includes these as full governors. The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1946 Georgia gubernatorial election</span>

The 1946 Georgia gubernatorial election took place on November 5, 1946, in order to elect the Governor of Georgia.


  1. "Find salaries and travel reimbursements paid to employees of the State of Georgia and employees of local boards of education". Open Georgia. February 20, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  2. GA Const. art. V
  3. "John Houstoun". New Georgia Encyclopedia . Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  4. "Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Georgia - January 2, 1788". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  5. "Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States". University of Houston. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  6. Constitution for the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America Archived August 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , accessed July 8, 2015
  7. Bradley, Mark L. (2015). The Army and Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (PDF). United States Army Center of Military History. p. 31. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  8. Meyers, Christopher C. (2008). The Empire State of the South. ISBN   978-0-88146-111-4. Archived from the original on May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  9. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Georgia (United States)"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 751–758, see page 757.
  10. 16  Stat.   363
  11. 1776 Const. art. I
  12. 1777 Const. art. II
  13. 1777 Const. art. XXIII
  14. 1789 Const. art. 2, § 1
  15. 1798 Const. Amendment 7
  16. 1865 Const. art III, § 1
  17. 1868 Const. art. IV, § 1
  18. 1877 Const. art. 5, § 1 par. 2
  19. "Georgia's Official Register, 1939-1941-1943" (PDF). Georgia Department of Archives and History. p. 6. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  20. GA Const. art V, § 1 par. 2
  21. GA Const. art V, § 1 par. 4
  22. "Governor of Georgia".
  23. 1777 Const. art. XXIX
  24. 1798 Const. art. II, § 4
  25. 1945 Const. art. V, § 1 par. 7
  26. GA Const. art. V, § 1 par 5
  27. "Georgia Official and Statistical Register 1983-1984" (PDF). Department of Archives and History - A Division of Secretary of State. 1985. p. 252. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  28. "New Georgia Encyclopedia: Three Governors Controversy". December 8, 2002. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  29. "Georgia Official and Statistical Register, 1977-1978 - page 1145". Digital Library of Georgia. Archived from the original on January 16, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  30. "Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article V". Georgia Info. Retrieved August 22, 2019.